List of active separatist movements in Europe

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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognized as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.


Northern Epirus[5][6]


 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic


Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)


 Wallonia and  Brussels-Capital Region[7]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia



Breakaway states:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic


Czech Silesia


For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.


 Faroe Islands




Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Brittany and parts of 23x15px Pays de la Loire

Main article: Breton nationalism

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)


Main article: Corsican nationalism


Main article: Savoyan nationalism


Main article: Occitan nationalism


Autonomist movements

23x15px Alsace








Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg


 South Ossetia



23x15px East Frisia




  • People: Various
  • Proposed State: Saxony





Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Main article: Friulian Front



Main article: Sardinian nationalism

23x15px Sicily

Main article: Sicilian nationalism

South Tyrol


Main article: Venetian nationalism


Serbia North Kosovo[40]

Gora region




Albanian community in Macedonia

Main article: Albanian nationalism


Breakaway state:


Proposed independent and autonomous movements:







  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[42]




Upper Silesia



The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Hungarian community in Romania


North Caucasus


Vojvodina Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Preševo Valley


Breakaway state:

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo)


The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[56]


Areas in Spain with separatist or autonomist movements, as well as their claims to territory in neighbouring countries.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.



Main article: Aragonese nationalism


Main article: Asturian nationalism

 Balearic Islands

Main article: Catalan nationalism

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) and  Navarre

 Canary Islands

Main article: Canarian nationalism




Main article: Castilian nationalism

Galicia (Spain) Galicia


Main article: Leonese nationalism


Main article: Basque nationalism

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença)

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.



Main article: Murcian nationalism

Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley




Flag of Canton of Jura.svg Jura[62]

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

  • Regional group: Ticinesi (Italian speaking)
  • Proposed state: annexation to the Lombardy


Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan[66]


Breakaway states
Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Luhansk Oblast (partially)

 Donetsk Oblast (partially)

Disputed status

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom

Secessionist movements





Northern Ireland


  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed state: London
    • Movement: London Independence[75]
Autonomist movements





 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)



North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles



Na h-Eileanan Siar

Independence movements of dependant territories

 Isle of Man

See also


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  2. Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary 
  3. "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008 
  4. Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 90-04-17690-X. 
  5. "Directory of Minorities". Minority rights. Retrieved 10 April 2014. he size of the Greek minority is especially contentious on account of the history of claims to southern Albania made by the Greek government in Athens, and of the substantial support within Greece and among Greeks in Albania, for the establishment of an autonomous district of 'Northern Epirus'. 
  6. Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Manifesto of the rassemblement Wallonie-France". 2002. 
  8. Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. Diane. 2004. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4289-1020-1. 
  9. Maxmilián Strmiska. "Rise and Fall of Moravian Regionalist Parties". The International Institute of Political Science. Retrieved 10 April 2009. 
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  13. 13.0 13.1 Zubiaga, M. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Nation-building and institutions, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-421-2.
  14. Mateos, T. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Citizenship and culture, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-422-9.
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  21. Wants To Make Iceland “Norway’s 20th County”
  22. Ønsker Island som Norges 20. fylke
  23. Ønsker Island som Norges 20. fylke
  24. Island + Norge = sant?
  25. Islendinger vil tilhøre Norge
  26. Ønsker Island som Norges tyvende fylke
  27. Derfor velger jeg landsforræderi
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  38. Archived from the original on 2005-02-09.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  40. "The Brussels Agreement and Serbia's National Interests: A Positive Balance Sheet?" (PDF). KONRAD -ADE NAUER -ST I FT UNG. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
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  49. "Szekler National Council". Transilvania. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
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  61. Valencia Freedom
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External links

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram [Political program], AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .