List of presidents of Peru

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution

This is a list of those who have served as President of the Republic of Peru (head of state and head of government of Peru) from its establishment to the present. The office was established by the Constituent Congress of Peru (1822), after the resignation of José de San Martín to his position as Protector of Peru and his subsequent departure from Peru. The first president was José de la Riva Agüero and the current president in office is Francisco Sagasti.

In the history of the position, there has been a series of political crises, caudillos, barracks revolt, civil wars, death of the incumbent, coups d'état, parliamentary attempts to remove the presidency,[1] one autocoup, and vacancies dictated by the congress. The list is based on the work of the historian Jorge Basadre, constitutions, laws, and decrees in each case. Even though they were not presidents, the list includes the liberators José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar due to their historical relevance in the independence of Peru and its consolidation.

Presidents

Political party:       Independent politician       Military       Civilista Party       Democratic Party       Constitutional Party       Reformist Democratic Party       Revolutionary Union       Conservative Coalition       National Democratic Front       Peruvian Democratic Movement       Popular Action       APRA       Fujimorism       Possible Peru       Peruvian Nationalist Party       Peruvians for Change       Purple Party
N President Term of office Title Form of entry Vice President
Start End
0.5 José de San Martín and the Liberation Army of the South (1820–1823)
José de San Martín (retrato, c.1828).jpg José de San Martín[2]
Flag of Argentina (1818).svg United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Liberator and Protector
August 3, 1821 September 20, 1822 Protector of Peru[3]

Peruvian honors and titles:[4]
First soldier of freedom,
Generalissimo of the arms of Peru,
Founder of the freedom of Peru
1   101x101px José de la Riva Agüero[2]
 PER
February 28, 1823 June 23, 1823 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[5] None
2   76x76px José Bernardo de Tagle[2]
 PER
August 16, 1823 November 18, 1823 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[6] None
November 18, 1823 February 10, 1824 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[7] Diego de Aliaga y Santa Cruz[8]
2.5 Simón Bolívar, the Northern Expedition, and the end of colonial era (1823–1826)
Simón Bolívar by Antonio Salas.jpg  Simón Bolívar[2]
 Gran Colombia Gran Colombia
Libertador
February 10, 1824 January 27, 1827 Supreme Political and Military Authority of the Republic of Peru[9]
Dictator of Peru[10][11]
3   LaMar1.jpg José de La Mar[2]
 PER
June 10, 1827 June 7, 1829 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[12] Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
4   Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra[2]
 PER
June 7, 1829 December 19, 1829 Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente ruled temporarily until the arrival of Agustín Gamarra Coup d'état, in cahoots with Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente None
September 1, 1829 December 19, 1829 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[13] Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
December 19, 1829 December 19, 1833 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[14] Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
5   97x97px Luis José de Orbegoso[15]
 PER
December 21, 1833 December 21, 1833 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Election[16] None
6   Salaverry2.jpg Felipe Salaverry[17]
 PER
February 25, 1835 February 7, 1836 Supreme Head of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[18] None
6.5 War of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation (1836-1839)
Rulers of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation
sinmarco
Result: Victory of Restorative United Army

Consequence: Dissolution of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation

