List of hyperboloid structures

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This page is a list of hyperboloid structures. These were first applied in architecture by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939). Shukhov built his first example as a water tower (hyperbolic shell) for the 1896 All-Russian Exposition. Subsequently, more have been designed by other architects, including Le Corbusier, Antoni Gaudí, Eduardo Torroja, Oscar Niemeyer and Ieoh Ming Pei.

The shapes are doubly ruled surfaces, which can be classed as:

Notable projects

Structure Image Date completed Location Country Function Architect Notes
Shukhov Tower in Polibino First Shukhov Tower Nizhny Novgorod 1896.jpg 1896 Polibino  Russia Hyperboloid water tower Vladimir Shukhov The world's first hyperboloid structure featured at the 1896 All-Russian Exposition in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
Adziogol Lighthouse Adziogol hyperboloid Lighthouse by Vladimir Shukhov 1911.jpg 1911 Kherson  Ukraine Hyperboloid lighthouse tower Vladimir Shukhov Illustrates a hyperboloid lattice.
Stanislav Range Front Light 100px 1911 Kherson  Ukraine Hyperboloid lighthouse tower Vladimir Shukhov
Church of Colònia Güell 100px 1915 Santa Coloma de Cervelló  Spain Hyperboloid building cathedral vaults Antoni Gaudí An unfinished building with hyperbolic paraboloid vaults.
Shukhov Tower Shukhov Tower photo by Maxim Fedorov. Night.jpg 1922 Moscow  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower Vladimir Shukhov Unless the international campaign can save it, the 1922 Shukhov Tower is under current threat of demolition.
Shukhov tower on the Oka River Shukhov Oka Towers 1988 photo by Igor Kazus.jpg 1929 Nizhny Novgorod  Russia Hyperboloid electricity pylon towers Vladimir Shukhov The Shukhov Tower on the Oka River is the world’s only diagrid hyperboloid electricity pylon transmission tower. In 2009 one tower was illegally taken down to re-sell the metal.
Dorton Arena 100px 1952 Raleigh, North Carolina  United States Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on arena Maciej Nowicki
Fedala Reservoir 1957 Mohammedia  Morocco Hyperboloid water tower Eduardo Torroja [1]
Ochsenkopf TV Tower 100px 1958 Ochsenkopf  Germany Hyperboloid broadcast tower A 163 metres (535 ft) radio and TV tower of reinforced concrete.
Pylons of Cádiz Pilones de Cádiz, mayo de 2009.jpg 1960 Cádiz  Spain Hyperboloid electricity pylon towers Alberto Toscano, Italian The Pylons of Cádiz, (aka Towers of Cádiz), are two tall electricity pylon supporting powerlines over the bay of Cádiz, Spain.
Mürwik Wasserturm

(Mürwik Water Tower)

Flensburg Wasserturm Mürwik.jpg 1961 Flensburg  Germany Hyperboloid water tower [2]
Warszawa Ochota railway station W-wa Ochota PKP-WKD.jpg 1962 Warsaw  Poland Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on train station
Church Army Chapel, Blackheath 100px 1963 Blackheath, south east London  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on church E.T. Spashett
Kobe Port Tower Kobe port tower11s3200.jpg 1963 Kōbe  Japan Hyperboloid observation tower Nikken Sekkei Company
Saint Louis Science Center's James S. McDonnell Planetarium 100px 1963 St. Louis, Missouri  United States Hyperboloid building museum planetarium Gyo Obata of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum
Möglingen Wasserturm

(Möglingen Water Tower)

100px 1965 Ludwigsburg  Germany Hyperboloid water tower R. Kessler
Święty Krzyż TV Tower 100px 1966 Łysa Góra  Poland Hyperboloid broadcast tower
Newcastle International Airport air traffic control tower Newcastle International Airport Control Tower.jpg 1967 Newcastle upon Tyne  United Kingdom Hyperboloid observation tower
Cockfosters Water Tower 100px 1968 London  United Kingdom Hyperboloid water tower Edmund C. Percey of Scherrer and Hicks and J.W. Milne Cockfosters Water Tower is in Cockfosters Road, north London, on the edge of Trent Park.
Ještěd Tower 100px 1968 Liberec  Czech Republic Hyperboloid broadcast tower Karel Hubáček
Wrexham Swimming Baths,

