List of active separatist movements in Europe

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search


This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognized as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania

Northern Epirus[5][6]

Azerbaijan

 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia

 Wallonia and  Brussels-Capital Region[7]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

 Herzegovina

Cyprus

Breakaway states:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic

Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland

 Åland

France

Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Brittany and parts of 23x15px Pays de la Loire

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)

 Corsica

Savoy

Occitania

 Provence

Autonomist movements

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

 Alpes-Maritimes

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Georgia

Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Germany

Bavaria

23x15px East Frisia

Franconia[20]

Lusatia

Saxony

  • People: Various
  • Proposed State: Saxony

Schleswig-Holstein

Iceland

 Iceland

Italy

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Lombardy

Sardinia

23x15px Sicily

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo

Serbia North Kosovo[40]

Gora region

Lithuania

Samogitia

Macedonia

Albanian community in Macedonia

Moldova

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[41]

Montenegro

Kraja

Netherlands

Frisia

  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[42]

Groningen

Limburg

Poland

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

Romania

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Hungarian community in Romania

Russia

North Caucasus

Serbia

Vojvodina Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Preševo Valley

Sandžak

Breakaway state:

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo)

Slovakia

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[56]

Spain

Areas in Spain with separatist or autonomist movements, as well as their claims to territory in neighbouring countries.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Andalusia

 Aragon

 Asturias

 Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) and  Navarre

 Canary Islands

 Cantabria

 Catalonia

Castile

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

León

 Navarre

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença)

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

 Extremadura

 Murcia

Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley

Sweden

Scania

Switzerland

Flag of Canton of Jura.svg Jura[62]

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

  • Regional group: Ticinesi (Italian speaking)
  • Proposed state: annexation to the Lombardy

Turkey

Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan[66]

Ukraine

Breakaway states
Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Luhansk Oblast (partially)

 Donetsk Oblast (partially)

Disputed status

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom

Secessionist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Shetland

 Wales

Northern Ireland

London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed state: London
    • Movement: London Independence[75]
Autonomist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

London

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Wessex[85]

