List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games

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Flagbearers for each of the participating nations at the I Olympic Winter Games (1924) recite the athlete's oath.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Winter Olympic Games between 1924 and 2014. The Winter Olympic Games have been held every four years (once during each Olympiad) since 1924, except for the cancelled Games of 1940 and 1944, and in 1994 when the Winter Games were moved to the middle of the Olympiad, two years after the previous Games. 119 NOCs (110 of the current 204 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and twelve nations (Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-two Winter Games to date. Including continuity from Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also been represented in every edition.

History

Origin and early Games

The first winter sport to be contested at the modern Olympic Games was figure skating at the 1908 Games in London. A total of 21 skaters from six countries (Argentina, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Russia, and the United States) competed in four events on October 28–29.[1] Skating was not in the program of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Ice hockey was also part of the 1920 program of events, with seven teams competing.[2]

The first Winter Games were held in 1924, in Chamonix, France. They were originally called International Winter Sports Week and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, but were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games.[3] Sixteen nations participated in these Games: fourteen from Europe and two from North America.[4] Four years later, 25 nations were represented at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in St. Moritz, Switzerland, including Argentina (the first nation from the Southern Hemisphere), Japan (the first Asian nation), and Mexico.[5] Participation in the 1932 Games, held in Lake Placid, United States, during the Great Depression, was reduced to 17 nations.[6] The 1936 Winter Games, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, had 28 participating nations, the largest number to that date.[7] These would be the last Winter Games for twelve years, as the planned 1940 Games and 1944 Games were cancelled due to World War II.[8]

Post-war years and Cold War era

After the war, 28 nations would return to St. Moritz for the 1948 Winter Olympics, but not Germany or Japan, who were not invited because of their roles in the war.[9] The 1952 Winter Games in Oslo, Norway, featured 30 participating nations.[10] The 1956 Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, marked the Winter Games debut of the Soviet Union, along with 31 other nations.[11] The NOCs of East Germany and West Germany would be represented by a single German team, an arrangement that would continue until 1964.[12] Thirty nations would participate at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States,[13] including South Africa, the first African nation to participate in the Winter Games. Thirty-six nations were represented in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1964.[14]

The 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, marked the first time that East Germany and West Germany competed as independent teams, two of the 37 nations that took part.[15] The Games of 1972 were held in Sapporo, Japan, the first time the Winter Games were held outside of Europe or the United States. A total of 35 nations were represented, including the Philippines, the first appearance by a southeast Asian nation.[16] The Winter Games returned to Innsbruck, in 1976, with 37 participating nations.[17]

Lake Placid was once again the site of the Winter Games, in 1980, with 37 competing nations.[18] The People's Republic of China made their Olympic debut but, in response, the Republic of China boycotted the Games, after participating in 1972 and 1976. Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia was host to the 1984 Winter Olympics, which welcomed 49 nations.[19] Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were the first two Caribbean NOCs to compete in the Winter Games. Several more tropical nations would participate at the 1988 Winter Olympics, in Calgary, Canada, including the famed Jamaican Bobsled Team.[20]

Recent Games

The post-Cold War events of the early 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympics. At the 1992 Games, in Albertville, France, a total of 64 NOCs were represented, including a single Germany team—following the German reunification in 1990—and a Unified Team composed of six of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union.[21] The Baltic states competed independently for the first time since 1936, and some of the ex-Yugoslav nations started to compete independently in 1992.

In October 1986, the IOC had voted to hold the Olympic Winter Games half-way through the four-year Olympiad, rather than in the same year as the summer Games,[22] and this change started with the XVIIth Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. A total of 67 nations took part, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia as independent teams, and each of the ex-Soviet nations.[23]

The Winter Games have continued to grow in the recent past, with 72 nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics, in Nagano, Japan,[24] 77 nations at the 2002 Winter Olympics, in Salt Lake City, United States,[25] 80 nations at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy,[26] 82 nations at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada,[27] and a record 88 nations at the 2014 Games in Sochi, Russia.[28]

List of nations

Description

This list includes 119 NOCs (110 of the current 204 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs),[29] arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games.[30]

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history; these are explained by footnotes linked within the table itself. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by links within the table itself. A select number of historical nations are also included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations:

Table legend

24   In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1924 through 2014
Participated in the specified Games
H Host nation for the specified Games
[A] Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
  The planned Games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to World War II
  NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V Y Z Total

A

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Albania ALB 3
 Algeria ALG 3
 American Samoa ASA 1
 Andorra AND 11
 Argentina ARG 18
 Armenia ARM see Soviet Union EUN 6
 Australia AUS 18
 Austria AUT H H 22
 Azerbaijan AZE see Soviet Union 5

B

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Belarus BLR see Soviet Union EUN 6
 Belgium BEL 20
 Bermuda BER 7
 Bolivia BOL 5
 Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH see Yugoslavia 6
 Brazil BRA 7
 British Virgin Islands IVB 2
 Bulgaria BUL 19

C

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Cameroon CMR 1
 Canada CAN H H 22
 Cayman Islands CAY 2
 Chile CHI 16
 China, People's Republic of CHN 10
 Chinese TaipeiTPE[›] TPE 11
 Colombia COL 1
 Costa Rica CRC [C] 6
 Croatia CRO see Yugoslavia 7
 Cyprus CYP 10
 Czech Republic CZE see Czechoslovakia 6
 CzechoslovakiaTCH[›] TCH 16

D

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Denmark DEN 13
 Dominica DMA 1

