List of inactive United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons

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While other nations have Marines who are aviators, only the United States Marine Corps has its own dedicated aviation arm.[1] Most squadrons have changed names and designations many times over the years so they are listed by their final designation.

Squadron designations

The basic tactical and administrative unit of United States Marine Corps Aviation is the squadron. Fixed-wing aircraft squadrons (heavier than air) are denoted by the letter "V," which comes from the French verb "Voler" (to fly). Rotary wing (helicopter) squadrons use "H." Marine squadrons are always noted by the second letter "M." Squadron numbering is not linear as some were numbered in ascending order and others took numbers from the wing or the ship to which they were assigned. From 1920 to 1941, Marine flying squadrons were identified by one digit numbers. This changed on July 1, 1941 when all existing squadrons were redesignated to a three-digit system. The first two numbers were supposed to identify the squadrons parent group but with the rapid expansion during the war and frequent transfer of squadrons this system fell apart.[2]

Inactive squadrons

Squadrons are listed by their designation at the time they were decommissioned.

Pre–World War II squadrons

Following World War I, Marine aviation was significantly reduced from 8 to 3 squadrons. Many of the squadrons were renamed and redesignated numerous times and many still exist today with other designations. The squadrons listed below reflect those squadrons that were deactivated prior to World War II and were never reconstituted in any form.

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VP-3M
Marine Patrol Squadron 3
No image.png
1931[3]
VO-6M
Marine Observation Squadron 6
No image.png
Hell Divers
1932[3]
VO-10M
Marine Observation Squadron 10
No image.png
April 1, 1931[3]
VS-14M
Marine Scouting Squadron 14
No image.png
July 1, 1933[3]
VS-15M
Marine Scouting Squadron 15
No image.png
July 1, 1933[3]
ZK-1M
1st Marine Barrage Balloon Squadron
No image.png
December 31, 1929[4]

Marine Reserve Scouting Squadrons

The Marine Aviation Reserve was inactive from 1918 through 1928.[5] When reconstituted the names and aircraft used by these squadrons changed frequently but their home duty stations remained constant. The aircraft for these squadrons were assigned to the reserve bases themselves and were shared with co-located Navy Reserve squadrons.[6] The squadrons were absorbed into the 1st and 2nd Marine Aircraft Wings and their identities lost when they were mobilized in December 1940.[3]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Location Date Inactivated
VMS-1R
No image.png
Boston, Massachusetts
December 1940[6]
VMS-2R
No image.png
Brooklyn, New York
December 1940[6]
VMS-3R
No image.png
Anacostia, D.C.
December 1940[6]
VMS-4R
No image.png
Miami, Florida
December 1940[6]
VMS-5R
No image.png
Black Knights
Grosse Ile, Michigan
December 1940[7]
VMS-6R
No image.png
Minneapolis, Minnesota
December 1940[6]
VMS-7R
No image.png
Long Beach, California
December 1940[6]
VMS-8R
No image.png
Oakland, California
December 1940[6]
VMS-9R
No image.png
Seattle, Washington
December 1940[6]
VMS-10R
No image.png
Kansas City, Kansas
December 1940[6]
VMS-11R
No image.png
Brooklyn, New York
December 1940[6]

Marine Barrage Balloon Squadrons

Squadrons flying lighter than air vehicles (balloons), were indicated by the letter Z in naval squadron designation.[8] The first use of balloons by the Marine Corps was during World War I when they were used for artillery spotting.[9] After the outbreak of World War II, the Navy authorized the Marine Corps to create barrage balloon squadrons for the air defense of advanced naval bases.[10] Balloon training was cancelled in the summer of 1943 and the remaining units were deactivated by the end of the year.[11]

Barrage balloon at Parris Island in May 1942
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
ZMQ-1
No image.png
December 15, 1943
ZMQ-2
No image.png
August 21, 1942
ZMQ-3
No image.png
December 9, 1943[12]
ZMQ-4
No image.png
February 20, 1943[13]
ZMQ-5
No image.png
December 5, 1943[13]
ZMQ-6
No image.png
December 8, 1943[13]

Marine Scout Bombing Squadrons

Scout bombing squadrons each had eighteen to twenty-four Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers and were tasked with conducting dive-bombing attacks and long range scouting and patrol missions. They also provided close air support, laid smoke screens and sprayed DDT around bases.[14] The majority of these squadrons were quickly deactivated following the end of World War II although three entered the Marine Air Reserve for a short period.

