List of pharaohs

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Pharaoh of Egypt
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
Style Five-name titulary
First monarch Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch Nectanebo II
(last native)[1]
Cleopatra & Caesarion
(last actual)
Formation c. 3100 BC
Abolition 343 BC
(last native pharaoh)[1]
30 BC
(last Greek pharaohs)
Residence Varies by era
Appointer Divine right

This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

Note that the dates given are approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian King Lists

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records: Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and Historians alike call for caution about the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[2] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (given here by dynasties):[3]

Predynastic period

Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the nile delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Seka Only known from the Palermo stone[4]
Khayu Only known from the Palermo stone[5]
Tiu Only known from the Palermo stone[6]
Thesh Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Neheb Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Wazner Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Mekh Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
(destroyed) Only known from the Palermo stone[10]

Upper Egypt

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Dates
Elephant[11] Naqada III
Bull Naqada III
Scorpion I Naqada III

Early Dynastic Period

Predynastic Rulers: Dynasty 0

The following list of predynastic rulers may be complete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Iry Hor name.jpg
Correct chronological position unclear.[12] c. 3150 BC
Tarkhan crocodile.gif
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[13] c. 3150 BC
Ka vessel.JPG
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[14] c. 3150 BC
Scorpion II
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[15] c. 3150 BC

First Dynasty

Name Image Comments Reign
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3100 BC
Greek form: Athotís; Known for his unusual serekh name. c. 3050 BC
Djer stela retouched.jpg
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the famous Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. 54 years[16]
Egypte louvre 290.jpg
Greek form: Usapháis. 10 years[17]
Den label.jpg
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[18]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name. 42 years[17]
Anedjib Closeup.jpg
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[19] 10 years
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone. 8½ years[17]
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs. 34 years
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. c. 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. c. 2900 BC

Second Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed lots of people. 15 years
Nebra Hotepsekhemwy vase.png
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg. 14 years
Nynetjer 2.jpg
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs. 43–45 years
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Abydos KL 02-05 n13.jpg
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[25]
Famous for his Seth-name. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a split-up Egypt.[26]
CalciteVesselFragmentNameOfSekhemibPerenmmat-BritishMuseum-August21-08 retouched.jpg
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[27]
Neferkara I Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
Neferkasokar Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting draught.[28]
Hudjefa I Known only from ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in ramesside times.
Khasekhem oxford2.jpg
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

Old Kingdom

3rd Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Greek form: Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep. 19 or 28 years ca. 2670 BC.
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid the remains of a 2-years old infant were found.[34] 2649–2643
Greek form: Necheróphes. Could be the same as Nebka, this is disputed amongst scholars. c. 2650
Has possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni. 2643–2637
Huni-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Has possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffitos which praise king Snofru, not Huni. 2637–2613