E

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Egypt EGY 1
 Estonia EST [A] see Soviet Union 9
 Ethiopia ETH 2

F

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Fiji FIJ 3
 Finland FIN 22
 France FRA H H H 22

G

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Georgia GEO see Soviet Union 6
 GermanyGER[›] GER H 11
 East GermanyGER[›] GDR see EUA 6
 West GermanyGER[›] FRG see EUA 6
 United Team of GermanyGER[›] EUA 3
 Ghana GHA 1
 Great Britain GBR 22
 Greece GRE 18
 Guam GUM 1
 Guatemala GUA 1

H

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Honduras HON 1
 Hong Kong HKG 4
 Hungary HUN 22

I

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Iceland ISL 17
 India IND [D] 9
 Iran IRI 10
 Ireland IRL 6
 Israel ISR 6
 Italy ITA H H 22

J

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Jamaica JAM 7
 Japan JPN H H 20

K

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Kazakhstan KAZ see Soviet Union EUN 6
 Kenya KEN 3
 North Korea PRK 8
 South Korea KOR 17
 Kyrgyzstan KGZ see Soviet Union 6

L

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Latvia LAT see Soviet Union 10
 Lebanon LIB 16
 Liechtenstein LIE 18
 Lithuania LTU see Soviet Union 8
 Luxembourg LUX 8

M

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Macedonia MKD see Yugoslavia 5
 Madagascar MAD 1
 Malta MLT 1
 Mexico MEX 8
 Moldova MDA see Romania see Soviet Union 6
 Monaco MON 9
 Mongolia MGL 13
 Montenegro MNE see Yugoslavia see SCG 2
 Morocco MAR 6

N

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Nepal NEP 4
 Netherlands NED 20
 Netherlands AntillesAHO[›] AHO 2
 New Zealand NZL 15
 Norway NOR H H 22

P

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Pakistan PAK 2
 Paraguay PAR 1
 Peru PER 2
 Philippines PHI 4
 Poland POL 22
 Portugal POR 7
 Puerto Rico PUR 6

R

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Romania ROU 20
 Russia RUS see Soviet Union EUN H 6

S

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 San Marino SMR 9
 Senegal SEN 5
 Serbia SRB see Yugoslavia see SCG 2
 Serbia and MontenegroSCG[›] SCG see Yugoslavia 3
 Slovakia SVK see Czechoslovakia 6
 Slovenia SLO see Yugoslavia 7
 South Africa RSA 6
 Soviet UnionURS[›] URS EUN 9
 Unified TeamEUN[›] EUN 1
 Spain ESP 19
 Swaziland SWZ 1
 Sweden SWE 22
 Switzerland SUI H H 22

T

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Tajikistan TJK see Soviet Union 4
 Thailand THA 3
 Timor-Leste TLS 1
 Togo TOG 1
 Tonga TGA 1
 Trinidad and Tobago TRI 3
 Turkey TUR 16

U

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Ukraine UKR see Soviet Union EUN 6
 United States USA H H H H 22
 Uruguay URU 1
 Uzbekistan UZB see Soviet Union EUN 6

V

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Venezuela VEN 4
 Virgin Islands ISV [B] 7

Y

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 YugoslaviaYUG[›] YUG H 14

Z

Nation Code 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
 Zimbabwe ZIM 1

Total

Year 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 Total
NOCs number 16 25 17 28 28 30 32 30 36 37 35 37 37 49 57 64 67 72 78 80 82 88 1025

Notes

Obsolete nations notes

^ TCH: Czechoslovakia competed in 1920–1992, from 1994 represented by successor NOCs of Czech Republic (CZE) and Slovakia (SVK).
^ GER: (^GDR, ^FRG, ^EUA): For the Games of 1956–1964, Germany participated as a Unified Team, representing the National Olympic Committees of both West Germany and East Germany.[12] Retrospectively, the IOC uses the country code EUA for this team.[31] After the NOC for the German Democratic Republic was granted full recognition by the IOC in 1968, East Germany competed as an independent team.[32]
^ AHO: The NOC of the Netherlands Antilles was recognized by the IOC from 1950 until 2011 upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.[33]
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1998[24] and 2002[25] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro designation and SCG code were first used at the Winter Games in 2006.[26]
^ URS: Soviet Union competed in 1920–1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 represented by fifteen successor NOCs.
^ EUN: After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, nine of the fifteen ex-republics of the Soviet Union were represented at the 1992 Winter Olympics. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania participated as independent teams, and Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan participated as a combined Unified Team (EUN).[21]
^ YUG: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (officially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929) participated as Yugoslavia in three Games before the Second World War. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia also participated using the Yugoslavia designation, for all but one Games between 1948–1992, and hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo.[19] For participation by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, see Serbia and Montenegro (SCG).

Name changes notes

^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1972[16] and 1976.[17] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.[34][35]

Participation notes

  1. ^ A single speed skater from Estonia registered for the 1924 Winter Olympics and carried the flag in the opening ceremonies, but did not compete.[4]
  2. ^ Anne Abernathy was the lone competitor from the Virgin Islands at the 2006 Winter Olympics, but withdrew from the women's luge event after injuring herself during a practice run.[36]
  3. ^ Costa Rica did not take part in the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics, but its athletes did compete; 78 nations participated in the 2002 Games, however the IOC web site states that 77 nations participated, probably erroneously not counting Costa Rica.[37]
  4. ^ India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremony due to the Indian Olympic Association's suspension. On February 11, the Indian Olympic Association was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that that time onward.[38]

See also

References

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External links