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMSB-243
40px
Flying Goldbricks
September 25, 1945[15]
VMSB-244
40px
Bombing Banshees
June 10, 1946[16]
VMSB-245
50px
Red Mousie
November 17, 1945[17]
VMSB-342
40px
Bats from Hell
October 10, 1944[18]
VMSB-343
40px
Gregory’s Gorillas
June 10, 1946[19]
VMSB-344
No image.png
October 10, 1944[20]
VMSB-474
No image.png
September 10, 1945[21]
VMSB-484
No image.png
September 10, 1945[22]
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMSB-931
No image.png
January 31, 1946[23]
VMSB-932
40px
Teufelhund
January 31, 1946[24]
VMSB-933
50px
September 10, 1945[24]
VMSB-934
No image.png
October 15, 1945[24]
VMSB-941
No image.png
October 10, 1944[24]
VMSB-942
No image.png
October 10, 1944[24]
VMSB-943
40px
January 31, 1946[24]
VMSB-944
No image.png
October 10, 1944[25]

Marine Torpedo Bombing Squadrons

VMTBs were torpedo bomber squadrons that operated the Grumman TBF Avenger. They were in service with the Marine Corps during World War II and were deactivated shortly after the war. They were part of the Cactus Air Force on Guadalcanal, served on escort carriers during the campaign to retake the Philippines and provided close air support for Australian forces on Borneo and Marines during the Battle of Okinawa.[26]

File:HendersonTBF.gif
Marine TBF on Guadalcanal, 1942
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMTB-151
45px
Ali Baba
March 20, 1946[27]
VMTB-341
40px
Torrid Turtles
September 13, 1945[28]
VMTB-454
40px
Helldivers
January 28, 1946[29]
VMTB-621
40px
March 10, 1945[29]
VMTB-622
50px
January 31, 1946[29]
VMTB-623
40px
March 20, 1946[29]
VMTB-624
40px
March 10, 1946[29]

Marine Fighting Squadrons

Marine Fighting Squadrons were multirole squadrons responsible for air-to-air combat, combat air patrols, attacking enemy shipping, escorting bombers and close air support.[30] By far the most numerous of any type of Marine Corps squadron, they first made their mark flying the Grumman F4F Wildcat as part of the Cactus Air Force on Guadalcanal and finished World War II flying the venerable Vought F4U Corsair. Many VMF squadrons continued to operate after the war with most in the Marine Air Reserve; however, with the retirement of the Vought F-8 Crusader the VMF squadrons either became VMFAs or were deactivated.

