List of ethnic groups in China
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group, where (as of 2010) some 91.51% of the population was classified as Han Chinese (~1.2 billion). Besides the majority Han Chinese, 55 other ethnic groups are recognised in mainland China by the PRC government, numbering approximately 105 million people, mostly concentrated in the northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.
The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Uyghur (11.5 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).
Officially recognized ethnic groups in mainland China
In order of population, this is the list of the 56 ethnic groups in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. The number of officially recognized ethic groups in China used to be 39 in 1954, which increased to 54 by 1964. The last change was the addition of the Jino people in 1979, bringing the number of recognized ethnic groups to the current 56.
Several ethnic groups including the Punti, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka ("boat dwellers") reside in Hong Kong and Macau.[clarification needed]
||2010 National Shares||2010 PopulationB
||Year of recognitionC
|Undistinguished||—||none||Wèi Shìbié Mínzú||未识别民族||0.0480%||640,101||734,438||749 341||-|
|Naturalized Citizen||—||none||Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí||外国人加入中国籍||0.0001%||1,448||941||3,421||-|
AGB 3304－91 "Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes";
BThe population only includes China and the Republic of China (Taiwan);
CFor ethic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954  and 1964;
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong;
4including Amdowa and Khampa;
5Also included are the Sangkong;
6This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi;
7Also included are the Mosuo;
8Also included are the 木佬人 (Qago);
9Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
10Also included are the Then;
11Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
12The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
13The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
14A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan.
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The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines as Gaoshan, whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 14 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.
Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" have in the past claimed that they have Plains Aboriginal ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence, claiming an identity different from that of mainland Chinese. However, genetic tests showed differences between them and plains aborigines, and given that they usually were recent migrants, their claims were rejected by descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.
"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups
- Ayi people
- Äynu people
- Gejia (亻革家人, Gèjiā Rén)
- Bajia (八甲人, Bājiǎ Rén)
- Deng (僜人, Dèng Rén)
- Hu (户语)
- Khmu (克木人, Kèmù Rén)
- Kucong (Yellow Lahu/Lahu Shi (苦聪人; Traditional: 苦聰人; Kǔcōng Rén)
- Mang (芒人, Máng Rén)
- Sherpas (夏尔巴人; Traditional: 夏爾巴人; Xiàěrbā Rén)
- Tankas (疍家人; Traditional: 蜑家人; Dànjiā Rén) including Fuzhou Tanka
- Tebbu people
- Tuvans (图瓦人, Túwǎ Rén)
- Waxiang (瓦乡人, Wǎxiāng Rén)
- Yi (羿人, Yìrén)
- Youtai (犹太; Traditional: 猶太; Yóutài) (Jewish people of China and Jewish people in general)
- Yamato Japanese (大和民族) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族) living as permanent residents in Taiwan and North East China
- Macanese (土生葡人, mixed race Catholic Portuguese speakers who lived in Macau since 16th century of various ethnic origins
- Utsuls, descendants of Cham Muslims who fled Vietnamese invasions of Champa
During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups". Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.
Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau
Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or South East Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indian, Indonesians, Nepalese and Pakistani) live in Hong Kong.
- Affirmative action in China
- Demographics of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan
- Ethnic groups in Taiwan
- Ethnic minorities in China
- Han Chinese subgroups
- Languages of China
- List of endangered languages in China
- Tai ethnic groups in China
- Taiwanese aborigines
- Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
- Zhonghua Minzu
- "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- 胡鸿保 张丽梅 “民族识别原则的变化与民族人口” 《西南民族大学学报》（人文社科版）2009/04 总第212期
- Ward, Barbara, (1977) "Readers and Audiences: An Exploration of the Spread of Traditional Chinese Culture" from Jain, Ravindra K., Text and Context: The Social Anthropology of Tradition pp.181-203, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues
- GB 3304－91 Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes.
- First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
- Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
- Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- 第五次人口普查数据(2000年). 表1—6. 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口 ( Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000). Table 1-6: Population of provinces, autonomous regions, and minicipalities by ethnicity). (Chinese)
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