List of famines

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Depiction of victims of the Great Irish Famine, 1845–1849

This is a selective list of known major famines, ordered by date.

Between 108 BC and 1911 AD there were no fewer than 1,828 major famines in China, or one nearly every year in one or another province; however, the famines varied greatly in severity.[1][2] There were 95 famines in Britain during the Middle Ages.[3][4]

Date Event Location Death toll (estimate)
1708-1701 BC Seven years of famine in Egypt. Ancient Egypt[citation needed]
441 BC The first famine recorded in ancient Rome. Ancient Rome[5]
400–800 AD Various famines in Western Europe associated with the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and its sack by Alaric I. Between 400 and 800 AD, the population of the city of Rome fell by over 90%, mainly because of famine and plague.[6] Western Europe
639 Famine in Arabia during the Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab[7] Arabia
750's Spain[8]
800–1000 AD Severe drought killed millions of Maya people due to famine and thirst and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization[9] Mayan areas of Mesoamerica 1 million+
809 Frankish Empire[10][unreliable source?]
875–884 Peasant rebellion in China inspired by famine;[11][12] Huang Chao captured capital China
927–928 Caused by four months of frost[13][14] Byzantine Empire
1005 England[15]
1016 Famine throughout Europe[16] Europe
1051 Famine forced the Toltecs to migrate from a stricken region in what is now central Mexico[17] Mexico (present day)
1064–1072 Seven years' famine in Egypt [18][19] Egypt 40,000 [18]
1097 Famine and plague [20] France Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1230 Famine in the Republic of Novgorod[citation needed] Russia
1229–1232 The Kangi famine, possibly the worst famine in Japan's history.[21] Caused by volcanic eruptions.[22] Japan
1235 Famine in England, 20,000 died in London alone[citation needed] England 20,000
1255 Portugal[23]
1275–1299 Collapse of the Anasazi civilization, widespread famine occurred[24] United States (present day)
1315–1317 Great Famine of 1315–1317 Europe[25]
1333–1337 China[26]
1344–1345 Famine in India, under the regime of Muhammad bin Tughluq[27] India
1387 After Timur the Lame left Asia Minor, severe famine ensued[citation needed] Anatolia
1396–1407 The Durga Devi famine India[28]
1441 Famine in Mayapan Mexico[29]
1450–1454 Famine in the Aztec Empire,[30] interpreted as the gods' need for sacrifices.[31] Mexico (present day)
1460–1461 Kanshō famine in Japan[citation needed] Japan
1504 Spain[32]
1518 Venice[citation needed] Italy (present day)
1528 Famine in Languedoc France[33]
1535 Famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia
1567–1570 Famine in Harar, combined with plague[citation needed]. Emir of Harar died. Ethiopia
1586 Famine in England which gave rise to the Poor Law system[citation needed] England
1601–1603 One of the worst famines in all of Russian history; famine killed as many as 100,000 in Moscow and up to one-third of Tsar Godunov's subjects; see Russian famine of 1601–1603.[34][35] Same famine killed about half Estonian population. Russia 2 million
1618–1648 Famines in Europe caused by Thirty Years' War Europe
1619 Famine in Japan. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious.[36] Japan
1630–1631 Deccan Famine of 1630–32 (Note: There was a corresponding famine in northwestern China, eventually causing the Ming dynasty to collapse in 1644) India
1648–1660 Poland lost an estimated 1/3 of its population due to wars, famine, and plague[citation needed] Poland
1649 Famine in northern England [37] England
1650–1652 Famine in the east of France [38] France
1651–1653 Famine throughout much of Ireland during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland[39] Ireland
1661 Famine in India, due to lack of any rainfall for two years[40] India
1670s and 1680s Plague and famines in Spain[citation needed] Spain
1680 Famine in Sardinia[41] Italy (present day) 80,000 [42]
1680s Famine in Sahel[43]
1690s Famine throughout Scotland which killed 5-15% of the population [44] Scotland
1693–1694 France 2 million[45][46]
1695–1697 Great Famine of Estonia killed about a fifth of Estonian and Livonian population (70,000–75,000 people). Famine also hit Sweden (80,000–100,000 dead) The Swedish Empire, of which Swedish Estonia and Swedish Livonia were dominions at that time 150,000-175,000
1696–1697 Great Famine of Finland wiped out almost a third of the population[47] Finland, then part of Sweden proper
1702–1704 Famine in Deccan [48] India 2 million [48]
