List of landslides

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This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km3) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of MCM) for most events.

Prehistoric landslides

Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Comments Sources
21-22 Ma Southwest Utah, USA Markagunt gravity slide 37.7N 112.83W ~1700–2000 km3 [1][2]
48 Ma Heart Mountain, Wyoming Heart Mountain slide ~2000 km3 Mostly eroded now [2][3]
Late Pleistocene British Columbia Cheekye Fan Collapse of the western flank of Mount Garibaldi
≈ 10,000 BCE Saidmarreh, Iran Saidmarreh landslide 33N 47.65E 20 km3 [4]
10,000 BP Switzerland Flims Rockslide 9 km3 [5]
≈ 200 BCE North Island, New Zealand 2.2 km3 Dammed Lake Waikaremoana [6][7]

Submarine landslides

Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Comments Sources
Less than 2.6 Ma off South Africa Agulhas Slide 20,000 km3 The largest so far described [8]
ca. 170,000 BP off North Island, New Zealand Ruatoria debris avalanche 3,000 km3 [9]
ca. 8,000 BP Norwegian Sea Storegga Slide 64.87 1.3 3,500 km3 Triggered a large tsunami that swept over the Shetland and Orkney Islands [10]
18 Nov 1929 Grand Banks of Newfoundland 1929 Grand Banks earthquake 44.54 -56.01 200 km3 Broke 12 submarine communications cables, while the tsunami killed 28 people on the Burin Peninsula.

Pre-20th-century historic landslides

Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
25 Nov 1248 Mont Granier, France 45.46 5.93 1000+ Destroyed five villages.
2 Sep 1806 Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland Goldau Rockslide 47.05 8.55 40 MCM 457 Destroyed four villages and caused a tsunami in Lake Lauerz [11]
24 Dec 1839 Lyme Regis, Dorset The Undercliff One of a series of slumps
1855–1866 British Columbia Collapse of The Barrier
1881 Qiaojia County, Yunnan, China Shigaodi Landslide 530 MCM Formed dam on Jinsha River [12]
19 Sep 1889 Cap Diamant, Quebec Québec rockslide 46.485 -71.21 >40 [13]

20th-century landslides


Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
29 Apr 1903 Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada Frank Slide 49.59 -114.39 30 MCM ~70 [14]
18 Feb 1911 Usoy, Tajikistan Usoi Dam 2 km3 54 Triggered by M 7.4 earthquake. The rockslide dammed the Murgab River, impounding 65-km- long Lake Sarez,which presently still exists. [15]
1914 Neuquén and Mendoza, Argentina Rio Barrancas & Rio Colorado debris flow 2 MCM 190 - 300 Two small towns were devastated, and numerous ranches and farms destroyed along a 60-km- long valley. Length of flow: 300 km [15]
19 May 1919 Kelud, East Java, Indonesia Kelut Lahars 5110 Lahars caused 5,110 deaths, and destroyed or damaged 104 villages. Length 185 km. [15]
16 Dec 1920 Haiyuan County, Ningxia, China 1920 Haiyuan earthquake >100,000 Loess flows and landslides over an area of 50,000 km². Failures in loess caused extreme fissuring, landslide dams, and buried villages. [15]
1920 Veracruz, Mexico Rio Huitzilapan debris flows est. 600-870 Debris flows destroyed village of Barranca Grande, and were 40 to 65 m deep. Debris flows extended >40 km. Triggered by M~6.5 earthquake. [15]
1921 Almaty, Kazakhstan Alma-Ata Debris Flows ~500 A debris flow in the Valley of Alma-Atinka River destroyed the town of Alma-Ata. [15]
26 Mar 1924 Amalfi Coast, Italy ~100 A series of major landslides after 18 hours of heavy rain [16]
23 Jun 1925 Gros Ventre Wilderness, Wyoming Gros Ventre landslide 43.62 110.55 38 MCM 6 (when the dam failed in 1927) Blocked the Gros Ventre River, forming a 70 m high dam [17]
9 Mar 1929 Arthur's Pass, South Island The Falling Mountain landslide -42.89 171.68 66 MCM Very rapid rock avalanche triggered by the 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake [18]
25 Aug 1933 Diexi, Mao County, Sichuan, China 1933 Diexi earthquake 150 MCM ~3100 The largest landslide formed a 255-m high landslide dam on the Min River. This landslide killed all but one of the 577 people in the town of Deixi. The dam then overtopped, causing a flood and 2,500 deaths. [15]
5 Jul 1938 Kwansai, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan ~1000 Many landslides occurred on the slopes of Mount Rokko, 130,000 homes damaged or destroyed by landslides and floods. [15][19]
13 Dec 1941 Huaraz, Ancash, Peru Huaraz debris flow >10 MCM 4,000-6,000 Caused by rupture of a moraine dam impounding a lake, temporarily dammed the Santa River, after 2 days that failed and the flood swept down the valley to the coast. [15][20]
16 Aug 1945 Mantaro Valley, Peru Kuntur Sinqa rockslide 5.5 MCM none from landslide The rockslide formed a 100m high dam at Rio Mantaro, which failed after 73 days, causing a flood. [15]
19 Dec 1945 Alcalá del Júcar, Albacete, Spain 16 Worst rockfall to hit the municipality in the 20th century [21]
18 Sep 1948 Assam, India Guwahati landslide ~500 Triggered by heavy rain [22]
10 Jul 1949 Gharm Oblast, Tajikistan Khait landslide, Yasman valley flowslide 39.17 70.90 75 MCM
245 MCM
~4,000(7,200 for all the landslides)
Triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, largest of several landslides [23]


Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
1953 Wakayama Prefecture, Japan Arida River landslides 1,046 Multiple slides due to typhoon. Many landslide dams were formed and subsequently failed in the Arid-Kawa valley. [15]
1953 Minamiyamashiro, Sōraku District, Kyoto, Japan Minamiyamashiro landslides 336 dead or missing 5,122 homes were destroyed or badly damaged by landslides and floods. [15]
12 Jul 1954 Media Luna, Colombia Santa Elena landslide >100 Mudflow triggered by heavy rain [24]
26 Oct 1954 Salerno, Amalfi Coast ≈ 300 504 mm rain fell in 16 hours, causing soil slides & debris flows [25]
1958 Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan Kanogawa landslides 1,094 19,754 homes were destroyed or badly damaged. [15]
8 Jul 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami 30 MCM 2 Caused by M 7.5 earthquake, the landslide caused a 524m-high megatsunami in Lituya Bay. [26]
22 May 1960 Riñihue Lake, Chile Riñihuazo -39.84 -72.29 ≈ 40 MCM A series of landslides triggered by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, blocked outflow of Riñihue Lake, causing it to rise more than 20 metres, actions taken to lower the water level prevented repeat of a disastrous flood after the great 1575 earthquake. [20]
10 Jan 1962 Ranrahirca, Peru 1962 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche -9.12 -77.6 13 MCM 4,000 - 5,000 An avalanche of ice and rock triggered by collapse of part of a hanging glacier [20]
9 Oct 1963 Longarone, Italy Vajont landslide 46.27 12.33 270 MCM ≈ 2,000 Landslide caused by heavy rains and drawdown of the Vajont Dam reservoir. Casualties and damage caused by tsunami generated by landslide into reservoir. [27]
27 Mar 1964 Seward, Alaska, United States 1964 Alaska earthquake 211 MCM at Seward, 9.6 MCM at Turnagain Heights 106 from tsunami caused by Seward landslide M 9.2 earthquake caused submarine landslide at Seward, and large landslides in Anchorage [15]
9 Jan 1965 British Columbia Hope Slide 49.40 121.26 48 MCM 4 Triggered by a small earthquake [28]
28 Mar 1965 El Cobre, Chile El Cobre landslide >200 Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine, the resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre. [29]
1965 Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan, China Pufu Landslide 450 MCM Created a dam on the Pufuguo Stream, which later failed [12]
21 Oct 1966 Aberfan, Wales Aberfan disaster 51.69 3.35 144 Collapse of an unstable colliery spoil-tip built over a series of springs, was triggered by heavy rain, killing nearly half the children at the village school.
18 Feb 1967 Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro -22.97 -43.20 110 Worst single event in a series of landslides caused by very heavy rain in the area around Rio de Janeiro in the summers of 1966 and 1967. A high-velocity debris avalanche struck three buildings, two of them apartment buildings. The preceding rainfall fell at up to 100 mm per hour. [20]
18 Mar 1967 Caraguatatuba, Brazil -23.85 -46.63 7.6 MCM 120 Followed heavy rain, 420 mm /24 h [30]
9 Jul 1967 Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan 34.25 132.57 159 Heavy rain from Typhoon Billie caused flooding and many landslides, destroying 352 buildings and damaging 551 roads [31]
18 Aug 1968 Hida River, Gero, Japan 35.45 137.05 104 Triggered by a rainstorm, this debris flow swept two buses off the road, where they were stopped because of an earlier landslide [32]
3–5 Oct 1968 Darjeeling, India 'thousands' Floods caused by rainfall of 500–1,000 mm, triggered many landslides, a 60 km long highway was cut in 92 places [33][34]
19–20 Aug 1969 Nelson County, Virginia, USA 150 (includes deaths from flooding) Remnants of Hurricane Camille gave at least 710 mm of rain in about 8 hours, triggering numerous debris flows [35]
31 May 1970 Yungay, Peru 1970 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche -9.12 -77.6 50-100 MCM >22,000 Triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake, the mass travelled 14.5 km at an average velocity of about 300 km/h and buried Yungay [20][36]
18 Mar 1971 Chungar, Peru Chungar avalanche and tsunami -11.12 -76.53 0.1 MCM 400-600 A rock avalanche from a limestone outcrop fell into Yanawayin Lake causing a wave that devastated a mining camp [20][37]
4 May 1971 Saint-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, Canada Saint-Jean-Vianney landslide 48.47 -71.22 6.9 MCM 31 This slide occurred in quick clay following heavy rain, destroying 41 homes [38][39]
6 Jul 1972 Amakusa, Japan Amakusa disaster Multiple slope failures caused by heavy rainfall [40]
12–13 Jul 1972 Obara, Shikoku, Japan Obara landslides 64 218 mm of rain in 5 hours triggered many landslides [41][42]
Apr 1974 Junín Region, Peru Mayunmarca Landslide 1.0 to 1.6 km3 450 Rockslide dammed Río Mantaro. Slide velocity estimated at 120–140 km/hr [43]
22 Jul 1975 Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada Devastation Glacier landslide 0.013 km3 4 Triggered by the collapse of a glacially debuttressed slope, descended Devastation Creek. [44][45]


Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
30 Nov 1977 Tuve, Gothenburg, Sweden Tuve landslide 57.75 11.94 3–4 MCM 9 The most severe landslide in the modern history of Sweden, triggered by heavy rain [46]
29 Apr 1978 Rissa, Norway Rissa landslide 63.55 9.94 5–6 MCM 1 Quick clay flowed suddenly into Botn lake, causing a small tsunami on the opposite shore [47]
8 Aug 1979 Abbotsford, Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand 1979 Abbotsford landslip -45.897 170.435 5 MCM 0 Heavy rain triggered a landslide on an unstable slope, made worse by sand quarrying at the base of the slope, destroying 69 houses [48]
18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens, Washington, United States 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens 46.200278 -122.186667 2.9 km3 57 The largest landslide in recorded history. Unplugged the volcanic vent, triggering the eruption. Deaths were from both the landslide and the eruption. [2]
Apr 1983 Thistle, Utah, United States Thistle, Utah landslide ~15 MCM 0 Costliest landslide in United States history; damage estimated at $200–400 million (1983 dollars). Landslide formed lake over 160 feet (49 m) deep before draining. [49]
5 Oct 1985 Portugués Urbano district, Ponce, Puerto Rico Mameyes landslide 129 120 houses destroyed, greatest death toll in North American history from a single landslide. [50][51]
13 Nov 1985 Armero, Tolima Department, Colombia Armero tragedy -5.03 -74.88 23,000 A minor eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano caused melting of its ice cap. This released a series of lahars, volcanic mudflows, that traveled at speeds of up to 50 km/h down the slopes of the volcano. These lahars swiftly moved into valleys, merging to form larger flows, one of which destroyed the town of Armero. [20]
28 Jul 1987 Valtellina, Lombardy, Italian Alps Val Pola landslide 34 MCM 29 Triggered by rapid erosion at the base of a mountain slope, created a wave that travelled 2.7 km upstream [52]
3–5 Jun 1993 Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England Holbeck Hall Hotel landslide ~0.5 MCM 0 Classic rotational failure along sea cliffs, resulting court case set important precedent in English law [53][54]
21 Oct 1993 Pantai Remis, Perak, Malaysia Pantai Remis landslide 0 Slope failure of an open pit tin mine near the sea resulted in forming a new cove measuring approximately 0.5 by 0.5 km.
4 Mar 1995 La Conchita, California, United States La Conchita Landslide of 1995 1.3 MCM 0 [55]
30 Jul 1997 Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia 1997 Thredbo landslide 18 A leaking water pipe caused a slope failure that destroyed a ski lodge [56]
1998–1999 Kelso, Washington, United States Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide 0 Slow-moving landslide which resulted in the condemnation of 137 houses, and $40 million in damage. [57]
14–16 Dec 1999 Vargas, Venezuela Vargas tragedy 30,000 Caused by a heavy storm that deposited 911 mm of rain in a few days [58]
12 Jul 2000 Mumbai, India 2000 Mumbai landslide 19.09 72.90 78 Caused by land erosion following heavy rains and flooding [59]