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMF-111
VMF111-DevilDogs.svg
Devil Dogs
October 22, 1965[31][32]
VMF-113
50px
Whistling Devils
October 22, 1965[31]
VMF(AW)-114
40px
Death Dealers
July 1, 1963[33]
VMF-123
40px
Eight Balls
Late 1950s[34]
VMF-132
45px
Crying Red Asses
Unknown
VMF-155
40px
Ready Teddys
October 15, 1945[9]
VMF-213
40px
Hell Hawks
mid-1970[35][36]
VMF-215
40px
Fighting Corsairs
January 30, 1970[37]
VMF-216
VMF-216 insignia.jpg
Bull Dogs
March 10, 1945[38]
VMF-218
40px
Hellions
early 1960s[9]
VMF-221
VMF-221 Fighting Falcons.jpg
Fighting Falcons
June 1959[39]
VMF-222
Vmf222a insig.jpg
Flying Deuces
December 31, 1949[39]
VMF-236
45px
Black Panthers
Late 1960s[40]
VMF-313
35px
Lily Packin’ Hellbirds
1950s[41]
VMF-413
45px
Shamrocks
January 1963[42]
VMF-422
50px
Flying Buccaneers
June 30, 1947[43]
VMF-441
40px
Blackjacks
June 1959[39]
VMF-452
VMF-452 WWII Logo.jpg
Sky Raiders
December 31, 1949[44]
VMF-471
40px
September 10, 1945[45]
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMF-472
40px
Flying Seahorses
December 24, 1945[46]
VMF-481
No image.png
September 10, 1945[46]
VMF-482
No image.png
October 10, 1944[46]
VMF-511
40px
August 31, 1972[47]
VMF-512
35px
March 10, 1946[48]
VMF-514
40px
The Whistling Death
December 9, 1945[49]
VMF-521
No image.png
September 10, 1945[49]
VMF-522
No image.png
September 10, 1945[50]
VMF-523
No image.png
October 15, 1945[50]
VMF-524
50px
October 15, 1945[50]
VMF-541
40px
The Bat Eyes
early 1960s[51]
VMF-911
40px
Devilcats
March 15, 1946[52]
VMF-912
No image.png
March 15, 1946[52]
VMF-913
No image.png
31 January 1946[53]
VMF-914
No image.png
January 31, 1946[53]
VMF-921
No image.png
October 10, 1944[53]
VMF-922
No image.png
October 10, 1944[53]
VMF-923
No image.png
October 10, 1944[53]
VMF-924
No image.png
October 10, 1944[53]

Marine Night Fighter Squadrons

After witnessing the Royal Air Force's success using radar directed fighters at night in 1941,[9] the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics authorized eight Marine night fighter squadrons to be formed by 1945.[54] This timeline was brought forward considerably after the attack on Pearl Harbor and their need proven by the frustration of the Cactus Air Force's pilots not being able to engage Japanese bombers at night during the Battle of Guadalcanal. This led to the formation of the first VMF(N) in November 1942. After much deliberation the Lockheed PV-1 Ventura was picked as the first choice of aircraft for these squadrons. The night fighting squadrons featured radar equipped aircraft, ground based radar and personnel that provided Ground-controlled interception (GCI). The VMF(N) designated squadrons were deactivated after the war as the night fighting mission was assumed by the fighter and attack communities.[55]

Lockheed PV-1 Ventura night fighter from VMF(N)-531, 1943.
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMF(N)-532
40px
Night Fighters
May 31, 1947[56]
VMF(N)-534
40px
May 31, 1947[56]
VMF(N)-544
40px
April 20, 1946[56]

Marine Bombing Squadrons

The Marine Bombing Squadrons were formed during World War II to fill the need for a long range, land based bomber that could be used against enemy shipping and submarines. In the Pacific Theater, the squadrons served ashore as a garrison air force to attack bypassed Japanese bases and other installations. The VMBs flew the North American PBJ-1 Mitchell, which was the naval version of the B-25 Mitchell. Sixteen of these squadrons were commissioned with seven serving in combat, four never able to leave the U.S. due to the war ending and four others converted to VMTB squadrons.[57] The seven PBJ squadrons that saw combat in the Pacific suffered the loss of 45 aircraft, 26 in combat and 19 in non-combat operations, and 173 crew, 62 officers and 111 enlisted men.[58]

File:MarshallIslands.jpg
A convoy sails under the watchful eyes of three of VMB-613's crews
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMB-423
50px
Seahorses
November 30, 1945[59][60]
VMB-433
50px
Fork-Tailed Devils
November 30, 1945[61]
VMB-443
55px
Wildcats
November 30, 1945[62]
VMB-453
No image.png
March 20, 1946[57]
VMB-473
No image.png
March 20, 1946[57]
VMB-483
No image.png
March 15, 1945[57]
VMB-611
45px
Black Seahorse
November 30, 1945[63]
VMB-612
50px
Cram's Rams
March 15, 1946[64]
VMB-613
45px
November 21, 1945[57]
VMB-614
40px
Ruptured Ducks
December 28, 1945