1708–1711 Famine in East Prussia killed 250,000 people or 41% of its population[49] East Prussia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1709–1710 France[50]
1722 Arabia[51]
1727–1728 Famine in the English Midlands[52] England
1738–1756 Famine in West Africa, half the population of Timbuktu died of starvation[53] West Africa
1740-1741 Great Irish Famine (1740–1741) Ireland
1750–1756 Famine in the Senegambia region [54]
1764 Famine in Naples[55] Italy (present day)
1769–1773 Great Bengal famine of 1770,[56] 10 million dead (one third of population) India, Bangladesh (present day) 10 million
1770–1771 Famines in Czech lands killed hundreds of thousands people Czech Republic (present day) 100,000+
1771–1772 Famine in Saxony and southern Germany[citation needed] Germany
1773 Famine in Sweden[citation needed] Sweden
1779 Famine in Rabat Morocco[57]
1780s Great Tenmei famine Japan 20,000 - 920,000
1783 Famine in Iceland caused by Laki eruption killed one-fifth of Iceland's population[58] Iceland
1783–84 Chalisa famine India 11 million[59]
1784 Widespread famine throughout Egypt[60] Egypt
1784–1785 Famine in Tunisia killed up to one-fifth of all Tunisians Tunisia
1788 The two years previous to the French Revolution saw bad harvests and harsh winters, possibly because of a strong El Niño cycle[61] or caused by the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland.[62][63] France
1789 Famine in Ethiopia afflicted "amhara/tigray north"
1789–92 Doji bara famine or Skull famine India 11 million
1810, 1811, 1846, and 1849 Four famines in China China 45 million.[64]
1811–1812 Famine devastated Madrid[65] Spain Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[66]
1815 Eruption of Tambora, Indonesia. Tens of thousands died in subsequent famine Indonesia 10,000
1816–1817 Year Without a Summer Europe 65,000
1830–1833 Claimed to have killed 42% of the population Cape Verde Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[67]
1830s Tenpo famine Japan
1837–1838 Agra famine of 1837–38 India 1 million
1845–1857 Highland Potato Famine Scotland
1845–1849 Great Famine in Ireland killed more than 1 million people and over 1.5–2 million emigrated[68] Ireland 1.5 million
1846 Famine led to the peasant revolt known as "Maria da Fonte" in the north of Portugal[citation needed] Portugal
1849–1850 Demak and Grobogan in Central Java, caused by four successive crop failures due to drought. Indonesia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[69]
1850–1873 As a result of Imperialism, The opium wars and theTaiping Rebellion, drought, and famine, the population of China dropped by more than 60 million[70] China 60 million
1860-1861 Upper Doab famine of 1860–61 India 2 million
1866 Orissa famine of 1866 India 1 million[71]
1866–1868 Finnish famine of 1866–1868. About 15% of the entire population died Finland, northern Sweden 150,000+
1869 Rajputana famine of 1869 India 1.5 million[71]
1870–1871 Famine in Persia Iran (present day) 2 million[72]
1873–1874 Famine in Anatolia caused by drought and floods[73][74] Turkey (present day)
1879 1879 Famine in Ireland. Unlike previous famines, this famine mainly caused hunger and food shortages but little mortality. Ireland
1873–74 Bihar famine of 1873–74 India
1876–1879 Famine in India, China, Brazil, Northern Africa (and other countries). Famine in northern China killed 13 million people.[75] 5.25 million died in the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India India, China, Brazil, Northern Africa (and other countries). 18.25 million in Northern China and India alone. British policies and drought were responsible for the deaths in India.[76][77] The famine in China was a result of drought influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.[78]
1878-1880 Famine in St. Lawrence Island, Alaska[79] United States
1888-1889 Famine in Orrisa, Ganjam and Northern Bihar India
1888–1892 Ethiopian Great famine. About one-third of the population died.[80][81][82] Conditions worsen with cholera outbreaks (1889–92), a typhus epidemic, and a major smallpox epidemic (1889–90). Ethiopia
1891–1892 Russia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".–500,000[83][84]
1896–1897 Famine in northern China leading in part to the Boxer Rebellion China
1896–1902 Series of Famines in India due to drought and British policies.[85][86][77] India 6 million (British Territories), Mortality unknown in Princely States
1907, 1911 Famines in east-central China China 25 million [87]
1914–1918 Mount Lebanon famine during World War I which was caused by an Ottoman Turk blockade of food which killed up to 450,000 Lebanese Maronite Christians about a third of the population[88] Lebanon 450,000