Restorative United Army Peru–Bolivian Confederation
6.6 Restoration of the Republic of Peru
7   Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra[19]
 PER
January 20, 1839[20] August 15, 1839 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Open Cabildo[21][22]
Occupation of Ejercito Unido Restaurador
None
August 15, 1839 July 10, 1840 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[21] None
July 10, 1840 November 18, 1841 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[23] Manuel Menéndez
President of the Council of State
Justo Figuerola
1º Vice President of the Council of State[24]
Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
2º Vice President of the Council of State
7.5 Military anarchy (1842–1844)
8   127x127px Manuel Menéndez[19]
 PER
November 18, 1841 August 16, 1842 President of the Council of State of Peru Constitutional Succession[25] Justo Figuerola
1º Vice President of the Council of State
Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
2º Vice President of the Council of State
9   108x108px Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz[19]
 PER
October 20, 1842 March 15, 1843 2º Vice President of the Council of State of Peru Constitutional Succession[25][26][27] None
10   133x133px Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco[19]
 PER
March 27, 1843 April 7, 1843 Pezet ruled temporarily until the arrival of Vivanco Coup d'état conspired between Vivanco and Pezet None
April 7, 1843 June 17, 1844 Supreme Director of Peru Coup d'état[28][29] None
10.5 Military anarchy (1842–1844)
11   127x127px Manuel Menéndez[19]
 PER
October 7, 1844 April 20, 1845 President of the Council of State of Peru Spare in office[30] None
12   RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla[31]
 PER
April 20, 1845 April 20, 1851 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[32][33] None
13   107x107px José Rufino Echenique[31]
 PER
April 20, 1851 January 5, 1855 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[34] None
14   RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla[31]
 PER
January 5, 1855 October 24, 1858 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[35] José María Raygada

(Prime Ministe)

Miguel de San Román

(Prime Ministe)

October 24, 1858 October 24, 1862 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[36] Juan Manuel del Mar
15   Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román[31]
 PER
October 24, 1862 April 3, 1863 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election   Juan Antonio Pezet

Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho

16   President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet[31]
 PER
August 5, 1863 November 8, 1865 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
17   Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado[31]
 PER
November 28, 1865 February 15, 1867 Provisional Supreme Chief of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état[37][38] None
February 15, 1867 August 31, 1867 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[39] None
August 31, 1867 January 7, 1868 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[40] None
18   110x110px Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho[41]
 PER
January 7, 1868 August 2, 1868 Vice President of the Republic of Peru Pezet Constitutional Succession[42] None
19   106x106px José Balta[41]
 PER
August 2, 1868 July 22, 1872 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[43]   Mariano Herencia Zevallos

Francisco Diez-Canseco Corbacho

20   109x109px Manuel Pardo y Lavalle[41]
 PER
August 2, 1872 August 2, 1876 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[44] Manuel Costas Arce

2.º Francisco Garmendia Puértolas

20.5 War of the Pacific started on April 5, 1879
21   Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado[41]
 PER
August 2, 1876 December 18, 1879 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election[45] Luis La Puerta

2º José Francisco Canevaro

22   Luis La Puerta.jpg Luis La Puerta[41]
 PER
December 18, 1879 December 23, 1879 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession[46] José Francisco Canevaro
23   117x117px Nicolás de Piérola[41]
 PER
December 23, 1879 July 28, 1881 Supreme Head of the Republic of Peru Open cabildo[47] None
July 31, 1881 December 28, 1881 President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by the National Assembly of Ayacucho[48] None
24   Garcia Calderon.jpg Francisco García Calderón[49]
 PER
March 12, 1881 July 10, 1881 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Council of Notables[50] None
July 10, 1881 November 6, 1881 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Ratified by the Congress of Chorrillos[51][52] Lizardo Montero

Andrés Avelino Cáceres

25   108x108px Lizardo Montero[49]
 PER
September 28, 1881 October 28, 1883 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional Succession

(Vice President)

None
26   104x104px Miguel Iglesias[49]
 PER
December 30, 1882 March 1, 1884 Regenerating President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Constituent Assembly of the North[53] None
March 1, 1884 December 3, 1885 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Constituent Assembly[54][55] None
26.5 War of the Pacific ended on April 4, 1884
27   103x103px Andrés Avelino Cáceres[49][56]
 PER
June 3, 1886 August 10, 1890 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Remigio Morales Bermúdez

Aurelio Denegri

28   97x97px Remigio Morales Bermúdez[56]
 PER
August 10, 1890 April 1, 1894 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Pedro Alejandrino del Solar