Marine Operational Training Squadrons

All of these squadrons were activated at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina in February 1945 as medium bomber pilot training units. They instructed Marines learning to fly the North American PBJ-1 Mitchell. Following the end of the war they were quickly deactivated.[65]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
MOTS-811
40px
September 10, 1945[66]
MOTS-812
40px
September 10, 1945[66]
MOTS-813
40px
23 November 1945[66]
MOTS-814
40px
30 November 1945[66]

Marine Photographic Squadrons

Marine photographic squadrons were first formed in 1942 and went through numerous name changes while they were active. VMDs/VMPs flew photographic modified versions of the Douglas SBD Dauntless, Consolidated PB4Y-1 Liberator, Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer and Grumman F7F Tigercat. The main mission of these squadrons was to conduct long range, very high-altitude photographic reconnaissance.[67]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMD-154
45px
Pathfinders
September 10, 1945[68]
VMP-254
No image.png
November 30, 1949[69]
VMP-354
45px
December 8, 1949[70]
VMD-954
50px
January 31, 1946[25]

Marine Glider Squadron

The Marine Corps established a glider program in April 1942. Eventually they set goals of having 10,800 Marines qualified as glider infantry, with 1,371 gliders and 3,436 pilots.[71] They originally operated from Page Field on MCRD Parris Island but later moved to Marine Corps Air Station Eagle Mountain Lake outside Dallas, Texas.[72] The program was disbanded in 1943 when it was determined that glider assaults into small, heavily fortified, jungle islands would be tactically unfeasible.[73]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VML-711
No image.png
May 24, 1943

Marine Transport Squadrons

Flying the Douglas R4D Skytrain and the Curtiss R5C-1 Commando, these squadrons were responsible for movings troops and cargo,aerial resupply, delivery of Paramarines and medical evacuation.The last of these squadrons was deactivated in 1949.[74]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMR-152
40px
1950s[75]
VMR-153
30px
1949[75]
VMR-353
40px
February 15, 1946[76]
VMR-952
35px
May 31, 1947[77]
VMR-953
35px
Puss in Boots
May 31, 1947[78]

Marine Scouting Squadrons

There were three Marine Scouting Squadrons prior to World War II; however, VMS-3 was the only squadron to retain the designation. The squadron served in Haiti from 1919 through 1934 and then spent its last ten years at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. During World War II they were the only Marine Corps squadron to operate east of the United States. They began the war flying the Grumman J2F Duck, transitioned to the Naval Aircraft Factory/Vought OS2N Kingfisher and at the time of deactivation were flying SBD Dauntless dive bombers.[67]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMS-3
40px
Devilbirds
May 20, 1944[79]

Marine Target Towing Detachments

Marine Target Towing detachments were first formed at Marine Corps Air Station Ewa in October 1944. They were responsible for towing targets for antiaircraft gunnery and radar tracking practice. They flew Martin JM-1 Marauders and the Curtiss R5C-1 Commandos. The last of these detachments was deactivated in March 1946.[74]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMJ-1
No image.png
October, 1945
VMJ-2
50px
March 6, 1946[80]
VMJ-3
45px
Red Asses
October 21, 1945[79]

Marine Observation Squadrons

The Marine observation squadrons were formed during the latter stages of World War II with the primary mission of forward air control of strike aircraft for close air support and air interdiction.[81] They saw extensive service during the Vietnam War flying the North American OV-10 Bronco. The Marine Corps began decommissioning the VMO squadrons following their participation in Operation Desert Storm as propeller driven aircraft were seen as too dangerous to fly on the modern battlefield. Their mission has been assumed by the VMFA(AW) squadrons.

OV-10 Bronco of VMO-1
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMO-1
40px
July 31, 1993
VMO-2
40px
Cherry Deuce
May 20, 1993
VMO-4
Vmo4 insig.jpg
Evil Eyes
March 31, 1994
VMO-6
40px
Tomcats
January 1, 1976[82][83]
VMO-7
No image.png
November 16, 1945
VMO-8
40px
July 1976

Marine Attack Squadrons

In 1951, the Marine Corps began fielding the Douglas AD-1 Skyraider ground attack aircraft which had as its main role close air support for the Marines on the ground. Thus many squadrons had their designation changed from VMF to VMA to reflect this ground attack role. 13 squadrons were equipped with the Skyraider until they were finally phased out in 1958.[84] Follow on VMA squadrons operated the A-4 Skyhawk during the Vietnam War through their retirement just after Operation Desert Storm. The VMA tradition is carried on today by squadrons flying the AV-8B Harrier II.