1916–1917 Famine caused by the British blockade of Germany in WWI Germany
1916–1917 Winter famine in Russia[citation needed] Russia
1917–1919 Famine in Persia. As much as 1/4 of the population living in the north of Iran died in the famine[89][90] Iran (present day)
1918–1919 Rumanura famine in Ruanda-Burundi, causing large migrations to the Congo Rwanda and Burundi (present day)
1917–1921 A series of famines in Turkestan at the time of the Bolshevik revolution killed about a sixth of the population[91] Turkestan
1921 Russian famine of 1921 Russia 5 million[92]
1921–1922 1921–1922 famine in Tatarstan Russia
1924–1925 Famine in Volga German colonies in Russia. One-third of the entire population perished[93] Russia
1928–1929 Famine in Ruanda-Burundi, causing large migrations to the Congo Rwanda and Burundi (present day)
1928–1930 Famine in northern China. The drought resulted in 3 million deaths China 3 million
1929–1933 Famine of 1929–1933 in USA. The drought and economy recession resulted in 5 million deaths USA 5 million
1932–1933 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 and Soviet-related famine in Ukraine Soviet Union and Ukraine 7–10 million in Ukraine, millions in Russia[94]
1936 China 5 million[95]
1940–1948 Famine in Morocco between 1940-48, because of refueling system instaured by France. [96] Morocco 200 000
1940–1945 Famine in Warsaw Ghetto, as well as other ghettos and concentration camps (note: this famine was the result of deliberate denial of food to ghetto residents on the part of Nazis). Occupied Poland
1941–44 Leningrad famine caused by a 900-day blockade by German troops. About one million Leningrad residents starved, froze, or were bombed to death in the winter of 1941–42, when supply routes to the city were cut off and temperatures dropped to −40 °C (−40 °F).[97] Russia 1 million
1941–1944 Famine in Greece caused by the Axis occupation.[98][99] Greece Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1942-43 Chinese famine of 1942–43 Henan, China 2-3 million
1943 Bengal famine of 1943 Bengal, India 1.5-7 million
1943 Famine in Ruanda-Urundi, causing migrations to the Congo Rwanda and Burundi (present day)
1944-45 Java during World War II Indonesia 2.4 million[100]
1944 Dutch famine of 1944 during World War II Netherlands Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1944 Rwanda famine of 1944 Rwanda Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1945 Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 400,000–2 million
1947 Soviet Famine of 1947 Soviet Union 1–1.5 million[101][102]
1958 Famine in Tigray Ethiopia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".
1959–1961 The Great Chinese Famine. According to government statistics, there were 15 million excess deaths. China 15–43 million[103]
1966–1967 Lombok, drought and malnutrition, exacerbated by restrictions on regional rice trade Indonesia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[104]
1967–1970 Biafran famine caused by Nigerian blockade Nigeria
1968–1972 Sahel drought created a famine that killed a million people[105] Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger and Burkina Faso 1 million
1972–1973 Famine in Ethiopia caused by drought and poor governance; failure of the government to handle this crisis led to the fall of Haile Selassie and to Derg rule Ethiopia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[106]
1974 Bangladesh famine of 1974 Bangladesh 27,000
1975–1979 Khmer Rouge. An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine Cambodia 2 million
1980–1981 Caused by drought and conflict[106] Uganda Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[106]
1984–1985 1984–1985 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia
1991–1992 Famine in Somalia caused by drought and civil war[106] Somalia Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[106]
1996 North Korean famine.[107][108] Scholars estimate 600,000 died of starvation (other estimates range from 200,000 to 3.5 million).[109] North Korea Script error: No such module "Number table sorting". to 3.5 million
1998 1998 Sudan famine caused by war and drought Sudan Script error: No such module "Number table sorting".[106]
1998–2000 Famine in Ethiopia. The situation worsened by Eritrean–Ethiopian War Ethiopia
1998–2004 Second Congo War. 3.8 million people died, mostly from starvation and disease Democratic Republic of the Congo 3.8 million
2011-2012 Famine in Somalia, brought on by the 2011 East Africa drought[110] Somalia
2012 Famine in West Africa, brought on by the 2012 Sahel drought[111] Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso

See also

Main article lists

Other articles


  1. "China: Land of Famine". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Heaven, Observe!". 1928-02-06. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Famines through history". 2004-03-08. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Poor studies will always be with us". 2014-08-09. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Livy, From the Founding of the City 4.12
  6. Dave Stutz. "A Brief History of Population". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Thomas F. Glick. "Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death". 2001-04-01. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "The Ninth Century". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Embree,A.:Encyclopedia of Asian history - Volume 2 - Page 82:"rebellion between 875 and 884 that devastated almost all of China except the modern province ... caused by famine conditions, oppressive taxation,
  12. Orient/West - Volume 7 - Page 104"The central government was threatened in 875 by a peasant-supported rebellion which gained enough momentum to sweep through the empire. The rebellion, brought under control in 884, hastened the downfall of the empire by encouraging local suzerainty and ... The rebellion was aided by drought, famine"
  13. Treadgold, Warren T. (1997), A history of the Byzantine state and society, Stanford University Press, p. 480, ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Kazhdan, Aleksandr Petrovich; Wharton, Annabel Jane (1985), Change in Byzantine culture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, University of California Press, p. 27, ISBN 978-0-520-05129-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. [1][dead link]
  16. [2][dead link]
  17. [3][dead link]
  18. 18.0 18.1 Davis,L."Natural Disasters" - Page 120
  19. The Encyclopedia britannica - Volume 9 - Page 64
  21. Farris, William Wayne (2009), Japan to 1600: a social and economic history, University of Hawaii Press, p. 116, ISBN 978-0-8248-3379-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Ó Gráda 2009, p. 17
  23. "Portugal > History and Events". 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Collapse: Chaco Canyon". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "The Great Famine and the Black Death". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Projects and Events: 14th Century". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Shankarlal C. Bhatt (2005). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Uttar Pradesh. Gyan Publishing House. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-7835-384-5. Retrieved 23 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. [4] Archived July 1, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  29. "Welcome to The Human Past". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Trigger, Bruce G. (2003), Understanding early civilizations: a comparative study, Cambridge University Press, p. 387, ISBN 978-0-521-82245-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Davíd Carrasco (1998), Daily life of the Aztecs: people of the sun and earth, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 199, ISBN 978-0-313-29558-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. David Vassberg. "Land and Society in Golden Age Castile". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "The Dimension of Famine" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Boris Feodorovich Godunov". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Russia before Peter the Great". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "A Chronology of Japanese History". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Ang,A.Overpopulated Philippines - Page 67
  39. "BBC – Northern Ireland – A Short History". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "The 17th Century". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Italian States in the Seventeenth Century". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Dyson, Stephen L; Rowland, Robert J (2007). Archaeology and history in Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: shepherds, sailors & conquerors. Philadelphia: UPenn Museum of Archaeology, 2007. p. 136. ISBN 1-934536-02-4.
  43. Ang,A.Overpopulated Philippines - Page 67
  44. Cullen,K."Famine in Scotland: The 'ill Years' of the 1690s"
  45. Appleby, Andrew B. (1980), "Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age", Journal of Interdisciplinary History, The MIT Press, 10 (4): 643–663, doi:10.2307/203063, JSTOR 203063.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Ó Gráda, Cormac (2002), "Famine And Market In Ancient Régime France", The Journal of Economic History, 62 (03): 706–733, doi:10.1017/S0022050702001055, PMID 17494233. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Finland timeline". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. 48.0 48.1 Sharma,S.:Rice: Origin, Antiquity and History "1702-1704 famine in Deccan killed two million people..."-pg.246
  49. "The Dimension of Famine" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "The Little Ice Age in Europe". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Climatic fluctuation and natural disasters in Arabia between mid-17th and early 20th Centuries". 1995-09-01. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends". 1997-08-10. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Searing, James F. (2003), West African Slavery and Atlantic Commerce: The Senegal River Valley, 1700-1860, Cambridge University Press, p. 132, ISBN 978-0-521-53452-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Naples and Sicily - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Famine ()". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "The locust plague". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Haze Famine (Icelandic history)". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Grove, Richard H. (2007), "The Great El Nino of 1789–93 and its Global Consequences: Reconstructing an Extreme Climate Event in World Environmental History", The Medieval History Journal, 10 (1&2): 80, doi:10.1177/097194580701000203<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Grove, Richard H. (1998), "Global Impact of the 1789–93 El Niño", Nature, 393 (6683): 318–319, doi:10.1038/30636.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Wood, C. A. (1992), "The climatic effects of the 1783 Laki eruption", in Harrington, C. R. (ed.) (ed.), The Year Without a Summer?, Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature, pp. 58–77CS1 maint: extra text: editors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Neumann, J. (1977), "Great Historical Events that were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 2, The Year Leading to the Revolution of 1789 in France", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 58 (2): 163–168, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1977)058<0163:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2, ISSN 1520-0477.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Fearfull Famines of the Past". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Carr, Raymond (2001), Spain: a history, Oxford University Press, p. 203, ISBN 978-0-19-280236-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Reader, John (2005), Cities, Atlantic Monthly Press, p. 243, ISBN 978-0-87113-898-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Ó Gráda 2009, p. 22
  68. "The Great Famine in Ireland, 1845–1849". 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. Elson, R.E. (1985) ‘The Famine in Demak and Grobogan in 1849-50: Its Causes and Circumstances’, Review of Indonesian and Malayan Affairs, 19(1)pp.39-85.
  70. [5] Archived April 13, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  71. 71.0 71.1 Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. P. 486–487, 1 map, 552.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "igi-III-486-7" defined multiple times with different content
  72. "The Great Persian Famine of 1870-1871". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Zürcher, Erik Jan (2004), Turkey: a modern history (3 ed.), I.B.Tauris, p. 72, ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Mitchell, Stephen (1995), Anatolia: land, men, and Gods in Asia Minor (reprint ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 145, ISBN 978-0-19-815029-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009). Famine: A Short History. Princeton University Press. p. 245. ISBN 9780691122373.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Roy, Tirthankar (2006), The Economic History of India, 1857–1947, 2nd edition, New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p 361
  77. 77.0 77.1 "Famines and Land Assessments in India by RC Dutt".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History". Princeton University Press.
  79. The St. Lawrence Island Famine and Epidemic, 1878–80, Arctic Anthropology
  80. Serrill, Michael S. (1987-12-21). "Famine Hunger stalks Ethiopia once again – and aid groups fear the worst". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named igi-III-490b
  82. El Niño and Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia
  83. "The History of International Humanitarian Assistance". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Spiridovich, Alexander. Revolutionary movement in Russian. Ed. 2. (Russian)
  85. Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502), Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552.
  86. Dyson 1991a, p. 15
  87. "Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief". SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Basckin, Deborah (25 November 2014). "Six unexpected WW1 battlegrounds". BBC News Magazine. BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "Global Connections . Timeline". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Kenneth Pollack (2004). The Persian Puzzle: Deciphering the Twenty-five-Year Conflict Between the United States and Iran. Random House Publishing Group. p. 25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. [6][dead link]
  92. [7] Archived October 13, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  93. [8][dead link]
  94. "The Ukrainian Holodomor – Was it a Genocide?". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. [9] Archived October 25, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  96. [10]
  97. [11][dead link]
  98. "Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: daily life in occupied Europe, by Robert Gildea, Anette Warring, Olivier Wieviorka, Berg Publishers 2007
  100. Van der Eng, Pierre (2008). "Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940-1950. (MPRA Paper No. 8852) pp.35-38".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines, Cambridge Journal of Economics
  102. Ganson, Nicholas (2009). The Soviet Famine of 1946-47 in Global and Historical Perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-61333-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Peng Xizhe (彭希哲), "Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's Provinces," Population and Development Review 13, no. 4 (1987), 639-70.
    For a summary of other estimates, please refer to this link
  104. Van der Eng, Pierre (2012) “All Lies? Famines in Indonesia during the 1950s and 1960s?” Asian Historical Economics Conference, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo (Japan), 13–15 September 2012.
  105. Famine Casts Its Grim Global Shadow, TIME
  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.5 Ó Gráda 2009, p. 24
  108. [12][dead link]
  109. "Bruce Cumings: We look at it and see ourselves". Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "United Nations News Centre - UN declares famine in another three areas of Somalia". 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2014-08-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "Sahel Famine Crisis". UNICEF. Retrieved 29 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


External links

Media related to Script error: No such module "Commons link". at Wikimedia Commons