now the Wrexham Waterworld Leisure and Activity Centre

100px 1969 Wrexham, Wales  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on indoor swimming pool F.D. Williamson associates of Bridgend
Cathedral of Brasília Brazil.Brasilia.01.jpg 1970 Brasília  Brazil Hyperboloid building cathedral Oscar Niemeyer
Scandinavium 100px 1971 Gothenburg  Sweden Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on arena Poul Hultberg, for Nils Olsson's Gothenburg firm
Ciechanów Water Tower 100px 1972 Ciechanów  Poland Hyperboloid water tower Jan Bogusławski, Jerzy Michał Bogusławski A toroidal water tower tank on a doubly ruled hyperboloid structure.
Gettysburg National Tower 100px 1974-2000 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania  United States Hyperboloid observation tower Joel H. Rosenblatt Demolished in 2000.

(BIS Tower) of the Bank for International Settlements

Basel - Bank für internationalen Zahlungsausgleich1.jpg 1977 Basel   Switzerland Hyperboloid skyscraper tower Martin Burckhardt Tower for the untouchables.
Sydney Tower Amp tower center point tower sydney.jpg 1981 Sydney  Australia Hyperboloid observation tower Donald Crone, Australian
Le Havre's House of Culture,

a.k.a. fr:Le Volcan (salle) (The Volcano (hall/auditorium))

100px 1982 Le Havre  France Hyperboloid building concert hall Oscar Niemeyer, Brazillian [3]
Roy Thomson Hall Toronto - ON - Roy Thomson Hall.jpg 1982 Toronto  Canada Hyperboloid building concert hall Arthur Erickson and Mathers and Haldenby, Canadian
Scotiabank Saddledome Pengrowth Saddledome.jpg 1983 Calgary  Canada Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on indoor arena Graham McCourt Architects
THTR-300 thorium nuclear reactor cooling tower Thtr300 kuehlturm.jpg 1983 Hamm-Uentrop  Germany Hyperboloid cooling tower Schlaich Bergermann & Partner The THTR-300 cable-net dry cooling tower for the now decommissioned thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor.
Canada Place 100px 1985 Vancouver, British Columbia  Canada Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roofs in series with masts and fabric resembling sails Zeidler Roberts Partnership in joint venture with Musson Cattell Mackey Partnership and DA Architects + Planners. Canada Place houses the Vancouver Convention Centre, the Pan Pacific Vancouver Hotel, Vancouver's World Trade Centre, the virtual flight ride FlyOver Canada, and is the main cruise ship terminal for the region.
Tractricious 100px 1988 Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois  United States Hyperboloid public art sculpture Robert R. Wilson The Tractricious sculpture in front of Fermilab's Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC), Illinois, designed by Robert R. Wilson[1][2] who derived the name Tractricious from tracktrix, a curve such that any tangent segment from the tangent point on the curve to the curve’s asymptote have constant length, a concept first introduced by Claude Perrault in 1670.
Corporation Street Bridge Bridge over Corporation Street - - 809089.jpg 1999 Manchester  United Kingdom Hyperboloid building enclosed walkway Hodder + Partners
Killesberg Tower 100px 2001 Stuttgart  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower Jörg Schlaich and Schlaich Bergermann Partner Originally planned for the 1993 World Horticultural Exposition, it was only erected in 2001.
Aussichtsturm Schlossberg

(Schlossberg View Tower)
a.k.a. Castle Hill Tower

Freiburg Schlossberg Aussichtsturm.jpg 2002 Freiburg im Breisgau  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower Hubert Horbach, Freiburg
Messe Wien Turm / Messeturm

(Vienna Trade Fair Tower / Exhibition-tower)

100px 2004 Vienna  Austria Hyperboloid public art sculpture decorative illuminated tower landmark Gustav Peichl, Rudolf F. Weber, Katharina Fröch, Christoph Lechner, Paul Katzberger, Gerhard Moßburger, Norbert Erlach The largest trade fair in Austria and one of the most important economic factors of Vienna.
Barcelona–El Prat Airport air traffic control tower 100px 2005 El Prat de Llobregat, near Barcelona  Spain Hyperboloid observation tower Ricardo Bofill, Spanish [3]
cs:Borůvka (rozhledna)

(Blueberry (lookout tower))

100px 2005 Chrudim  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower Martin Novák and Antonín Olšina [4][5]

(TBZ Tower)

100px 2005 Zürich   Switzerland Hyperboloid observation tower Daniel Roth (artist), German The winner of a 2003 competition had his tower built on the roof of the Zürich's Technical Vocational School. Initially accessible, the observation tower has been closed indefinitely due to student mischief.
Aspire Tower

a.k.a. "The Torch Doha"