 Yorkshire

North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles

 Orkney

 Shetland

Na h-Eileanan Siar

Independence movements of dependant territories

 Isle of Man

See also

References

  1. "Separatism", Free Dictionary<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 90-04-17690-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Directory of Minorities". Minority rights. Retrieved 10 April 2014. he size of the Greek minority is especially contentious on account of the history of claims to southern Albania made by the Greek government in Athens, and of the substantial support within Greece and among Greeks in Albania, for the establishment of an autonomous district of 'Northern Epirus'.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Manifesto of the rassemblement Wallonie-France". rwf.be. 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. Diane. 2004. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4289-1020-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Maxmilián Strmiska. "Rise and Fall of Moravian Regionalist Parties". The International Institute of Political Science. Retrieved 10 April 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Silesian Autonomy Movement". Silesian Autonomy Movement. Retrieved 10 April 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Free Bornholm,". Retrieved 4 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Amtsradsvalg,". Retrieved 4 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 Zubiaga, M. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Nation-building and institutions, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-421-2.
  14. Mateos, T. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Citizenship and culture, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-422-9.
  15. Antiguedad, I. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Territory and socioeconomics, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-423-6.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 "Current Campaigns". Celtic League. Retrieved 7 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Presentació del Grup de Suport a la CUP de Perpinyà" [Presentation of Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, in Perpignan]. Llibertat.cat (in Catalan). 6 November 2014. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Parti niçois (in français) Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "South Ossetia, former part of Georgia, to hold 'special' referendum to join Russia". RT. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Stehle, Anja (13 September 2014), "Freiheit für Bayern – mei', wär' des schee: Nach Schottland referendum entscheidend ist dass die bevölkerung das will", Handelsblatt (in Deutsch) Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Wants To Make Iceland “Norway’s 20th County”
  22. Ønsker Island som Norges 20. fylke
  23. Ønsker Island som Norges 20. fylke
  24. Island + Norge = sant?
  25. Islendinger vil tilhøre Norge
  26. Ønsker Island som Norges tyvende fylke
  27. Derfor velger jeg landsforræderi
  28. Re-unification of Iceland and Norway
  29. Hundreds More Want Iceland as Norway’s 20th County
  30. Fylkisflokkurinn
  31. http://bora.la/2013/04/17/i-movimenti-per-lautonomia-e-per-lindipendenza-in-fvg/
  32. http://www.triestelibera.one/
  33. http://www.prolombardia.eu/ca/cose-pro-lombardia/
  34. Shao Chuan Leng, Coping with Crises: How Governments Deal with Emergencies, pg.92
  35. "Fronte Nazionale Siciliano" (in italiano). Facebook. Retrieved February 25, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Sicilia Nazione" (in italiano). Sicilia Nazione. Retrieved February 25, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Siciliani Liberi" (in italiano). Siciliani Liberi. Retrieved February 25, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. https://web.archive.org/web/20050209123923/http://www.msln.org:80/. Archived from the original on 2005-02-09. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Eyewitness report: how the Sicilian separatists do NATO's bidding" (PDF). Executive Intelligence Review. April 20, 1982. Retrieved February 25, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "The Brussels Agreement and Serbia's National Interests: A Positive Balance Sheet?" (PDF). KONRAD -ADE NAUER -ST I FT UNG. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Bulgarii din Republica Moldova cer autonomie și amenință Chișinăul cu alipirea la Găgăuzia". paginaeuropeana.ro. Retrieved 20 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "FNP program for the Provincial Elections 2007". Frisian National Party. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Borbély az autonómiatervezet ről: ejnye, hogy megijedtünk!" (in română). kronika. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Jövő héten egyeztet az MPP és az RMDSZ az autonómia-tervezetről". transindex.ro. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Cultural autonomy and territorial federalism: two voting options for Hungarians in Transylvania". Nationalia. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Megalakult a Partiumi Autonómia Tanács" (in magyar). Kitekinto. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Nyílt pályázat a Partium jelképeinek megtervezésére" (in magyar). Erdely. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 "Cooperating regionalist and autonomy movements in Europe" (PDF). Central European University. 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Szekler National Council". Transilvania. Retrieved 12 April 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "Petiţie pentru autonomia Transilvaniei, depusă la Prefectura Cluj" (in română). Romania libera. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "De ce "Liga Transilvania Democrată"" (in română). Neuerweg. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Liga Transilvania Democrată a mai anunţat că se va implica şi din punct de vedere logistic pentru a obţine numărul necesar de semnături" (in română). Nova TV. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Program" (in română). Liga Banateana. Retrieved 20 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Bănăţenii vor autonomie economică şi administrativă: "Acest lucru nu înseamnă independenţa sau ruperea de România"" (in română). Adevarul. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Zukorlić: Autonomija Sandžaka sve izvesnija".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Berényi: A tömbnek területi, a szórványnak kulturális autonómiát". bumm.sk. 20 July 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Head of party for ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia says autonomy necessary for minority's survival". politics.hu. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "A felvidéki önrendelkezés kilátásairól az autonómia albizottság ülésén". mkp.sk. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Llionesa, Ruchar Mocedá. "Ruchar Mocedá Llionesa: Presentación RUCHAR Mocedá Llionesa". Ruchar Mocedá Llionesa. Retrieved 2016-09-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Independència Valenciana (Valencian)
  61. Valencia Freedom
  62. Daftary, Troebst (2004). Radical Ethnic Movements in Contemporary Europe. Berghahn Books. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-57181-695-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Mouvement Indépendantiste Jurassien" [Movement Indépendantiste Jura] (in français). Juralibre.chez.com. Retrieved 23 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Mouvement autonomiste jurassien" [Jura autonomist movement] (in français). Maj.ch. Retrieved 23 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Groupe Bélier – Mouvement de lutte pour l'Unité du Jura" [Aries Group – Movement struggling for Jura Unity] (in français). Groupebelier.ch. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Pike, John (21 May 2004). "Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 23 July 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "The Hungarians of Transcarpathia demand autonomy and double citizenship". nevnov.ru. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Hungarians, Rusyns in Zakarpatie afraid of forced Ukrainization, want autonomy". voiceofrussia.com. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. 69.0 69.1 English Democrats seek independence for England, BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  70. http://www.rise.scot/about/
  71. "Nå kan Shetland bli en del av Norge".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "NA bankrupt economy, North Sea oil rights sold to China and Shetlanders defecting to Norway. What if Scotland DID go it alone?".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Shetland: Rather be part of Norway, than Scotland".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Norwegian politician: Welcomes closer ties to Shetland".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36620401
  76. "Section 5: Solutions – Economic, Legal and Political Measures", Restoring Britishness: UKIP Policy, UK Independence Party, archived from the original on 28 September 2011, retrieved 6 April 2010<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "Scottish government renews call for extra powers on tax and welfare". The Guardian. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Daniel Boffey (30 May 2015). "London should be treated as city state, says Labour mayoral hopeful". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "Green Party will support calls for a Cornish Assembly". The Cornish Guardian. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Graeme Demianyk (10 March 2014). "Liberal Democrats vote for Cornish Assembly". The Western Morning News. Retrieved 6 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Spring Conference 2014". Liberal Democrats. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Cornish Nation". Archived from the original on 11 June 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Stoyle, Professor Mark (17 February 2011), "The Cornish: A Neglected Nation?", British History, BBC<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Mark Stead (24 March 2012). "We want devolution, says York council leader". The York Press. Retrieved 12 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. "The official website of the "Yorkshire Independence – Campaign for devolution"". 22 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. The Yorkshire devolution movement, Facebook Account<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "David Blunkett MP suggests "Yorkshire Parliament"". News. BBC. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. The Yorkshire devolution movement, Word press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Yorkshire devolution<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Northumbria".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "North-east devolution? We could be like Plaid Cymru says new party's leader". Retrieved 27 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 94.5 Dean Herbert (18 March 2013). "Lib Dem's Scott wants 'home rule' for Shetland isles". Scottish Express. Retrieved 20 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. 95.0 95.1 Severin Carrell (17 March 2013). "Scottish independence: islands consider their own 'home rule'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram, AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

420