Justiniano Borgoño

29   Justiniano Borgoño.jpg Justiniano Borgoño[57]
 PER
April 1, 1894 August 10, 1894 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Sucesión Constitucional

(Vicepresidente)

None
30   103x103px Andrés Avelino Cáceres[57]
 PER
August 10, 1894 March 20, 1895 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Cesáreo Chacaltana

31   117x117px Nicolás de Piérola[57]
 PER
September 8, 1895 September 8, 1899 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Guillermo Billinghurst

Augusto Seminario y Váscones

32   112x112px Eduardo López de Romaña[57]
 PER
September 8, 1899 September 8, 1903 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Isaac Alzamora

2.º Federico Bresani

33   Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo[57]
 PER
September 8, 1903 May 7, 1904 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election 1.º Lino Alarco (†)

2.º Serapio Calderón

34   SerapioCalderon.jpg Serapio Calderón[57]
 PER
May 7, 1904 September 24, 1904 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(2º Vice President)

None
35   88x88px José Pardo y Barreda[58]
 PER
September 24, 1904 September 24, 1908 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election 1.º José Salvador Cavero Ovalle

Vacant

36   File:Augusto B Leguia 2.jpg Augusto Leguía[58]
 PER
September 24, 1908 September 24, 1912 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue

Belisario Sosa

37   102x102px Guillermo Billinghurst[58]
 PER
September 24, 1912 February 4, 1914 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Roberto Leguía

Miguel Echenique

38   Óscar Benavides.jpg Oscar Benavides[58]
 PER
February 4, 1914 May 15, 1914 President of the Governing Board of Peru Coup d'état[59] None
May 15, 1914 August 18, 1915 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[60] None
39   88x88px José Pardo y Barreda[58]
 PER
August 18, 1915 July 4, 1919 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Ricardo Bentín Sánchez

2.º Melitón Carvajal

40   File:Augusto B Leguia 2.jpg Augusto Leguía[58]
 PER
July 4, 1919 October 12, 1919 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Coup d'état None
October 12, 1919 October 12, 1924 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

October 12, 1924 October 12, 1929 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

October 12, 1929 August 25, 1930 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election César Canevaro

Agustín de la Torre González

41   Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro[61]
 PER
Aug 27, 1930 March 1, 1931 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état None
  Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro[61]
 PER
December 8, 1931 April 30, 1933 (†) Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election None
42   Óscar Benavides.jpg Oscar Benavides[62]
 PER
April 30, 1933 December 8, 1939 Provisional President of the Republic of Peru Appointed by Congress[63] Ernesto Montagne Markholz

Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez

43   96x96px Manuel Prado Ugarteche[64][65]
 PER
December 8, 1939 July 28, 1945 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Rafael Larco Herrera

Carlos Gibson

44   114x114px José Luis Bustamante y Rivero[66]
 PER
July 28, 1945 October 29, 1948 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election José Gálvez Barrenechea

Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza

45   91x91px Manuel Odría[67][68]
 PER
November 1, 1948 June 1, 1950 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état Zenón Noriega Agüero
July 28, 1950 July 28, 1956 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Héctor C. Boza Aizcorbe

Federico Bolognesi Bolognesi

46   96x96px Manuel Prado Ugarteche[69]
 PER
July 28, 1956 July 18, 1962 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Gallo Porras

2.º Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán

47   91x91px Ricardo Pérez Godoy[70]
 PER
July 18, 1962 March 3, 1963 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Coup d'état Pedro Vargas Prada
48   122x122px Nicolás Lindley López[71]
 PER
March 3, 1963 July 28, 1963 President of the Military Junta of the Government of Peru Succession

(De facto)

None
49   Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry[72]
 PER
July 28, 1963 October 3, 1968 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Edgardo Seoane

