List of Roman wars and battles

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Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. The following is a List of Roman wars and battles fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.

8th century BC

The city of Rome in 753 BC

7th century BC

6th century BC

508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).
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    Pometian Revolt (503-502 BC)
    • 502 BC – Battle of Pometia – The Latins won over the Romans, one of the consuls badly wounded by a spear that penetrated through his groin.

5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

Roman conquest of Italy through the Latin War (red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and Punic Wars (green).
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    Wars with Gauls and Etruscans (285-282 BC)
    • 285 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls.
    • 283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
    • 282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
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    Pyrrhic War (280-275 BC)
    • 280 BC – Battle of Heraclea – First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost.
    • 279 BC – Battle of Asculum – Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans but once again suffers significant casualties in the process.
    • 275 BC – Battle of Beneventum – Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius.
Expansion of Rome by 200 BC

2nd century BC

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    Achaean War (146 BC)

1st century BC

Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).
Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.
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    • 49 BC, June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
    • 49 BC, 24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
    • 48 BC, 10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
    • 48 BC, 9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
    • 47 BC, February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
    • 46 BC, 4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
    • 46 BC, 6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
    • 45 BC, 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
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    War with Pontus
    • 47 BC, May – Battle of Zela – Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)
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    • 43 BC, 14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
    • 43 BC, 21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
    • 42 BC, 3 October – First Battle of PhilippiTriumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
    • 42 BC, 23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.

1st century

The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.

2nd century

The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117) The Empire is in red and dependencies are in pink.[1]
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    • 106 – Battle of Sarmisegetusa – A Roman army led by Trajan conquers and destroys the Dacian capital. Part of Dacia is annexed to the Roman Empire.

3rd century

The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.

See Crisis of the Third Century

4th century

The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, with the territory of Constantius (yellow), Maximian (green), Galerius (pink), and Diocletian (purple)
The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).

The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.

5th century

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, and Franks.


  1. Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1

External links