List of ancient dishes

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A plate of testaroli with pesto, as served at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy
A plate of testaroli, an ancient dish, served with pesto at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy

This is a list of ancient dishes, foods and beverages that have been recorded as originating during the time of ancient history. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[1]

Ancient history is defined in different manners, and can be defined as occurring from the beginning of recorded human history to:

Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used),[8][9] the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD,[10] the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD,[11] the coming of Islam[12] or the rise of Charlemagne[13] as the end of ancient and Classical European history. This list does not contain entries that originated after ancient history.

Beginning of recorded history to 476 AD

This section is limited to dishes that originated during the time of ancient history (the beginning of recorded human history) up to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.

Antipasti prepared with prosciutto (pictured) and melon is "based upon ancient medical principles."[14]
Ruins of a garum factory in Baelo Claudia, Spain
Papadzules may be "one of the most ancient traditional dishes of Yucatán, Mexico.[15]

Beverages

  • Soy milk has been consumed in China since ancient times.[59]

Cereals and grains

Farro may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains."[60]
  • Amaranth graingrain and plant bundles were found by archaeologists at the Tehuacán caves in Central Mexico that date back to around 5,500 years.[61] The grain continues to be grown in the area in contemporary times.[61]
  • Barley[62]
  • Bulgur (burghul) – existed Anno Domini in the Near East[41]
  • Farro – may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains"[60]
  • Hemp seed – used as a food grain in Ancient China up to the time of the Han Dynasty, at which time its use declined and then stopped.[63] This was documented as "the prevailing view" in the book Fermentations and Food Science.[63]
  • Kasha (buckwheat groats) – first cultivated in China, they were later cultivated in Eastern Europe.[64] The food is still commonly used in both regions.[64]
  • Millet – a staple food of Ancient China, Egypt and India, before rice was used.[64]
  • Wheat[65][62]
    • Einkorn wheat – may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains"[60]
    • Spelt – a common grain in Switzerland and Germany "by the seventh century BCE"[66] (BC) Spelt existed in Great Britain since 500 BCE.[66]

Dairy products

Cheeses

Pecorino Romano is one of the world's most ancient cheeses

Legumes

Seeds

  • Chia has been cultivated by the Aztecs, Mayans, Incas and "other ancient Native American cultures" for over 5,000 years.[94]

477–1500 AD

This section includes dishes, foods and beverages that originated during the time of ancient history from 477 AD to 1500 AD (prior to the Postclassical Era).

Cereals and grains

Defined as ancient, but lacking time frame

A bowl of poi showing a typical consistency

Beverages

  • Kombucha is an ancient beverage that originated in Asia and is used for its supposed health benefits.[lower-alpha 6]

Legumes

Seeds

Likely ancient in origin

  • Nattō is prepared using fermented soybeans, and has been described as likely being an ancient food.[103] It's origins have been described as unknown.[103] Nattō may have been developed independently in different areas that have the same ingredients, such as Japan, China and Korea.[103]

See also

Ancient cuisines

List articles

Notes

  1. "The origin of sausage goes back to ancient times."[46]
  2. "An ancient food, soup is prepared by cooking meat, fish or vegetables and the like in such fluids as water or milk; it is then consumed as a liquid."[51]
  3. "Smy, or thickened milk, both human and animal, is often mentioned in medical prescriptions."[71]
  4. "Cheese is represented in the tomb art of Ancient Egypt and in Greek literature"[73]
  5. "In the Pacific Islands, poi, made from taro root, is an ancient food that is preserved through fermentation."[99]
  6. "Kombucha is an ancient food and healing product originating in Asia."[100]
  7. "Chickpea is an ancient food crop in the Highlands, but whether it was domesticated indigenously is debatable. Ethiopian varieties are infertile when crossed with Near Eastern varieties. This genetic incompatibility may reflect distinct ecological ..."[101]

References

  1. see Jemdet Nasr period, Kish tablet; see also The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, pp 381-383
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