Mario Polar Ugarteche

50   Juan Velasco Alvarado 1971.jpg Juan Velasco Alvarado[73][74]
 PER
October 3, 1968 August 30, 1975 President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces of Peru Coup d'état Edgardo Mercado Jarrín
51   112x112px Francisco Morales Bermúdez[75]
 PER
August 30, 1975 July 28, 1980 President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces of Peru Coup d'état Pedro Richter Prada
52   Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry[76][77]
 PER
July 28, 1980 July 28, 1985 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Fernando Schwalb

Javier Alva Orlandini

53   100x100px Alan García[78]
 PER
July 28, 1985 July 28, 1990 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Alberto Sánchez

2.º Luis Alva Castro

54   82x82px Alberto Fujimori[79][80]
 PER Template:Country data JP
July 28, 1990 April 5, 1992 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Máximo San Román

2.º Carlos García y García

April 22, 1992 January 9, 1993 President of the Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction of Peru Coup d'état None
January 9, 1993 July 28, 1995 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Ratified by Democratic Constituent Congress Jaime Yoshiyama
July 28, 1995 July 28, 2000 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Ricardo Márquez Flores

César Paredes Canto

July 28, 2000 November 21, 2000 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Francisco Tudela

Ricardo Márquez Flores

55   75x75px Valentín Paniagua
 PER
November 22, 2000 July 28, 2001 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(President of Congress)

None
56   Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpg Alejandro Toledo
 PER
July 28, 2001 July 28, 2006 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Raúl Díez Canseco Terry

2.º David Waisman

57   100x100px Alan García
 PER
July 28, 2006 July 28, 2011 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Luis Giampietri

Lourdes Mendoza del Solar

58   Ollanta Humala 2014.jpg Ollanta Humala
 PER
July 28, 2011 July 28, 2016 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election Marisol Espinoza

Omar Chehade

59   104x104px Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
 PER  USA
July 28, 2016 March 23, 2018 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Election   Martín Vizcarra

Mercedes Aráoz

60   107x107px Martín Vizcarra
 PER
March 23, 2018 November 9, 2020 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(1º Vice President)

  Mercedes Aráoz
61   107x107px Manuel Merino
 PER
November 10, 2020 November 15, 2020 Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional removal

(President of Congress)

None
62   106x106px Francisco Sagasti
 PER  CRI
November 17, 2020 Incumbent Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru Constitutional succession

(President of Congress)

None

Timeline from 1980

Addendum

Those who are mentioned in the following list were sworn in as presidents of Peru, because of a political crisis, however, they never came to govern:[81]

#
Presidency
President Term of office Title Form of entry Vice President
Start End
98x98px Máximo San Román

 PER

April 21, 1992 January 6, 1993[81] Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru[82] Constitutional succession

(1º Vice President)

Carlos García y García
106x106px Mercedes Araóz

 PER

September 30, 2019 October 1, 2019[83][84] Acting President[85] Constitutional succession

(2º Vice President)