Fourth Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Snofru Eg Mus Kairo 2002.png
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned pretty long (48 years), giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. Long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Snofru's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Snofru as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[36]
2613–2589 BC
Khufu CEM.jpg
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus, in which he allegedly consults a magician named Dedi. Dedi makes a prophecy and performs magical wonders. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
2589–2566 BC
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from.
2566–2558 BC
Khafre statue.jpg
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
2558–2532 BC
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
MenkauraAndQueen-CloseUpOfKingsFace MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
2532–2503 BC
Abydos KL 04-06 n25.jpg
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
2503–2498 BC
Thamphthis According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dymasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2498–2491 BC
Egypt sahura and god.jpg
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
Neferirkare Kakai 2.png
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
2477–2467 BC
Son of Neferirkare
2460–2458 BC
Shepseskare Cylinder Seal.png
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[37]
Few months
Nyuserre Ini
Niuserre BrooklynMuseum.png
Brother to Neferefre
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Menkauhor CG 40.jpg
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
DjedkareIsesi-GoldCylanderSeal MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
2414–2375 BC
Unas stelae.jpg
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Teti-SistrumInscribedWithName MetropolitanMuseum.png
Was possibly murdered by his successor
2345–2333 BC
Abydos KL 06-02 n35.jpg
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
Kneeling statue of Pepy I.jpg
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Hidden treasures 09.jpg
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
AnkhnesmeryreII-and-Son-PepiII-SideView BrooklynMuseum.png
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Neferka Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[38]
Abydos KL 06-06 n39.jpg
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Abydos KL 07-01 n40.jpg
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[39] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from c. 2181 to c. 2160 BC. They comprise numerous ephemeral rulers reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt. This table is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[40] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Abydos KL 07-02 n41.jpg
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[42][43][44]
Neferkare II
Abydos KL 07-03 n42.jpg
Neferkare (III) Neby
Abydos KL 07-04 n43.jpg
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Abydos KL 07-05 n44.jpg
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Abydos KL 07-06 n45.jpg
Abydos KL 07-07 n46.jpg
Abydos KL 07-08 n47.jpg
Abydos KL 07-09 n48.jpg
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Abydos KL 07-10 n49.jpg
Abydos KL 07-11 n50.jpg
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Abydos KL 07-12 n51.jpg
Neferkamin Anu
Abydos KL 07-13 n52.jpg
Qakare Ibi
Abydos KL 07-14 n53.jpg
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2169–2167 BC
Abydos KL 07-15 n54.jpg
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Abydos KL 07-16 n55.jpg
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
Abydos KL 07-17 n56.jpg
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[45] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[45]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Egypte louvre 246 panier.jpg
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160–?
-  ?
Neferkare VII -  ?
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Nebkaure Khety Petrie.png
-  ?
Senenh— or Setut -  ?
-  ?
Mery— -  ?
Shed— -  ?
H— -  ?

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Graffito Meryhathor Djehutynakht Hatnub.jpg
Neferkare VIII  ?
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)  ?
Stele Anpuemhat Quibell.png

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Prince Intef Petrie.png
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Statue Mentuhotep-aa by Khruner.jpg
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
?–2134 BC
Sehertawy Intef I
Intef I.jpg
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2134–2117 BC
Wahankh Intef II
Funerary stele of Intef II.jpg
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2069 BC
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Silsileh close up.jpg
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[46]
2069–2060 BC

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Eleventh Dynasty continued

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[47]
Mentuhotep Closeup.jpg
Gained all Egypt ca. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins.
2060–2010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[48]
Mentuhotep-OsirideStatue-CloseUp MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
2010–1998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [49]
Relief Mentuhotep IV Lepsius.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
1997–1991 BC

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia

Name Image Comments Dates
Inscription Segerseni Gauthier.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Qakare Ini[50]
Inscription Qakare Ini.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Inscription Iyibkhentre Gauthier 02.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[51][52]
Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated.
1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[53] (Sesostris I)
Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 104.jpg
Built the White Chapel
1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[54]
Louvre sphinx.jpg
1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[55] (Sesostris II)
Senusret II.jpg
1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[56] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[57]
Amenemhet III, basalto, seconda metà del XIX sec. ac. 02.JPG
1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[58]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso.
1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[59]
Louvre 0320O7 01.jpg
A rare female ruler.
1807–1802 BC
Seankhibtawy Seankhibra
Amenemhat VI.jpg
Enigmatic king of the Twelfth Dynasty. He was either a usurper or identical with one of the first three kings of the Dynasty.

Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Then, some time around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Amenemhat.jpg
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[60]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[60] 1800–1796 BC[60]
Stele of Nerikare.png
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Amenemhat V.jpg
3 to 4 years[60] 1796–1793 BC[60]
Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[60]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Table CG23040 Kamal.jpg
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
Stele Nebnuni by Khruner.jpg
1785–1783 BC[60] or 1739 BC[61]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
Cylinder Sehetepibre by Khruner.jpg
1783–1781 BC[60]
Sewadjkare Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[60] or 1736 BC[61]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Louvre 032007 40.jpg
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[60]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[60]
Awybre Hor I
Ka Statue of horawibra.jpg
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[60]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[60]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[60]
Kay Amenemhat.jpg
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[60]
Cylinder Sedjefakare Petrie.jpg
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[60]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Wegaf Rubensohn.png
Founder of the dynasty in old studies c. 1767 BC
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[60] or 1711 BC.[62]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Hotepkare cylinder Petrie.png
Seth Meribre  ?
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
SobekhotepIII-DualRelief BrooklynMuseum.png
4 years and 2 months c. 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
Neferhotep I 2.jpg
11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[60]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
Statue of Sobekhotep IV.jpg
10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
Statue of Merhotepre Sobekhotep V.jpg
c. 1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days c. 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
Ibiaw Scarab Petrie.png
10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[60]
Merneferre Ay I
Merneferre Ay.jpg
Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[60] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Merhotepre Ini.png
Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[60] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[60]
Mersekhemre Ined
Neferhotep II 2.jpg
May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[60]
Sewadjkare Hori 5 years  ?
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII 2 years and 6 months [60] 1664–1663 BC[60]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [60] 1663 BC –?[60]
Mer[…]re  ?
Merkheperre Scarab.png
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [60]
Merkare Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [60]
Name lost  ?
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
Sewadjare Mentuhotep.png
c. 1655 BC[60]
[…]mosre  ?
Ibi […]maatre  ?
Hor[…] […]webenre  ?
Se...kare  ?  ?
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor  ?  ?  ?
Se...enre  ?  ?–1649 BC [60]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty c. 1654
Dedumose II
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty  ?
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[60]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[63] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Scarab Sekhaenre EA30511 Hall.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Scarab Nubwoserre UC16597.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[63]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[63]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1760–1745 BC
Canaanite - Scarab with Cartouche of King Sheshi - Walters 4217 - Bottom (2).jpg
Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[63] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos. 1745–1705 BC
Aasehra obelisk Petrie.png
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [63] c. 1705
Khakherewre -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[60] -
Stele Merdjefare by Khruner.png
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[60] c. 1699
Sewadjkare III -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre -  ?
-  ?
Djefare? -  ?
Webenre c. 1690
Jar Nebsenre by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Sekheperenre[63] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[63] Only known from the Turin canon
Bebnum[63] Only known from the Turin canon
'Apepi[63] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nuya[60] Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare c. 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Shenshek[60] Attested by a scarab-seal
Yakareb scarab.png
YaqubHar scarab Petrie 75.png
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BCE

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – ?
Aperanati scarab Petrie.png
Chronological position uncertain.
Sakir-Har -  ?
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign 30–40 years
ScarabBearingNameOfApophis MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
- 40 years or more
Cylinder Khondy Petrie.jpg
- 1555–1544

Abydos Dynasty

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[65][66][67] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[68]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
Pantjeny stele BM Budge.png
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[68]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[69][70][71]
Woseribre Senebkay
Cartouche Senebkay by Khruner.jpg
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13 th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper-Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered
Djehuti Sekhemresementawy
Block Djehuti by Khruner.jpg
3 years
Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemreseusertawy
Stele Sekhemre Seusertawy by Khruner.png
16 years
Neferhotep III Sekhemresankhtawy
Stele JE 59635 by Khruner.png
1 year
Mentuhotepi Seankhenre
Sphinx Seankhenre by Khruner.jpg
May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[70] 1 year
Nebiryraw I Sewadjenre
Dagger Sewadjenre Petrie.png
26 years
Nebiryraw II
Axehead Semenenre by Khruner.jpg
Bebiankh Seuserenre
Dagger Bebiankh by Khruner.jpg
12 years
Dedumose I Djedhotepre
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[70]
Dedumose II Djedneferre
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Montuemsaf Djedankhre
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Mentuhotep VI.jpg
Senusret IV Seneferibre
Senusret IV.png
Sekhemre Shedwast

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[72] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[69][70]

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
Rahotep stele BM Budge.png
c. 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
Reigned at least 7 years -
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
Fragment Sobekemsaf Petrie.jpg
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX -
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
Louvre 122006 050.jpg
- -
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years -
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
Louvre 122006 051.jpg
- -
Senakhtenre Ahmose
Relief Senakhtenre by Khruner.jpg
c. 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Sequenre tao.JPG
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[60]

