List of Presidents of Venezuela

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Venezuela
Foreign relations

The following is a list of Presidents of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: Presidentes de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela).

The President is both the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system. The current presidential term is for six years with the constitutionally guaranteed recourse of holding a popular recall referendum any time within the last three years of a presidential term. A 2009 referendum removed the previous restrictions which limited the President to two terms.[1] The current president of Venezuela is Nicolás Maduro, since April 19, 2013.

History

Before 1830

The presidential designation encompasses only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Venezuela following Venezuela's declaration of independence from Spanish colonial rule, which took effect on July 5, 1811. The first president, taking office on July 5, 1811, was actually the president of a triumvirate of the first established Republic of Venezuela that rotated the presidency weekly. The person serving as president during the week of July 5 was one of the three signatories of the Declaration of Independence: Cristóbal Mendoza. Mendoza shared the triumvirate with Juan Escalona and Baltasar Padrón. A second triumvirate followed on April 3, 1812 whose members were Francisco Espejo, Fernando Toro and Francisco Javier Ustariz.[2][3]

Owing to the profound confusion of the Venezuelan War of Independence and the period of Gran Colombia over what is now Venezuela, this page has gaps between 1813 and 1819. For this period in time, historians refer to the Republic of Venezuela as the Second Republic of Venezuela (1813–1814) and the Third Republic of Venezuela (1817–1819) as Simon Bolivar twice reestablished the republic. The Congress of Angostura appointed Simón Bolívar "Jefe Supremo de la República de Venezuela" (Supreme Commander of the Republic of Venezuela) from 1819 until 1830.

After 1830

In 1830, José Antonio Páez declared Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia and became president, taking office on January 13, 1830. Although he was not the first president of Venezuela (having in mind Cristóbal Mendoza in 1811), he was the first head of state of independent Venezuela, after the dissolution of Gran Colombia.

Presidents of Venezuela since independence (1830–present)

The list below includes interim "caretaker" as well as regular serving presidents, and democratically installed presidents as well as those installed by other means (e.g.; Marcos Pérez Jiménez).

