List of demonyms for U.S. states

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This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms used to designate the citizens of specific states and territories of the United States.


State or District Official
(recommended by U.S. GPO)[1]
Official, unofficial, or informal alternates
Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[2]
Alaska Alaskan
American Samoa American Samoan
Arizona Arizonan Arizonian, Sand Cutter[3]
Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer,[4] Arkie [5]
California Californian Californio (archaic)
Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic)[6][7]
Connecticut Connecticuter Nutmegger, Connecticotian, Connecticutensian,[8] Connecticutian, Congrobulovian, Connetian[9]
Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken, Muskrat[10]
District of Columbia Washingtonian
Florida Floridian Florida cracker,[11] Floridan
Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber,[12] Sand-hiller[13]
Guam Guamanian
Hawaii Hawaiian Hawaiian (Hawaiian people), Malihini (newcomer), Kamaʻāina (native-born nonethnic Hawaiian),[14] Islander[14][15]
Idaho Idahoan
Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander,[16] Sand-hiller[17]
Indiana Indianian Hoosier[18] (official state designation), Indianian (archaic)
Iowa Iowan Hawkeye[19]
Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Grasshopper[20]
Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker[21]
Louisiana Louisianian
Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster,[22] Mainiac,[23] Pine Tree, Fox[citation needed]
Maryland Marylander
Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government),[24] Massachusite (traditional),[25][26] Masshole (derogatory)[27]
Michigan Michiganian Wolverine,[28][29] Michiganite,[30] Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively),[31] Michigander/Michigoose (sometimes used specifically for a male and female Michigan residents, respectively),[31] Flatlander (for residents of the mid and southern portions of the Lower Peninsula)
Minnesota Minnesotan
Mississippi Mississippian
Missouri Missourian
Montana Montanan
Nebraska Nebraskan Cornhusker
Nevada Nevadan Nevadian
New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman[32]
New Jersey New Jerseyan New Jerseyite
New Mexico New Mexican
New York New Yorker Knickerbocker[33][34]
North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler,[35]
North Dakota North Dakotan
Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islander
Ohio Ohioan Buckeye[36]
Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie,[37] Sooner[38]
Oregon Oregonian
Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite[39]
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican, Boricua[40]
Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee[41]
South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper[42]
South Dakota South Dakotan
Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[43]
Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical),[44] Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)
Utah Utahn
Vermont Vermonter
Virginia Virginian
Virgin Islands Virgin Islander
Washington Washingtonian
West Virginia West Virginian
Wisconsin Wisconsinite Badger,[45] Cheesehead[46][47]
Wyoming Wyomingite

See also


  1. United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (PDF). 2008. §5.23. 
  2. Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times.  Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  3. "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  4. Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  5. "Ar•kie". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  6. Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62,. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan). 
  7. Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post. 
  8. "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  9. "People of Connecticut, Choose Your Moniker; Martha Stewart’s House and My Company (4 Letters)". Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  10. "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  11. "‘Cracker’ Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of ‘Pride’". Mediaite. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  12. "The Peach State is all about peanuts". American Food Roots. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  13. "The State of Georgia - An Introduction to the Peach State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995. 
  15. "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  16. Jim Fitzgerald (1987-10-06). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!". 
  17. "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  18. The term Hoosier is the official state designation for a state resident, but not used by the US GPO. The term was once considered derogatory, but is now a point of pride for Hoosiers. See the Indiana Historical Bureau article entitled What is a Hoosier? for the origin of the term.
  19. "The State of Iowa". 
  20. "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  21. Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2. 
  23. "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938.  (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  24. "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29. : "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  25. Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435. 
  26. Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465. 
  27. Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270. 
  28. Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8. 
  29. Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. 
  30. "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 "MDE - Michigan Glossary". 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  32. "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  33. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  34. New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  35. Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  36. "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  37. Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City. 
  38. "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  39. "History of". Luzerne County. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  40. "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved 2015-09-02. 
  41. "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - - Providence Journal". 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-07-22. [dead link]
  43. "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  44. de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn. Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. 
  45. "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 
  46. Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  47. Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Retrieved 2009-04-29. [dead link]

External links