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. c. 1550–1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE[73]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
AmenhotepI-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Son of Ahmose I. 1541–1520
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign. 1520–1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Stone block with relief at Karnak Temple Thutmosis II.jpg
Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret. 1492–1479
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II. 1479–1458
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Late in his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments. 1458–1425
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
AmenhotepII-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. 1425–1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. 1400–1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Amenhotep iii british museum.jpg
Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV. 1390–1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change. 1352–1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg
Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in their own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akenhaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun, other speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten. 1334–1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
Tuthankhamun Egyptian Museum.jpg
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the Polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the Monotheistic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." 1333–1324
Kheperkheperure Ay
Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to be born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir. 1324–1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb01 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg
Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir. 1320–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[74]
StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir. 1292–1290
Menmaatre Seti I
Abydos sethi.jpg
Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten. 1290–1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279–1213
Banenre Merenptah[75]
Merenptah Louxor-HeadAndShoulders-BackgroundKnockedOut.png
Thirteenth son of Ramesses II. 1213–1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Amenmesse-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Most likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah. 1203–1200
Userkheperure Seti II[76]
Turin statue of Seti II.jpg
Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne. 1203–1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[77]
Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age. 1197–1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret
Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret. 1191–1190

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte
Sethnakht closeup Lepsius.png
Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt. 1190–1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. May have been assassinated. 1186–1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
RamessesIV-SmitingHisEnemiesOnAnOstracon MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline. 1155–1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Son of Ramesses IV 1149–1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V. 1145–1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Tomb KV1 Ramesses VII Lepsius.jpg
Son of Ramesses VI. 1137–1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
SFEC-MEDINETHABU-Sethiherkhepeshef II.jpg
An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found. 1130–1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. 1129–1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[78]
A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain. 1111–1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[79]
Temple Khonsu Ramesses XI Lepsius.jpg
Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes. 1107–1077

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–732 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)[80]
Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI. 1077–1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
Obscure four-year reign. 1051–1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty. 1047–1001
Usermaatre Amenemope
Mask of Amenemope1.jpg
Son of Psusennes I. 1001–992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Seal Aakheperre Osorkon Petrie.jpg
Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor. 992–986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Siamun’s royal cartouche on a lintel.jpg
Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. 986–967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Statue CG42192 legrain.jpg
Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun. 967–943

Theban High Priests of Amun

Though not officially Pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynastys, Writing their name in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Name Image Comments Dates
First High Priest of Amun to claim to be Pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. 1080-1074
Payankh stele Mariette.jpg
- 1074-1070
Pinedjem I
Statue Pinedjem CG42191 Legrain.png
Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I. 1070-1032
Mummy Masaherta Smith.JPG
Son of Pinedjem I. 1054-1045
Djedkhonsuefankh Son of Pinedjem I. 1046-1045
Molded Faience Amuletic Tube with Throne Name of the High Priest of Amen Menkheperre LACMA M.80.198.107.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I. 1045-992
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II)
Nesbanebdjed II statuette Petrie.png
Son of Menkheperre. 992-990
Pinedjem II
Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II. 990-976
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III) Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally Considered to be the Last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a Pharaoh-like figure. 976-943

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Karnak Sheshonq I.jpg
Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). 943–922
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Son of Shoshenq I. 922–887
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Sheshonq II mask2004.jpg
Obscure Pharaoh, possibly an usurper. 887–885
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
Sarcophage Harsiesis.JPG
An obscure rebel, at Thebes. 880–860
Takelot I
Takelot I a.jpg
Son of Osorkon I. 885–872
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Egypte louvre 066.jpg
Son of Takelot I. 872–837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
Shoshenq III.jpg
- 837–798
Shoshenq IV - 798–785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
Louvre 122006 015.jpg
- 785–778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
Louvre 122006 014.jpg
- 778–740
Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV
Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
- 740–720

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Karnak Ptah 08.jpg
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837–813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
Torso of Pedubast I by Michael Martin.jpg
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826–801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I Co-regent with Pedubast 812–811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801–795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Osorkon III.jpg
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795–767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Karnak Takelot III.jpg
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Egypte louvre 054.jpg
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Louvre C100 stele Petrie.png
Reigned at Thebes only 762-?

