List of expeditions of Muhammad

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This list of battles by Muhammad, also includes a list of battles by Muhammad's order and comprises information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the battles.

List of Battles

No. Name Date Notable primary sources
1 Invasion of Waddan August 623 [1][2]
2 Invasion of Buwat October 623 [4][5]
3 Invasion of Dul Ashir December 623 [7]
4 Invasion of Safwan 623 [7]
5 Battle of Badr March 624 [10]
6 Invasion of Sawiq 624 [14]
7 Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa February 624 [17]
8 Al Kudr Invasion May 624
9 Invasion of Thi Amr September 624 [25][26]
10 Invasion of Bahran 624 [29]
11 Battle of Uhud March 23 625 [31][32]
12 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad March 625[36]
13 Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 [44]
14 Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa October 625[49] or 627[47]
15 Invasion of Badr January 626[50] or March 625[51]
16 Invasion of Dumatul Jandal July 626
17 Battle of the Trench February 627 [55]
18 Invasion of Banu Qurayza February–March 627
19 Invasion of Banu Lahyan September 627 [50][51]
20 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 [64]
21 Conquest of Fidak May 628 [67]
22 Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 [70]
23 Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 [67]
24 Conquest of Mecca December 629 [74]
25 Battle of Hunayn January 630 [77]
26 Battle of Autas 630 [79]
27 Siege of Ta'if January 630 [83]
28 Battle of Tabouk October 630 [85]

Notes

  • Ibn Hisham edited the biography of Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.[88] Ibn Ishaq's work is lost and is now only known in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari.[89] Therefore, when Ibn Hisham is mentioned as a primary source, so is Ibn Ishaq

See also

References

  1. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  2. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, In Safar (which began August 4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al- Awwal, he went out on a raid as far as Waddan<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 345. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 118.
  5. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 13, ISBN 978-0887063442, Expeditions Led by Muhammad Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623) in search of Quraysh. He went as far as Buwat<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 285. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 245, ISBN 978-9960899558<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. pp. 285–286. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 286. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, Some say the Battle of Badr took place on 19 Ramadan (March 15, 624).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 133-138. (online)
  12. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 137. (online)
  13. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 210. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0887063442<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 361. Raid called al-Sawiq <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  17. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 254.
  18. Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī (1987), Al-Tawḥīd, 5, Tehran, Iran: Islamic Propagation Organization, International Relations Dept, p. 86<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Rodwell, JM, The Koran, Phoenix, p. 342, ISBN 978-1-8421-2609-7, This was the taunt of the jews of the tribe of Kainoka, when Muhammad demanded tribute of them in the name of God.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 248. ISBN 978-9-9608-9754-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  21. Francis E. Peters (1993). A Reader on classical Islam. Princeton University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0691000404. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  23. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 86, ISBN 978-0887063442<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 659. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 100, ISBN 978-0887063442<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0195773071. External link in |title= (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (free online)
  27. Strauch, Sameh (2006), Biography of the Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 472, ISBN 9789960980324<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  29. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 153. (online)
  30. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 362. Raid of al Furu of Bahran <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. William Montgomery Watt (1961), Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, p. 135, ISBN 0198810784, The Battle of Uhud (23rd March 625) About...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 105, ISBN 978-0887063442, Messenger of God to Uhud. This is said to have been on Saturday, 7 Shaw- wal, in Year Three of the Hijrah (March 23, 625).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 292.
  34. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 299-300.
  35. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 296 (footnote 2).
  36. Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0195773071. The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625) External link in |title= (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (free online)
  37. Ibn Kathir, Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 4 (Part 4): Al-I-Imran 93 to An-Nisaa 23 2nd Edition, MSA Publication Limited, p. 89, ISBN 9781861796820<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  38. Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume (translator) (2002), The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), Oxford University Press, pp. 461–464, ISBN 978-0-19-636033-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 222-224.
  40. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, pp. 137-141.
  41. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 181-183. (online)
  42. Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 4 (Part 4): Al-I-Imran 93 to An-Nisaa 23 2nd Edition, p. 89, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 186179682X
  43. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 390. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 161, ISBN 978-0887063442, The Messenger of God remained in Medina after the expedition against the Banu al-Nadir for the two months of Rabi' and part of the month of Jumada (from August 1 1 to late October, 625)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 189. (online)
  46. Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, Nicholas Turner (2009). World religions and norms of war. United Nations University Press. p. 296. ISBN 9789280811636. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. 47.0 47.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 192. (online)
  48. Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. 49.0 49.1 Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 161, ISBN 978-0887063442<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. ISBN 9789957051648.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  51. 51.0 51.1 Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 242. ISBN 978-9960897547. External link in |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  52. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 193. (online)
  53. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 657. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  55. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 216.
  56. 56.0 56.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 196-198.
  57. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  58. Ibn Kathir, Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21, MSA Publication Limited, p. 213, ISBN 9781861796110<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  59. Ibn Kathir, Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21, MSA Publication Limited, p. 213, ISBN 9781861796110<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  60. Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, p. 338.
  61. Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator) (1997), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 35–36, ISBN 9780791431504<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (2005), Riyad-us Saliheen, Islamic Books<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> See no. 1309
  63. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  64. Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
  65. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 214-215.
  66. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  67. 67.0 67.1 Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 180. ISBN 978-9960897714.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(online)
  68. Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7, Text Version
  69. Ibn Kathir, Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (translator), Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), p. 555 (footnote 1 & 2).
  70. Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071. Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628 (i/y) shortly after his return from the expedition of al-Hudaybiyah was one when it was also convenient for him to have booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed. External link in |title= (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (free online)
  71. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 432.
  72. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 433-434.
  73. Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, enumerating with them the expedition of Wadi al-Qura. He stated that he fought there with his slave Mid'am<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 251-253.
  76. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  77. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 226. ISBN 978-9960897714.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. 78.0 78.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 261-262. (online)
  79. Tabari, Ella Landau-Tasseron (translator) Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors Check |url= value (help), State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 1998, p. 101, ISBN 0791428192, Part of the events of Hunayn in the year 8/630<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal, Susan Ann Spectorsky (translator), Isḥāq ibn Ibrāhīm Ibn Rāhwayh (1993). Chapters on marriage and divorce: responses of Ibn Ḥanbal and Ibn Rāhwayh. University of Texas Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780292776722. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (11 November 2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 5 (Part 5): An-Nisaa 24 to An-Nisaa 147, MSA Publication Ltd, p. 24, ISBN 9781861795632<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (online) Quote: ""We captured some women from the area of Awtas who were already married, and we disliked having sexual relations with them because they already had husbands. So, we asked the Prophet about this matter, and this Ayah was revealed"
  82. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  83. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 481, ISBN 978-9960899558<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Note: Shawwal 8AH is January 630AD
  84. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 591. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 239. ISBN 978-9960897714.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861796509.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 137. ISBN 978-1861796509.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Kathryn Kueny, The Rhetoric of Sobriety: Wine in Early Islam, pg. 59. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. ISBN 9780791490181
  89. Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah, vol. 2, pg. 298. Trns. Franz Rosenthal. Issue 43 of Bollingen Series (General) Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967. ISBN 9780691097978

Bibliography