None

See also

References

  1. Cfr. Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal (2007). Presidential impeachment and the new political instability in Latin America. Cambridge University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in español). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 298. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5.CS1 maint: date and year (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Decreto del general José de San Martín asumiendo el mando supremo político y militar".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "BIOGRAFÍA LIBERTADOR DON JOSÉ DE SAN MARTÍN".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Nombramiento de José de la Riva Agüero como Presidente de la República, 28 febrero de 1823" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Nombramiento del Gran Mariscal José Bernardo de Tagle como Presidente de la República del Perú, 16 agosto de 1823" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Se nombra Presidente Constitucional de la República al Gran Mariscal José Bernardo Tagle y Portocarrero, 18 noviembre de 1823" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Castañeda Jiménez. "Manuel José de Salazar y Baquijano" (PDF). Congress of the Republic of Peru. Retrieved December 14, 2020. El Congreso aprobó tal designación el 18 de noviembre de 1823 y estableció que su mandato fuese de cuatro años. Nombró igualmente, el mismo día a Diego de Aliaga y Santa Cruz, hijo segundo del Conde de San Juan de Lurigancho, como vicepresidente de la República.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Decreto disponiendo que el Libertador Simón Bolívar asuma la suprema autoridad política y militar".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Decreto encargándole la autoridad suprema, 1 de setiembre de 1826".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Proclama al despedirse del Perú, 3 de setiembre de 1826".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Decreto mandando cumplir la ley que lo nombra Presidente de la República y vicepresidente a Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano, 10 de junio de 1827" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Ley nombrándo Presidente de la República al Gral. Agustín Gamarra y Vicepresidente al general Antonio G. de La Fuente, 31 de agosto de 1829" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Ley proclamándolo Presidente de la República, 19 de diciembre de 1829".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú (in español). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 68. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5.CS1 maint: date and year (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Ley nombrándo Presidente Provisional de la República al Gran Mariscal Luis José de Orbegoso, 20 de diciembre de 1833" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Basadre, Jorge (2014-12-04). Historia de la República del Perú. Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 140. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5.CS1 maint: date and year (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Decreto asumiendo el mando de la República, Gral. Felipe Santiago Salaverry del Solar, 25 de febrero de 1835" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Basadre, Jorge (2014). Historia de la República del Perú (in español). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 130. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. * Proclaimed (Open cabildo): August 24, 1838
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Ley nombrándolo Presidente Provisorio al General Agustín Gamarra, 15 de agosto de 1839" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Acuerdo del Cabildo abierto encargando al Mariscal Agustín Gamarra el Poder Ejecutivo el 24 de agosto de 1838".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Ley proclamándolo Presidente Constitucional de la República al Gran Mariscal Agustín Gamarra, 11 de julio de 1840" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Castañeda Jiménez. "JUSTO MODESTO FIGUEROLA DE ESTRADA" (PDF). Congress of the Republic of Peru. Sitio Web del Museo del Congreso y de la Inquisición. Retrieved December 15, 2020. Figuerola fue nombrado Primer Vicepresidente del Consejo de Estado, cuyo titular era Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 Congress of the Republic of Peru (November 10, 1839). "Constitución del Perú (1839)". Art. 82º.- Cuando vacare la Presidencia de la República por muerte, pacto atentatorio, renuncia o perpétua imposibilidad física o moral, se encargará provisionalmente del Poder Ejecutivo el Presidente del Consejo de Estado, quien en estos casos convocará a los Colegios Electorales dentro de los primeros diez días de su Gobierno para la elección del Presidente.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Congress of the Republic of Peru (November 10, 1839). "Constitución del Perú (1839)". Art. 101º.- Para reemplazar al Presidente del Consejo en cualquiera ocurrencia, hará sus veces el Vicepresidente que también nombrará el Congreso, y asimismo un tercero para los casos<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Proclama al Perú del Vicepresidente del Consejo de Estado, encargado del Poder Ejecutivo de la República, General Francisco Vidal, el 29 de octubre de 1842".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Proclama del Gral. Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco Iturralde, Supremo Director a los habitantes de la capital el 8 de abril de 1843".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Decreto declarando nulos sus actos administrativos del titulado Supremo DIrector, 12 de octubre de 1844".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Resignando la autoridad en el Presidente del Consejo de Estado".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 Basadre, Jorge (2014). Historia de la República del Perú (in español). Producciones Cantabria S.A.C. p. 222. ISBN 978-612-306-353-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Ley proclamándolo Presidente Constitucional de la República al General Ramón Castilla, 19 de abril de 1845".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Juramento del Presidente de la República" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Ley 2 abril 1851 proclamando Presidente de la República al general Echenique" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Proclama del libertador Ramón Castilla a los pueblos del Perú, el 6 de enero de 1855".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Proclamando Presidente de la República al Gran Mariscal Ramon Castilla" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Decreto asumiendo el mando, bajo la denominación de Jefe Supremo Provisorio de la República, 28 de noviembre de 1865".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  39. "Ley que lo nombra Presidente Provisorio de la República, 15 de febrero de 1867".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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