Douglas OA-4M Skyhawk of MAG-32
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMA-131
40px
Diamondbacks
December 5, 1998[85]
VMA-133
50px
Dragons
30 September 1992
VMA-141
40px
VMA-143
45px
Rocket Raiders
VMA-144
40px
Hensagliska
VMA-217
40px
Max’s Wild Hares
1964
VMA-233
40px
Flying Deadheads
1969
VMA-241
40px
Sons of Satan
VMA-322
VMA322.gif
Fighting Gamecocks
June 27, 1992[86]
VMA-324
35px
Devildogs
29 August 1974[87]
VMA-331
40px
Bumblebeess
October 1, 1992
VMA-543
45px
Night Hawks
April 1, 1974

Marine Reconnaissance Squadron

Marine Reconnaissance Squadron 4 was the only reserve photographic reconnaissance squadron in the Marine Corps. Initially based in Naval Air Station New Orleans, Louisiana they moved to Naval Air Station Olathe, Kansas May 1, 1967 and then again to Naval Air Station Dallas, Texas in 1970 when the reserves where reorganized. They flew Vought RF-8A Crusader until 1969 when all the planes where replaced with the Vought RF-8G Crusader.[47]

File:F3D-2Q F8U-1P VMCJ-3 NAN1-76.jpg
RF-8A and EF-10B of VMCJ-3.
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMJ-4
No image.png
1973

Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadrons

Following the Korean War Marine Composite Squadron 1 (VMC-1) and Marine Photographic Squadron 1 (VMJ-1) were combined to form VMCJ-1. The new squadron was responsible for both Photoreconnaissance and Electronic Warfare. In its early years it flew the Vought RF-8A Crusader and Douglas EF-10B Skyknight but these were later replaced by the McDonnell-Douglas RF-4B Phantom II and the Grumman EA-6A Electric Intruder. The squadron was deactivated following the end of the Vietnam War and the reorganization of the Marine Corps' composite community in 1975.[88]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMCJ-1
45px
Golden Hawks
September 1975

Marine Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron

Upon the decommissioning of the Marine Composite Squadrons (VMCJs), VMFP-3 became the lone photographic reconnaissance squadron in the Marine Corps.[89] They flew the McDonnell-Douglas RF-4B Phantom II and operated from 1975 until being decommissioned in 1990. Their capability has since been replaced by various targeting pods used on Marine aircraft and the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System which is found in some of the McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet squadrons.[90]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMFP-3
40px
Eyes of the Corps
September 3, 1990

Marine Fighter Attack Squadrons

The first Marine Corps squadron to be redesignated a VMFA was in June 1962 upon receipt of the first McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom II aircraft. VMF and VMA squadrons were redesignated because the new Phantoms could be both fighter aircraft and ground attack aircraft.[91] These squadrons were heavily deployed during the Vietnam War. Most of these squadrons would eventually convert to the McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet with the last F-4 Phantom leaving service in 1992.[92] The end of the Cold War saw the deactivation of some VMFA squadrons as part of the overall drawdown of the US Military[93]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMFA-124
40px
Whistling Death
19 June 1999[94]
VMFA-134
40px
Smoke
April 1, 2007[95]
VMFA-142
40px
Gators
July 2008[96]
VMFA-212
50px
Lancers
March 11, 2008[97]
VMFA-235
40px
Death Angels
June 14, 1996[98]
VMFA-321
40px
Hells Angels
September 30, 2004[99]
VMFA-333
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 333 (USMC) insignia c1975.png
Fighting Shamrocks
March 31, 1992[100]
VMFA-334
40px
Falcons
December 30, 1971[47]
VMFA-351
50px
1978[101]
VMFA-531
40px
Grey Ghosts
April 27, 1992[102]

