List of heads of government of Estonia

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of people, who have been heads of government of the Republic of Estonia from 1918, either as a Chairman of the Council of Elders (1918), Prime Minister (1918-1920; 1934-1940 and from 1990), State Elder (1920–1934) or President-Regent (1937–1938). The office of Prime Minister (Peaminister) first came into use soon after Estonia gained its independence in 1918. From 1918 to 1934, Estonia used a parliamentary political system, where the presidency and ministry were subject to parliamentary confidence, but instead of a presidential office, the government was headed by a Prime Minister and from 1920 to 1934, a similar office called State Elder (Riigivanem).

The 1934 constitution gave the State Elder the role of the president, with a separate head of government created, restoring the office of Prime Minister. The new system was obstructed by a 1934 coup d'état by head of government Konstantin Päts. During his authoritarian era (1934–1937), he ruled as both Prime Minister and State Elder. The latter office was entrusted to him briefly until the presidential elections. In 1937, the two offices were combined into the office of President-Regent (Riigihoidja), but the situation was again changed with the 1938 constitution, when Konstantin Päts gave up the office of Prime Minister to a new officeholder.

The Soviet occupation of Estonia in 1940 made Johannes Vares the new Prime Minister of Estonia, but his rule was later declared to have been illegal. According to the 1938 constitution, Prime Minister was to lead the presidency in case the President couldn't be elected, a move that was implemented for the Estonian Government in Exile. The interim government restored the office of Prime Minister in 1990.

List of heads of government

Portrait Name Term of Office Political Party Cabinet Riigikogu
(Election)
Separate
Head of State
Took Office Left Office Days
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
Chairman of the Council of Elders
of the Provisional Government
24 February 1918 12 November 1918 440 Country People's Union
(EMRL)
Päts I Provisional
EMRL–ETE–EDE–ESDTP
Provincial
Assembly
(1917)
None
Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
Prime Minister
of the Provisional Government
12 November 1918 9 May 1919 Country People's Union
(EMRL)
Päts II Provisional
EMRL–ETE–EDE
EMRL–ETE–EDE–ESDTP
Päts III Provisional
EMRL–ETE–EDE–ESDTP
EMRL–ETE–EDE–ESDTP–SEE
EMRL–ETE–EDE–ESDTP–SEE–VKK
EMRL–ETE–ER–ESDTP–SEE–VKK
EMRL–ETE–ER–ESRP–SEE–VKK
Otto Strandman
(1875–1941)
1st Prime Minister
9 May 1919 18 November 1919 194 Labour Party
(ETE)
Strandman I
ETEESDTP–ER
Constituent
Assembly
(1919)
Jaan Tonisson1928.jpg Jaan Tõnisson
(1868-1941?)
2nd Prime Minister
18 November 1919 28 July 1920 254 People's Party
(ER)
Tõnisson I
ER–ETEESDTP
AaduBirk.jpg Ado Birk
(1883–1942)
3rd Prime Minister
28 July 1920 30 July 1920 3 People's Party
(ER)
Birk
ER–ETE–KRE
Jaan Tonisson1928.jpg Jaan Tõnisson
(1868-1941?)
4th Prime Minister
(2nd term)
30 July 1920 26 October 1920 89 People's Party
(ER)
Tõnisson II
ER
Ants Piip.jpg Ants Piip
(1884–1942)
5th Prime Minister
26 October 1920 20 December 1920 92 Labour Party
(ETE)
Piip
ETE
I
(1920)
Ants Piip
(1884–1942)
1st State Elder
20 December 1920 25 January 1921
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
2nd State Elder
(2nd term)
25 January 1921 21 November 1922 666 Farmers' Assemblies
(PK)
Päts I
PK–ETE–ER–KRE
PK–ER–KRE
Juhan Kukk.jpg Juhan Kukk
(1885–1942)
3rd State Elder
21 November 1922 2 August 1923 255 Labour Party
(ETE)
Kukk
ETE–PK–ER
ETE–PK–ER–ESDTP
ETE–PK–ESDTP
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
4th State Elder
(3rd term)
2 August 1923 26 March 1924 238 Farmers' Assemblies
(PK)
Päts II
PK–KRE–ER–ETE
PK–KRE–ER
II
(1923)
Friedrich Akel.jpg Friedrich Karl Akel
(1871–1941)
5th State Elder
26 March 1924 16 December 1924 266 Christian People's Party
(KRE)
Akel
KRE–ETE–ER
JüriJaakson.jpg Jüri Jaakson
(1870–1942)
6th State Elder
16 December 1924 15 December 1925 365 People's Party
(ER)
Jaakson
ER–PK–ESDTPETE–KRE
Jaan Teemant.jpg Jaan Teemant
(1872-1941?)
7th State Elder
15 December 1925 9 December 1927 725 Farmers' Assemblies
(PK)
Teemant I
PK–ETE–KRE–ARVK
PK–ETE–KRE–ARVK–RVP
Teemant II
PK–ARVK–KRE–ER–ÜMSL
III
(1926)
Teemant III
PK–ARVK–ER–KRE–ÜMSL
Jaan Tonisson1928.jpg Jaan Tõnisson
(1868-1941?)
8th State Elder
(3rd term)
9 December 1927 4 December 1928 362 People's Party
(ER)
Tõnisson III
ER–PK–ARVK–ETE
August Rei
(1886–1963)
9th State Elder
4 December 1928 9 July 1929 218 Socialist Workers' Party
(ESTP)
Rei
ESTP–ARVK–ETE–KRE
Otto August Strandman
(1875–1941)
10th State Elder
(2nd term)
9 July 1929 12 February 1931 584 Labour Party
(ETE)
Strandman II
ETE–ARVK–PK–KRE–ER
IV
(1929)
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
11th State Elder
(4th term)
12 February 1931 19 February 1932 373 Farmers' Assemblies
(PK)
Päts III
PK–ER–ESTP
Jaan Teemant.jpg Jaan Teemant
(1872-1941?)
12th State Elder
(2nd term)
19 February 1932 19 July 1932 152 Farmers' Assemblies and
Association of Settlers
(PK/ARVK)
Teemant IV
PK/ARVK–RKE
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-09721, Karl Einbund.jpg Karl August Einbund
(later Kaarel Eenpalu)
(1888–1942)
13th State Elder
19 July 1932 1 November 1932 106 Farmers' Assemblies and
Association of Settlers
(PK/ARVK)
Einbund I
PK/ARVK–RKE
V
(1932)
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
14th State Elder
(5th term)
1 November 1932 18 May 1933 199 Farmers' Assemblies and
Association of Settlers
(PK/ARVK)
Päts IV
PK/ARVK–RKE–ESTP
Jaan Tonisson1928.jpg Jaan Tõnisson
(1868-1941?)
15th State Elder
(4th term)
18 May 1933 21 October 1933 157 National Centre Party
(RKE)
Tõnisson IV
RKE–ARVK
Konstantin Päts.jpg Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
16th State Elder
(6th term)
21 October 1933 24 January 1934 1,647 Farmers' Assemblies and
Association of Settlers
(PK/ARVK)
Päts V
non-party coalition
Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
6th Prime Minister
(in duties of the State Elder)
(6th term)
24 January 1934 3 September 1937 Farmers' Assemblies and
Association of Settlers
(PK/ARVK)
Prime Minister
in duties of
the State Elder