21st century landslides

Date Place Name/article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
9 Nov 2001 Amboori, Kerala, India 40 Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history. [60][61]
26 Mar 2004 Mount Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 200-300 MCM 32 Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall [62][63][64]
10 Jan 2005 La Conchita, California, United States 2005 La Conchita landslide 200,000 m3 10 Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow. [55]
17 Feb 2006 Southern Leyte, Philippines 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide 15 MCM 1126 Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten-day period of heavy rain [65]
11 Jun 2007 Chittagong, Bangladesh 2007 Chittagong mudslides 123 Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains [66][67]
6 Sep 2008 Cairo, Egypt 2008 Cairo landslide 119 Rockfall from cliffs, individual boulders up to 70 tonnes [68]
9 Aug 2009 Siaolin Village, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Siaolin mudslide 30–45 MCM 439-600 Resulted from Typhoon Morakot. [69][70][71]
4 Jan 2010 Attabad, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Hunza Valley landslide 30 MCM 20 Formed Attabad Lake by damming Hunza River, blocked Karakoram Highway [72][73]
20 Feb 2010 Madeira Island, Portugal 2010 Madeira floods and mudslides 42 [74]
1 Mar 2010 Bududa District, Uganda 2010 Ugandan landslide 100-300 [75]
10 May 2010 Saint-Jude, Quebec 4 [76]
23 May 2010 Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi, China 2010 Jiangxi derailment 0 The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region. [77][78][79]
6 Aug 2010 Meager Creek, British Columbia, Canada Meager landslide 40 MCM 0 Second-largest landslide in Canada history [80]
8 Aug 2010 Gansu, China 2010 Gansu mudslide 1,287 [81]
10 Apr 2013 Salt Lake City, Utah, United States Bingham Canyon Mine landslide 40.523°N 112.151°W 55 MCM 0 Possibly the largest historic, non-volcanic, terrestrial landslide in North America. [82][83][84]
16 Jun 2013 Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India 2013 North India floods 5,700
22 Mar 2014 Oso, Washington, United States 2014 Oso mudslide 48.283°N 121.847°W 10 MCM (early estimate) 43 49 structures destroyed or affected [85][86]
2 May 2014 Argo District, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan 2014 Badakhshan mudslides 350-500 reported 4,000 people displaced [87]
As of 4 May 2014
30 Jul 2014 Malin, Ambegaon taluka, Pune district, Maharashtra, India 2014 Malin landslide 19°9′40″N 73°41′18″E 136 100+ missing [88]
2 Aug 2014 Sunkoshi, Sindhupalchok District, Nepal 2014 Sunkoshi blockage 5.5 MCM 156+ [89]
20 Aug 2014 Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan 2014 Hiroshima landslides 50+ 38+ missing, deadliest landslides in Japan in 42 years [90][91]
29 Oct 2014 Badulla District, Sri Lanka 2014 Badulla landslide 100+ 300+ feared dead. Hundreds more missing [92][93]
13 Dec 2014 Jemblung village, Java, Indonesia 2014 Indonesia landslide 32+ 76+ missing [94][95]
23 Apr 2015 Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan 2015 Badakhshan landslides 52
28 Apr 2015 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil 2015 Bahia landslide 14
18 May 2015 Salgar, Antioquia Department Colombia 2015 Colombian landslide 78 37 missing [96]
As of 20 May 2015
1 October 2015 El Cambray Dos, Guatemala Department, Guatemala 2015 Guatemala landslide 220 350 missing.
13 November 2015 Lidong Village, Zhejiang, China 38 [97]


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