List of earthquakes in California

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Probabilistic seismic hazard map

Earthquakes in California are common occurrences since the state is located on the San Andreas Fault, which cuts across California and forms the tectonic plate boundary between the Pacific and the North American Plate. There are many thousands of small earthquakes per year, most of them so small that they are not felt. California's complex landscape can be attributed to the network of faults that run through the state. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the Portola expedition about 30 miles southeast of Los Angeles.[1][2]

Summary

California has numerous active faults throughout the state which are known to produce large earthquakes. The most active of these is the San Jacinto Fault Zone in Southern California, which has produced large events on a regular basis throughout recent history. The Mendocino Triple Junction located offshore of Northern California is also very active, producing many earthquakes above M6 throughout history.[3] Northern California is also subject to megathrust earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (extending north from Mendocino), such as the 1700 Cascadia earthquake, magnitude of approximately 9. The town of Parkfield in central California is located on a section of the San Andreas Fault that produces an earthquake of about M6 every 20–30 years on average in 1857, 1881, 1901, 1922, 1934, 1966 and 2004.[4]

The largest recorded earthquake in California was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 7.9. This earthquake ruptured the San Andreas Fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood, a distance of 225 miles (350 km). The most destructive earthquake to date was the 7.8 magnitude 1906 San Francisco earthquake, when more than 3,000 people perished in the earthquake and the fires that followed. The 1906 quake ruptured the northern segment of the San Andreas Fault for 296 miles (477 km), from San Juan Bautista to near Cape Mendocino in the north.[5] More recently, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which registered 6.9 and affected the San Francisco Bay Area,[6] and the 1994 Northridge earthquake which registered 6.7 and hit the Greater Los Angeles Area,[7] caused widespread damage and deaths in their respective regions.