Konstantin
Päts
Fatherland Union
(I)
Parliament
disbanded
Konstantin Päts
(1874–1956)
President-Regent
(6th term)
3 September 1937 24 April 1938 None
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-09721, Karl Einbund.jpg Kaarel Eenpalu
(formerly Karl August Einbund)
(1888–1942)
Acting Prime Minister
(2nd term)
24 April 1938 9 May 1938 537 Fatherland Union
(I)
President
Konstantin
Päts

(1938-1940)
Kaarel Eenpalu
(formerly Karl August Einbund)
(1888–1942)
7th Prime Minister
(2nd term)
9 May 1938 12 October 1939 Eenpalu II
non-party coalition
VI
(1938)
Jüri Uluots.jpg Jüri Uluots
(1890–1945)
8th Prime Minister
12 October 1939 21 June 1940 254 Fatherland Union
(I)
Uluots
non-party coalition
1st Soviet and German Occupation
Otto Tief
(1889–1976)
Acting Prime Minister
18 September 1944 25 September 1944 8 None Tief
non-party coalition
Parliament
disbanded
Prime Minister
in duties of
the President

Jüri Uluots
2nd Soviet Occupation (See Estonian Government in Exile)
Edgar Savisaar 2005-crop.jpg Edgar Savisaar
(1950– )
1st Prime Minister of the Interim Government
3 April 1990 29 January 1992 668 Popular Front
(RR)
Savisaar Interim
various coalition partners
Supreme
Council
(1990)
Chairman of the
Supreme Council

