List of scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus on global warming

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This is a list of scientists who have made statements that conflict with the scientific consensus on global warming as summarized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and endorsed by other scientific bodies. A minority of them are climatologists.

Nearly all publishing climate scientists (97–98%[1]) are convinced by the evidence that humans are significantly contributing to global warming.[1][2]

Nearly all publishing climate scientists (97–98%[1]) support the consensus on anthropogenic climate change.[3][4] The scientific consensus is that the global average surface temperature has risen over the past century. Scientific opinion on climate change was summarized in the 2001 Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main conclusions on global warming at that time were as follows:

  1. The global average surface temperature has risen 0.6 ± 0.2 °C since the late 19th century, and 0.17 °C per decade in the years 1971–2001.[dead link][5]
  2. "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities", in particular emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane.[dead link][6]
  3. If greenhouse gas emissions continue the warming will also continue, with temperatures projected to increase by 1.4 °C to 5.8 °C between 1990 and 2100.[A] Accompanying this temperature increase will be increases in some types of extreme weather and a projected sea level rise.[dead link][7] The balance of impacts of global warming become significantly negative at larger values of warming.[dead link][8]

These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized nations;[9] the consensus has strengthened over time[10] and is now virtually unanimous.[11] The level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science.[12]

There have been several efforts to compile lists of dissenting scientists, including a 2008 US senate minority report,[13] the Oregon Petition,[14] and a 2007 list by the Heartland Institute,[15] all three of which have been criticized on a number of grounds.[16][17][18]

For the purpose of this list, a "scientist" is defined as an individual who has published at least one peer-reviewed research article in the broad field of natural sciences, although not necessarily in a field relevant to climatology. Since the publication of the IPCC Third Assessment Report, each has made a clear statement in his or her own words (as opposed to the name being found on a petition, etc.) disagreeing with one or more of the report's three main conclusions, and each has been described in reliable sources as a climate skeptic, denier, or in disagreement with any of the three main conclusions. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles. Few of the statements in the references for this list are part of the peer-reviewed scientific literature; most are from other sources such as interviews, opinion pieces, online essays and presentations.

Nota bene: Only individuals who have their own Wikipedia article may be included in the list.

Scientists questioning the accuracy of IPCC climate projections

These scientists have said that it is not possible to project global climate accurately enough to justify the ranges projected for temperature and sea-level rise over the 21st century. They may not conclude specifically that the current IPCC projections are either too high or too low, but that the projections are likely to be inaccurate due to inadequacies of current global climate modeling.






  • Ivar Giaever, Norwegian–American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics (1973).[37]
  • Steven E. Koonin, theoretical physicist and director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University.[38][39]


United Kingdom

United States

Scientists arguing that global warming is primarily caused by natural processes

Graph showing the ability with which a global climate model is able to reconstruct the historical temperature record, and the degree to which those temperature changes can be decomposed into various forcing factors. It shows the effects of five forcing factors: greenhouse gases, man-made sulfate emissions, solar variability, ozone changes, and volcanic emissions.[83]

These scientists have said that the observed warming is more likely to be attributable to natural causes, rather than to human activities. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.







New Zealand




United States

Scientists arguing that the cause of global warming is unknown

These scientists have said that no principal cause can be ascribed to the observed rising temperatures, whether man-made or natural.




United States

Scientists arguing that global warming will have few negative consequences

These scientists have said that projected rising temperatures will be of little impact or a net positive for society or the environment.

Deceased scientists

These scientists published material indicating their opposition to the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming prior to their deaths.

See also


  1. ^ In its 2007 assessment report, IPCC projected likely temperature rise for various hypothetical levels of future greenhouse gas emissions, known as "emissions scenarios". They reported that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 5.2 °F) for the lowest emissions scenario used in the report, and 2.4 to 6.4 °C (4.3 to 11.5 °F) for the highest.[200]
  2. ^ The compilation criteria for including scientists in the list is that they are relevant enough to have their own Wikipedia article, according to Wikipedia's notability guidelines.