Political parties
      Independent       Military government

  • XIX century

      Conservative Party       Liberal Party

  • XX century

      Democratic Party       Democratic Action       Copei       National Convergence

  • XXI century

      Fifth Republic Movement/United Socialist Party

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in office

Political party
Form of entry Occupation
State of Venezuela
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
13 January 1830 20 January 1835 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
13 January 1835 9 February 1835 Interim government Lawyer
Conservative Party
José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
9 February 1835 9 July 1835 Indirect elections Physician
Conservative Party
José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
27 July 1835 20 August 1835 Interim government General
Conservative Party
José María Vargas.jpg José María Vargas
(1786–1854)
20 August 1835 24 April 1836 Restoration Physician
Conservative Party
Andres Narvarte 000.jpg Andrés Narvarte
(1781–1853)
24 April 1836 20 January 1837 Interim government Lawyer
Conservative Party
José María Carreño, RHV.jpg José María Carreño
(1792–1849)
27 January 1837 11 March 1837 Interim government General
Conservative Party
Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
11 March 1837 1 February 1839 Interim government General
Conservative Party
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
1 February 1839 28 January 1843 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Carlos Soublette.jpg Carlos Soublette
(1789–1870)
28 January 1843 20 January 1847 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
20 January 1847 5 February 1851 Indirect elections General
Conservative Party
JoseGregorioMonagas.jpg José Gregorio Monagas
(1795–1858)
5 February 1851 20 January 1855 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
Jose tadeo monagas.jpg José Tadeo Monagas
(1784–1868)
20 January 1855 15 March 1858 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
15 March 1858 18 March 1858 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Juliancastro.jpg Julián Castro
(1810–1875)
18 March 1858 2 August 1859 Coup d'état General
Military
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
2 August 1859 29 September 1859 Interim government Lawyer
Independent
Manuel Felipe Tovar.jpg Manuel Felipe de Tovar
(1803–1866)
29 September 1859 20 May 1861 Coup d'état
(first term)
Direct elections
(second term)
Politician
Liberal Party
Pedro Gual Escandon.jpg Pedro Gual Escandón
(1783–1862)
20 May 1861 29 August 1861 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Páez by Lewis B. Adams.JPG José Antonio Páez
(1790–1873)
29 August 1861 15 June 1863 Dictatorship General
Military
United States of Venezuela
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
(1820–1870)
15 June 1863 25 April 1868 Victory in the Federal War
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General
Military
Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual 1.jpg Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual
(1832–1868)
25 April 1868 28 June 1868 Interim government Officer
Independent
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
28 June 1868 20 February 1869 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
JRMonagas.jpg José Ruperto Monagas
(1831–1880)
20 February 1869 16 April 1870 Revolution General
Military
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
16 April 1870 27 April 1870 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
27 April 1870 27 February 1877 Revolution
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Antonio Esteban Frías 1911 000.jpg Francisco Linares Alcántara
(1825–1878)
27 February 1877 30 November 1878 Indirect elections General
Liberal Party
José Gregorio Valera - El Cojo Ilustrado.jpg José Gregorio Valera 30 November 1878 26 February 1879 Interim government General
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
26 February 1879 26 April 1884 Elections by Federal States General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1830–1898)
26 April 1884 15 September 1886 Elections by Federal States General
Liberal Party
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco
(1829–1899)
15 Septiembre 1886 8 August 1887 Elections by Federal States General/Lawyer
Liberal Party
Hermógenes López.jpg Hermógenes López
(1830–1898)
8 August 1887 2 July 1888 Interim government General
Independent
Presidente Rojas Paúl (1890) by Cristobal Rojas.jpg Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl
(1826–1905)
2 July 1888 19 March 1890 Elections by Federal States Lawyer
Liberal Party
Raimundo Andueza Palacio.jpg Raimundo Andueza Palacio
(1846–1900)
19 March 1890 17 June 1892 Elections by Federal States Lawyer
Conservative Party
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas
(1823–1907)
17 June 1892 31 August 1892 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido
(1854–1949)
31 August 1892 7 October 1892 Interim government Lawyer
Liberal Party
Joaquín Crespo portrait.jpg Joaquín Crespo
(1841–1898)
7 October 1892 February 28 1898 Revolution
(first term)
Elections by Federal States
(second term)
General
Military
Ignacio Andrade 2.jpg Ignacio Andrade
(1839–1925)
28 February 1898 20 October 1899 Direct elections Politician
Liberal Party
Cipriano Castro 1908.jpg Cipriano Castro
(1858–1924)
20 October 1899 19 December 1908 Revolution General
Military
Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
19 December 1908 5 August 1913 Coup d'état General
Military
Portrait of Gil Fortoul - 1932.jpg José Gil Fortoul
(1861–1943)
5 August 1913 19 April 1914 Interim government Lawyer
Independent
Presidente Victorino Marquez Bustillos.jpg Victorino Márquez Bustillos
(1858–1922)
19 April 1914 24 June 1922 Interim government[4] Lawyer
Independent
Gómez, 1928.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
24 June 1922 30 May 1929 General
Military
Juan Bautista Pérez.jpg Juan Bautista Pérez
(1869–1952)
30 May 1929 13 June 1931 Indirect elections Lawyer
Independent
Juan vicente GOMEZ.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez
(1857–1935)
13 June 1931 17 December 1935 Indirect election General
Military
Eleazar López Contreras.jpg Eleazar López Contreras
(1883–1973)
18 December 1935 5 May 1941 Interim government
(first term)
Indirect elections
(second term)
General
Independent
75px Isaías Medina Angarita
(1897–1953)
5 May 1941 18 October 1945 Indirect elections General
Democratic Party
Rómulo Betancourt, 1946.JPG Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
18 October 1945 17 February 1948 Coup d'état Politician
Democratic Action
75px Rómulo Gallegos
(1884–1969)
17 February 1948 24 November 1948 Direct elections Writer
Democratic Action
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud1.jpg Carlos Delgado Chalbaud
(1909–1950)
24 November 1948 30 November 1950 Coup d'état Officer
Military
President Germán Suárez Flamerich.jpg Germán Suárez Flamerich
(1907–1990)
30 November 1950 2 December 1952 Interim government Lawyer
Independent
Republic of Venezuela
Marcos Pérez Jiménez 1952.JPG Marcos Pérez Jiménez
(1914–2001)
2 December 1952 23 January 1958 Indirect elections Officer
Military
Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Wolfgang Larrazábal
(1911–2003)
23 January 1958 14 November 1958 Coup d'état Rear admiral
Independent
Coat of arms of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Edgar Sanabria
(1911–1989)
14 November 1958 13 February 1959 Coup d'état Rear admiral
Independent
RB 1975.jpg Rómulo Betancourt
(1908–1981)
13 February 1959 13 March 1964 Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
Raúl Leoni 1965.jpg Raúl Leoni
(1905–1972)
13 March 1964 11 March 1969 Direct elections Lawyer
Democratic Action
Caldera, Rafael.jpg Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
11 March 1969 12 March 1974 Direct elections Lawyer
Copei
Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
12 March 1974 12 March 1979 Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
75px Luis Herrera Campins
(1925–2007)
12 March 1979 2 February 1984 Direct elections Lawyer
Copei
Lusinchi 89.JPG Jaime Lusinchi
(1924–2014)
2 February 1984 2 February 1989 Direct elections Lawyer
Democratic Action
Carlos Andrés Pérez - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 1989.jpg Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1922–2010)
2 February 1989 21 May 1993[5] Direct elections Politician
Democratic Action
Octavio Lepage, 2009.jpg Octavio Lepage
(1923–)
21 May 1993 5 June 1993 Interim government[6] Lawyer
Democratic Action
Ramón J. Velásquez, 2009.jpg Ramón José Velásquez
(1916–2014)
5 June 1993 2 February 1994 Interim government Writer
Democratic Action
75px Rafael Caldera
(1916–2009)
2 February 1994 2 February 1999 Direct elections Lawyer
National Convergence
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
2 February 1999 10 January 2001 Direct elections Officer (Lt. Colonel)
Fifth Republic Movement
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
10 January 2001 12 April 2002[7] Direct elections Officer (Lt. Colonel)
Fifth Republic Movement
Coat of arms of Venezuela.svg Pedro Carmona
(1941–)
12 April 2002 13 April 2002 Coup d'état Businessman/Union leader
Independent
Diosdado Cabello 2013.jpg Diosdado Cabello
(1963–)
13 April 2002 14 April 2002 Interim government Engineer/Politician
Fifth Republic Movement
Chavez141610-2.jpg Hugo Chávez
(1954–2013)
14 April 2002 5 March 2013[8] Restoration
(first term)
Direct elections
(second term)
Officer (Lt. Colonel)
Fifth Republic Movement
United Socialist Party
Nicolas Maduro-05-2013.jpg Nicolás Maduro
(1962–)
5 March 2013 Incumbent Interim government
(5 March – 19 April 2013)
Direct elections
(first term)
Union leader/Bus driver[9]
United Socialist Party