100px 2007 Doha  Qatar Hyperboloid skyscraper tower Hadi Simaan and AREP and engineer Ove Arup and Partners
BMW Welt

(BMW World)

100px 2007 Munich  Germany Hyperboloid building event venue and museum Viennese professor Wolf D. Prix and architect firm Coop Himmelb (l) au
Tornado Tower

a.k.a. the "QIPCO Tower"

100px 2008 Doha  Qatar Hyperboloid skyscraper tower

(Lörmecke Tower)

100px 2008 Warstein, Arnsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower Joh.-Ulrich Blecke and Dr. Ing. Michael Maas
cs:Slunečná (rozhledna)

(Sunny (lookout lower))

100px 2009 Velké Pavlovice  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower Ing. Martin Novák in cooperation with Ing. Antonín Olšina
Canton Tower

a.k.a. Guangzhou Tower

Canton Tower 2013.11.15 18-12-45.jpg 2010 Guangzhou  China Hyperboloid skyscraper tower Dutch architects Mark Hemel and Barbara Kuit of Information Based Architecture, together with Arup, the international design, engineering and business consulting firm headquartered in London The Canton Tower is in the Haizhu District of the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton), in Guangdong, China.[6]
Ferrari World Abu Dhabi 100px 2010 Yas Island in Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates Hyperboloid building the largest space frame structure ever built

(Jüberg Tower)

100px 2010 de:Jüberg, Hemer, Märkischer Kreis, Arnsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower Beat Müller and Katharina Schewe, Swiss + Birk and Heilmeyer, Stuttgart The first wooden hyperboloid tower structurally supported only by the outer wood framework.
Khan Shatyry Entertainment Center 100px 2010 Khan Shatyr, Astana  Kazakhstan Hyperboloid superstructure Norman Foster of Foster and Partners The highest tensile structure in the world.
Lee Valley VeloPark

a.k.a. London VeloPark

London Velopark, 16 April 2012.jpg 2011 Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, East London  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on cycling centre arena Hopkins Architects, Grant Associates
Mae West (sculpture) 100px 2011 Munich  Germany Hyperboloid public art sculpture Rita McBride
San Clan 100px 2012 Tankwa Karoo National Park  South Africa Hyperboloid public art sculpture tower A temporary tower and ephemeral effigy constructed to intentionally burn in celebration at AfrikaBurn 2012, a Burning Man regional event.
Tachov Vysoká

(Tachov High Lookout (Tower))

100px 2014 Tachov  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower Hysek architectural studio [7][8]
Warsaw Spire 100px 2016 Warsaw  Poland Hyperboloid skyscraper tower Jaspers-Eyers Architects and PROJEKT Polsko-Belgijska Pracownia Architektury The Warsaw Spire is a complex of Neomodern office buildings in Warsaw, Poland.
Camp Adventure (treetop experience (observation tower and walkway)) 2018 Gisselfeld Klosters forests, between Haslev and Næstved,  Denmark Hyperboloid observation tower EFFEKT Architects 45m spiral walkway.[9][10][11][12]
Les Essarts-le-Roi Château d'Eau

(Les Essarts-le-Roi Water Tower)

100px Les Essarts-le-Roi, Yvelines  France Hyperboloid water tower
Gen Coel Building 100px Heerlerheide, Heerlen  Netherlands Hyperboloid building public library, shopping, and community centre Utilizes geothermal mine water ("Mijnwater") heating and cooling.[13] See also: nl:Aardwarmte#Aardwarmte_uit_mijngangen.
Tempo (sculpture),

a.k.a. Samspel

Husnes  Norway Hyperboloid public art sculpture LEADinc Commissioned by Hydro Husnes, formerly Sør-Norge Aluminium AS.[14][15][16]
Sagrada Família 100px Barcelona  Spain Hyperboloid building cathedral vaults and windows Antoni Gaudí Under construction since 1882 with an estimated completion in 2026.
Crystal Island Moscow  Russia Hyperboloid superstructure Norman Foster of Foster and Partners Designed but never built. In 2009, due to the global economic crisis, financial backing for the project was lost, and construction of the project was postponed.
Vortex Tower London  United Kingdom Hyperboloid skyscraper tower Ken Shuttleworth Designed in 2012 but never built.

Gallery of more hyperbolic paraboloid structures

Gallery of more hyperboloid structures

Gallery of hyperboloid ship masts


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