The Libu

Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu 805–795
 ? - 795–780
Niumateped - 780–755
Titaru - 763–755
Ker - 755–750
Rudamon - 750–745
Ankhor - 745–736
Tefnakht - 736–732

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
Tefnakht Athens stela (T. Efthimiadis) det.jpg
- 732–725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
Apis Bakenranef 6 Mariette.jpg
- 725–720

Late period

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
Stele Piye submission Mariette.jpg
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752–721 according to Dan'el Kahn
Neferkare Shabaka
Shabaqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 721–707/706 according to Rolf Krauss/David Warburton[81]
Djedkaure Shebitku
Shebitqo-DonationStela MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 707/706–690 according to Dan'el Kahn[82]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
- 690–664
Bakare Tantamani
Nubian head.JPG
lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – 4th century AD).

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.[83]

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Necho I Horus.png
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I. 672–664 BC
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Psammetique Ier TPabasa.jpg
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. 664–610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Necho-KnellingStatue BrooklynMuseum.png
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II. 610–595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Sphinx Psammetique II 1104.jpg
Son of Necho II and father of Apries. 595–589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II. 589–570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
Farao Amasis.JPG
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III. 570–526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Psamtik III.jpg
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt. 526–525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (First Persian period)

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahenshahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Cambyses II of Persia.jpg
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC 525–521 BC
Smerdis (Bardiya) Son of Cyrus the Great 522–521 BC
Petubastis III[84]
Ignota prov., pannello decorativo del re sehibra, xxiii dinastia, 823-716 ac..JPG
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta 522/21–520 BC
Darius I the Great
Flickr - isawnyu - Hibis, Temple Decorations (III).jpg
- 521–486 BC
Xerxes I the Great
Xerxes Image.png
- 486–465 BC
Psammetichus IV[84] A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain. possibly in the 480s BCE
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465–464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand
Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius.jpg
- 464–424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424–423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424–423 BC
Darius II
Darius ii.png
424–404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404–398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Louvre 032007 15.jpg
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398–393 BC
Psammuthis-ReliefFragmentBearingNames MetropolitanMuseum.png
- 393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Achoris-StatueTorso MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes. Father of Nefaarud II. 393–380 BC
Nefaarud II Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 380–362 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 362–360 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
NectaneboII-StatueHead MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[85] 360–343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty (Second Persian period)

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343–338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BC
Khababash Stela Nastasen Kambasuten Lepsius.jpg Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia 338–335 BC
Darius III Meister der Alexanderschlacht 003.jpg Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336–332 BC

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Alexander and Bucephalus - Battle of Issus mosaic - Museo Archeologico Nazionale - Naples BW.jpg
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332–323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Philippos III Arridaios Budge 162.png
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Roxana with Alexander IV Aegus the son of Alexander the Great.jpg
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, and had children with both of them. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849.jpg Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Berenice I.jpg Wife of Ptolemy I  ?–285 BC
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Arsinoe I Dekadrachme.jpg Wife of Ptolemy II 284/281–c. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg Wife of Ptolemy II 277–270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I Ptolemy III Euergetes.jpg - 246–222 BC
Berenice II BerenikeIIOnACoinOfPtolemyIII.jpg Wife of Ptolemy III 244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator Octadrachm Ptolemy IV BM CMBMC33.jpg - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Oktadrachmon Arsinoe III.jpg Wife of Ptolemy IV 220–204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Tetradrachm Ptolemy V.jpg Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Cleopatra I El Kab.jpg Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193–176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BC) - 2009.jpg Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Wife of Ptolemy VI 175–164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BC) - 2009.jpg Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163–145 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Restored 145–131 BC
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple.jpg Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg Restored 127–116 BC
Cleopatra III Cleopatra II and III Kom Ombo Temple.jpg Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127–107 BC
Cleopatra II Lagid queen Isis Ma3546.jpg Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Edfu29.JPG Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy X Alexander I Louvre Ma970.jpg Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) PtolSmash 212.jpg Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos PtolSmash 212.jpg Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Ptolemy XIV.jpg Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 44–30 BC


Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar and Roman General Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman Emperors.

See also


  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt., Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
  • Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.

External links


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