Marine All-Weather Fighter Attack Squadron

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMFA(AW)-332
50px
Moonlighters
March 30, 2007[103]

Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadrons

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
HMH-769
40px
Titan
August 2, 2008
HMH-777
40px
Flying Armadillos
1980[104]

Marine Medium Helicopter Squadrons

The original Marine Medium Helicopter squadrons flew the Sikorsky UH-34D Sea Horse, which shortly after its inception saw extensive combat during the Vietnam War.[105] Beginning in 1966 they began to be replaced with the CH-46 Sea Knight which was faster, could carry more troops and is still in service today.[106] The decommissioned HMM squadrons reflect the UH-34D training squadron and various reserve squadrons.

UH-34D Sea Horse
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
HMM-761
No image.png
August 31, 1962
HMM-762
No image.png
December 31, 1962[104]
HMM-763
No image.png
September 30, 1962
HMM-766
45px
Beavers
October 1, 1976
HMM-768
40px
1976

Marine Light Helicopter Squadrons

Bell UH-1N Huey from HML-770
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
HML-765
50px
June 30, 1976
HML-767
50px
Nomads
August 1, 1994
HMM-770
45px
Stingers
1980/81
HML-771
45px
Hummers
August 1, 1994[107]
HML-776
40px
Gangsters
July 1, 1994

Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadrons

The Marine Corps’ light attack squadrons (HMLAs) are composite squadrons usually made up of 12 Bell AH-1W Cobras and 6 Bell UH-1N Hueys. The primary missions of the Cobra is close air support, forward air control, reconnaissance and armed escort,[108] while the Huey provided airborne command and control, utility support, supporting arms coordination and medical evacuation. These squadrons were first formed during the Vietnam War with the fielding of the Bell AH-1 Cobra gunship and its being combined in the same squadron with the UH-1H Iroquois that initially belonged to the Marine Corps' VMO squadrons. The majority of these squadrons are still active today in the Operating Forces today[109]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
HMLA-775
50px
Coyotes
September 6, 2008

Training squadrons

Grumman TC-4C Academe from VMAT(AW)-202
Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Date Inactivated
VMAT-20
Marine Attack Training Squadron
40px
[110]
VMAT-102
Marine Attack Training Squadron
40px
Skyhawks
1 October 1987[111]
VMT-103
Marine Training Squadron
40px
Sky Chickens
VMFAT-201
Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron
40px
Hawks
September 30, 1974[112]
VMAT(AW)-202
Marine All-Weather Attack Training Squadron
40px
Double Eagles
1990[113]
VMGRT-253
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Training Squadron
Vmgrt253.jpg
Titans
September 14, 2006[114]
HMT-301
Marine Helicopter Training Squadron
40px
Windwalkers
June 3, 2005[115]
HMHT-401
Marine Heavy Helicopter Training Squadron
40px
May 1, 1972
HMMT-402
Marine Medium Helicopter Training Squadron
40px
May 1, 1972

See also

Notes

  1. Shettle USMC Air Stations of WWII, p.9.
  2. Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.397.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.387.
  4. Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.399.
  5. Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.386.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 Ghormley, Robert (1940). "Organization and Designation of Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Aircraft Squadrons" (PDF). Naval Aeronautic Organization - Fiscal Year 1940 - Change No. 1. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Retrieved 2007-03-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "The Depression Years". The Depression years at NASGI. United States Navy Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-03-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Bats in Military Service". Bathead. Scott Pedersen. Retrieved 2007-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Sherrod, Robert (1952). History of Marine Corps Aviation in WWII. Washington: Combat Forces Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-933852-58-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Shettle USMC Air Stations of WWII, p.19.
  11. Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.410.
  12. "Chapter VIII: Cactuc Bound". HyperWar: The Amphibians Came to Conquer. Dyer, George C. Retrieved 2007-03-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.450.
  14. Rottman USMC WWII OOB, p.405.
  15. Millstein USMC Aviation Unit Insignia, p.65.
  16. "1st Marine Airwing - Mag 24 - VMSB-244 - Bombing Banshees". Retrieved 2007-03-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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