The following is a List of Roman wars and battles fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.
8th century BC
The city of Rome in 753 BC
7th century BC
6th century BC
508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).
5th century BC
4th century BC
3rd century BC
Roman conquest of Italy through the Latin War (red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and Punic Wars (green).
Wars with Gauls and Etruscans (285-282 BC)
- 285 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls.
- 283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
- 282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
Expansion of Rome by 200 BC
2nd century BC
1st century BC
Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).
Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.
- 49 BC, June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
- 49 BC, 24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
- 48 BC, 10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
- 48 BC, 9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
- 47 BC, February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
- 46 BC, 4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
- 46 BC, 6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
- 45 BC, 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
- 43 BC, 14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
- 43 BC, 21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
- 42 BC, 3 October – First Battle of Philippi – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
- 42 BC, 23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.
Germanic Battles (16-11 BC)
The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117) The Empire is in red and dependencies are in pink.
The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.
See Crisis of the Third Century
Gothic and Alamannic wars
The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, with the territory of Constantius (yellow), Maximian (green), Galerius (pink), and Diocletian (purple)
The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).
The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.
Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory
The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, and Franks.
Wars with Gothic Tribes (402-419)
Fall of the West (450-493)
- ↑ Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1