Earthquakes

Date Area M MMI Deaths Injuries Total damage / notes
1812-12-08 Inland Empire 6.9 ML VIII 40 Moderate
1812-12-21 Central Coast 7.1 MLa VIII 1 Tsunami [8]
1836-06-10 Bay Area 6.8 MLa VIII N/A Damage / ground disturbances [8]
1838-06 Bay Area 7.0 MLa VIII N/A Minor [8]
1857-01-09 CentralSouthern 7.9 Mw IX 2 Severe
1865-10-08 Santa Cruz Mountains 6.3 MLa VIII N/A $500,000 [9]
1868-10-21 Bay Area 6.8–7.0 ML IX 30 $350,000
1872-03-26 Eastern 7.4–7.9 Mw X 27 56 $250,000
1892-02-23 Baja California 7.1–7.2 Mw VIII N/A Moderate
1892-04-19 North Bay 6.4 MLa IX 1 $225,000 / doublet [10]
1892-04-21 Central Valley 6.2 MLa IX N/A Doublet [10]
1898-03-30 North Bay 6.2 MLa VIII N/A $350,000 / severe [11]
1899-12-25 Inland Empire 6.7 Mw IX 6 $50,000 or more [12]
1906-04-18 NorthernCentral 7.8 Mw XI 3000 Conflagration / tsunami
1915-06-22 Imperial Valley 5.5 Mw VIII 6 $900,000 / doublet [13]
1915-06-22 Imperial Valley 5.5 Mw VIII N/A Doublet [13]
1918-04-21 Inland Empire 6.7 Mw IX 1 $200,000 [14]
1920-06-21 Los Angeles Area 4.9 ML VIII N/A More than $100,000 [15]
1923-01-22 North Coast 7.2 Ms VIII N/A Severe / tsunami [16]
1925-06-29 Central Coast 6.8 Mw IX 13 $8 million
1927-11-04 Central Coast 7.3 Mw VIII N/A Moderate / tsunami [17]
1932-06-06 North Coast 6.4 Ms VIII 1 Several Severe [18]
1933-03-10 South Coast 6.4 Mw VIII 115–120 $40 million
1940-05-18 Imperial Valley 6.9 Mw X 9 20 $6 million
1941-06-30 Central Coast 5.9 Mw VIII N/A $100,000 [19]
1948-12-04 Inland Empire 6.3 ML VII N/A Several Minor
1952-07-21 Central Valley 7.3 Mw XI 12 Hundreds $60 million
1952-08-22 Central Valley 5.8 Mw VIII 2 Several $10 million
1954-12-21 North Coast 6.5 ML VII 1 Several $2.1 million [20]
1957-03-22 Bay Area 5.7 Mw VII 1 40 $1 million
1968-04-08 Imperial Valley 6.5 Mw VII N/A Damage / rockslides [21]
1969-10-01 North Bay 5.6 Mw VII 1 $8.35 million / doublet
1969-10-01 North Bay 5.7 Mw VIII N/A Doublet
1971-02-09 Los Angeles Area 6.5–6.7 Mw XI 64 2,000 $553 million
1973-02-21 South Coast 5.7 Mb VII N/A $1 million NGDC
1975-08-01 Butte County 5.7 ML VIII N/A 10 $3 million NGDC
1978-08-13 Central Coast 5.8 Mw VII N/A 65 $12 million [22]
1979-08-06 South Bay 5.7 Mw VII N/A 16 $500,000
1979-10-15 Imperial Valley 6.4 Mw IX N/A 91 $30 million
1980-01-24 East Bay 5.8 Mw VII N/A $11.5 million / doublet [23]
1980-01-26 East Bay 5.4 Mw VII N/A Doublet [24]
1980-05-25 Eastern 6.2 Mw VII N/A 9 $1.5 million / swarm [25]
1980-11-08 North Coast 7.3 Mw VII N/A 6 $2–2.75 million
1983-05-02 Central Valley 6.2 Mw VIII N/A 94 $10 million
1984-04-24 South Bay 6.2 Mw VIII N/A 21–27 $7.5–8 million
1986-07-08 Inland Empire 6.0 Mw VII N/A 29–40 $4.5–6 million
1986-07-21 Eastern 6.2 Mw VI N/A 2 $2.7 million / sequence
1987-10-01 Los Angeles Area 5.9 Mw VIII 8 200 $213–358 million
1987-11-23 Imperial Valley 6.1 Mw VI N/A $3 million [26]
1987-11-24 Imperial Valley 6.5 Mw VII N/A Triggered [26]
1989-08-08 Santa Cruz Mountains 5.4 ML VII 1 Moderate
1989-10-17 Santa Cruz Mountains 6.9 Mw IX 63 3,757 $5.6–6 billion / tsunami
1990-02-28 Los Angeles Area 5.5 Mb VII N/A 30 $12.7 million NGDC
1991-06-28 Los Angeles Area 5.6 Mw VII 1 $33.5–40 million
1991-08-17 North Coast 6.3 Mw VII N/A Damage / landslides [27]
1992-04-22 Inland Empire 6.2 Mw VII N/A 32 Light–moderate [28]
1992-04-25 North Coast 7.2 Mw IX N/A 98–356 $48.3–75 million / tsunami
1992-04-26 North Coast 6.5 Mw VIII N/A Damage / triggered
1992-04-26 North Coast 6.6 Mw VIII N/A Damage / triggered
1992-06-28 Inland Empire 7.3 Mw IX 3 400+ $92 million
1992-06-28 Inland Empire 6.5 Mw VIII N/A Moderate / triggered
1994-01-17 Los Angeles Area 6.7 Mw IX 57 8,700+ $13–$40 billion
1994-12-26 North Coast 4.8 Ms VII N/A $2.1 million [29]
1999-10-16 Eastern 7.1 Mw VIII N/A 5 Limited
2000-09-03 North Bay 5.0 Mw VII N/A 41 $10–50 million
2003-12-22 Central Coast 6.6 Mw VIII 2 40 $250–300 million
2007-10-30 South Bay 5.6 Mw VI N/A Minor
2008-07-29 Los Angeles Area 5.5 Mw VI N/A 8 Limited
2010-01-09 North Coast 6.5 Mw VI N/A 35 $21.8–43 million
2010-04-04 Baja California 7.2 Mw VII 2–4 100–233 $1.15 billion
2014-03-28 Los Angeles Area 5.1 Mw VI N/A Few $10.8 million NGDC
2014-08-24 North Bay 6.0 Mw VIII 1 ~200 $362 million–$1 billion
Note: Stover & Coffman 1993 uses various seismic scales. MLa is a local magnitude (equivalent to ML) for events that occurred prior to the instrumental period and is based on the area of perceptibility (as presented on isoseismal maps). The list includes events that occurred offshore or in Baja California, Mexico. The inclusion criteria for adding events is based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described are also applicable on lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

See also

References

  1. "Earthquake History for California". Info from USGS. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  2. "Earthquake Facts". data from USGS. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  3. Mendocino Triple Junction Offshore Northern California
  4. The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment USGS
  5. The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake USGS
  6. "October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake". data from USGS. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  7. "January 17, 1994 Northridge, CA Earthquake". Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 72, 100
  9. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 73, 104
  10. 10.0 10.1 Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 74, 111, 112
  11. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 74, 112
  12. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 74, 113
  13. 13.0 13.1 Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 76, 121
  14. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 76, 122
  15. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 76, 124
  16. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 77, 125
  17. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 77, 128
  18. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 78, 129, 130
  19. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 82, 136
  20. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 88, 148
  21. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 91, 154
  22. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 94, 163
  23. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 94, 166, 167
  24. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 95, 166, 167
  25. Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 95, 168
  26. 26.0 26.1 Stover & Coffman 1993, pp. 98, 179, 180
  27. USGS. "M6.3 - offshore Northern California". United States Geological Survey. 
  28. USGS. "M6.2 - Southern California". United States Geological Survey. 
  29. USGS. "M4.8 - 10km W of Humboldt Hill, California". United States Geological Survey. 
Sources

External links