See also

Notes

  1. "Chavez wins chance of fresh term". BBC News Online. February 16, 2009. 
  2. (Spanish) "Presidentes de Venezuela". Consulado General de Bucaramanga. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. 
  3. Briceño Perozo, Mario. "Mendoza, Cristóbal de" in Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela, Vol. 3. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1999. ISBN 978-980-6397-37-8.
  4. Bustillos was appointed to the presidency in a provisional fashion after Juan Vicente Gómez, after himself being elected (by the National Assembly) as president. Gómez opted not to assume the presidency, instead choosing to continue in the role of commanding the Venezuelan Army.
  5. On May 21, 1993, Pérez resigned after being accused of corruption by the Attorney General.
  6. Octavio Lepage was the President of Congress and was in charge of the government until Ramón J. Velásquez was elected by Congress on June 5, 1993.
  7. On April 11, 2002, senior military officers refused Chávez's orders to carry out Plan Ávila. They launched a coup d'état attempt, arrested Chávez (saying he had resigned), and Pedro Carmona assumed the presidency on April 12. Following an uprising, aided by sectors of the military loyal to Chávez, the new government collapsed and Chávez was restored to power early on April 14. Between the deposing of Carmona on April 13 and the return of Chávez, Vice President Diosdado Cabello assumed the presidency.
  8. Chávez was never inaugurated for his fourth term due to his illness, and he died before inauguration could take place.
  9. Wallis, Daniel (March 6, 2013). "Venezuela's Maduro: from bus driver to Chavez's successor". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. 

References

External links