Arnold Rüütel
Tiit Vähi
(1947– )
2nd Prime Minister of the Interim Government
29 January 1992 21 October 1992 266 None Vähi Interim
various coalition partners
Mart Laar.png Mart Laar
(1960– )
9th Prime Minister
21 October 1992 8 November 1994 749 Fatherland
(I)
Laar I
IMERSP
IMERSPL
VII
(1992)
President
Lennart Georg Meri
(1992-2001)
Andres Tarand 12.4.2012.jpg Andres Tarand
(1940– )
10th Prime Minister
8 November 1994 17 April 1995 161 Moderates
(M)
Tarand
MIERSPLP
Tiit Vähi
(1947– )
11th Prime Minister
17 April 1995 17 March 1997 701 Coalition Party's and
Country People's Alliance

(KMÜ)
Vähi I
KMÜK
VIII
(1995)
Vähi II
KMÜER
KMÜ–AP
Siimann Mart.IMG 2960.JPG Mart Siimann
(1946– )
12th Prime Minister
17 March 1997 25 March 1999 739 Coalition Party's and
Country People's Alliance

(KMÜ)
Siimann
KMÜ–AP
Mart Laar.png Mart Laar
(1960– )
13th Prime Minister
25 March 1999 28 January 2002 1,041 Pro Patria Union
(IL)
Laar II
ILMRE
IX
(1999)
President
Arnold Rüütel
(2001-2006)
Kallas Siim.IMG 3350.JPG Siim Kallas
(1948– )
14th Prime Minister
28 January 2002 10 April 2003 438 Reform Party
(ER)
Kallas
ERK
Juhan-Parts.jpg Juhan Parts
(1966– )
15th Prime Minister
10 April 2003 12 April 2005 735 Res Publica Party
(RP)
Parts
RPERERL
X
(2003)
Portrait Andrus Ansip.jpg Andrus Ansip
(1956– )
16th Prime Minister
12 April 2005 26 March 2014 3271 Reform Party
(ER)
Ansip I
ERKERL
President
Toomas Hendrik Ilves
(2006-incumbent)
Ansip II
ERIRLSDE
ERIRL
XI
(2007)
Ansip III
ERIRL
XII
(2011)
RE Taavi Rõivas.jpg Taavi Rõivas
(1979– )
17th Prime Minister
26 March 2014 Incumbent 1700 Reform Party
(ER)
Rõivas I
ERSDE
Rõivas II
ERSDEIRL
XIII
(2015)

Statistics

Time in office

A total of 23 people have headed the Government of Estonia, 15 before and 8 after the Soviet occupation. Konstantin Päts headed the government for the longest, a total of 3,563 days during six different terms (2,059 days without his authoritarian era). Andrus Ansip is the second longest office holder, having been democratically in office longer than Päts.

The shortest time in office was for Ado Birk, when he served as Prime Minister for only 3 days and never actually stepping into office. Acting Prime Minister Otto Tief was in office for 8 days between the German and Soviet occupations in 1944. Ants Piip, August Rei, Jüri Uluots, Juhan Kukk, Friedrich Karl Akel and Jüri Jaakson were also in office for less than a year.

Number and length of terms

Konstantin Päts served a total of six terms, although his sixth term turned into an authoritarian regime. Jaan Tõnisson was in office four times, although there was just one full day of Ado Birk's cabinet between his first two terms. Otto August Strandman, Jaan Teemant, Karl August Einbund (named Kaarel Eenpalu during his second term in the semi-authoritarian era), Tiit Vähi (first term during the interim period) and Mart Laar all served two terms in office.

Longest average term lengths are all in the reindependence period with Andrus Ansip in the lead (3,271 days), Mart Laar second (895 days) and Mart Siimann third (739 days). Longest interwar average term is held by Konstantin Päts (594 days). During the interwar democratic era however, longest average term was achieved by Jaan Teemant (439 days), followed by Otto August Strandman (389 days) and by Konstantin Päts himself (383 days).

The era before occupation had the shortest average term lengths with the two extremes of Ado Birk (3 days) and Otto Tief (8 days), but also Ants Piip with 92 days. Jaan Tõnisson also had an average term length of only 216 days. Andres Tarand (with 161 days) and Siim Kallas (with 438 days) have the shortest average term lengths during the reindependence era.

Age at assuming office

Mart Laar was only 32 years old when he became Prime Minister in 1992. Ado Birk, Ants Piip, Juhan Kukk, Taavi Rõivas, Edgar Savisaar, Mart Laar (2nd term in 1999) and Juhan Parts were also in their 30s when appointed. Jaan Tõnisson was 64 when stepping into office in 1933. The rest were in their 40s or 50s when assuming office, average age at appointment is 48.