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  8. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability p.958 – IPCC 23, 2011/ Archived June 23, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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  15. 500 Scientists Whose Research Contradicts Man-Made Global Warming Scares, by Dennis T. Avery. From the Heartland Institute website; published September 14, 2007, accessed June 20, 2008.
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  27. Jacqueline Echevarria, Greenpeace Co-founder: CO2 does not cause global warming, Energy live News, October 15, 2015
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  37. Drollete, Dan Jr. "Brian Schmidt: Climate change is a real, existential threat that should be dealt with immediately," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 11 ov. 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2017. Brian Schmidt said, "He [Giaever] strongly believes that whatever is occurring [with regard to climate change] is not attributable to emissions of greenhouse gases."
  38. Koonin, Steven (September 2014). "Climate Science Is Not Settled". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 October 2014. [Many open questions] are not ″minor″ issues to be ″cleaned up″ by further research. Rather, they are deficiencies that erode confidence in the computer projections. [...They are] fundamental challenges to our understanding of human impacts on the climate, and they should not be dismissed with the mantra that 'climate science is settled.' While the past two decades have seen progress in climate science, the field is not yet mature enough to usefully answer the difficult and important questions being asked of it.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Turn down heat on climate debate". Tampa Tribune. 23 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Nils-Axel Mörner (Mar 30, 2005), Economics of Climate Change: 12-ii Session 2005–06 Evidence to Select Committee on Economic Affairs, II, The Stationery Office, p. 269, ISBN 9780104007167, In conclusion, observational data do not support the sea level rise scenario. On the contrary, they seriously contradict it.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Kelly, Jack. "The facts don't add up for human-caused global warming". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. prominent skeptics...Nils-Axel Mörner<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Peter Stilbs & Åke Ortmark (12 January 2014), Expressen, gå inte på klimatbluffen, IPCC gör ingen egen forskning, utan söker som grupp stöd för en given hypotes - att koldioxiden har en avgörande betydelse för jordens framtida klimat. Detta är egentligen ogörligt, då ingen ännu har klarlagt klimatsystemets naturliga variationer. Enligt de vetenskapliga principer som växt fram under hundratals år tyder de senaste 20 årens observationer snarare på att hypotesen är falsk. (Own translation to English: The IPCC does not make its own research, but is a group searching for a given hypothesis – that carbon dioxide is crucial for the earth’s future climate. This is actually impossible since nobody has yet clarifed the climate system’s natural variability. According to the scientific principles that have developed over hundreds of years, the last 20 years of observations rather indicate that the hypothesis is false.)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  66. D'Aleo, Joseph (15 December 2009). "Climategate: Something's Rotten in Denmark ... and East Anglia, Asheville, and New York City". The IPCC and their supported scientists have worked to remove the pesky Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and the period emailer Tom Wigley referred to as the "warm 1940s blip," and to pump up the recent warm cycle.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  69. "The Climate Science Isn't Settled", The Wall Street Journal Online, November 30, 2009, Claims that climate change is accelerating are bizarre. [...] The quality of the data is poor [...] The general support for warming is based not so much on the quality of the data, but rather on the fact that there was a little ice age from about the 15th to the 19th century.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  82. Lee Bergquist & Thomas Content (25 March 2009). "Natural forces stalling global warming, UWM pair say". Retrieved 1 November 2014. The findings of mathematicians Kyle L. Swanson and Anastasios Tsonis contradict the assumptions of many climate scientists... who say the planet is currently warming.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  89. Manning, Paddy (26 November 2012). "Roy Hill to push through pain". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Mr Plimer, a noted climate sceptic<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  96. Montgomery, Charles (12 August 2006). "Nurturing doubt about climate change is big business". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Canada's most vocal climate skeptics...University of Ottawa lecturer Tad Murty<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  98. "He's in the hot seat". Edmonton Journal. 23 September 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2014. The main driver of climate change, [Tim Patterson] believes, is a combination of solar changes (well-known cycles of the sun's intensity) as well as cosmic rays.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  111. "Change climate change!". Hindustan Times. 19 January 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2014. A Russian astronomer named Khabibullo Abdusamatov from St Petersburg has predicted the next ice age will start between 2035 and 2045 due to a decline in solar activity<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. Wibjörn Karlén (January 7, 2010). "Lilla istiden kan redan vara här". Retrieved January 16, 2014. After a long time of studying climate variations, I have come to the conclusion that the space weather suggests that we are more likely heading towards a colder period than a warmer. (own translation from Swedish)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  115. Stratton, Allegra (20 November 2009). "Climate change denial MEP attacks church". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2014. Tom Segalstad, a Norwegian geologist who says human-released CO2 would not have a large effect on the climate<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  117. Baliunas, Sallie; Willie Soon (22 August 2002). "Global Warming Science vs. Computer Model Speculation: Just Ask the Experts". Capitalism Magazine. Retrieved 31 August 2012. [T]he recent warming trend in the surface temperature record cannot be caused by the increase of human-made greenhouse gases in the air.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. Rowland, Christopher (5 November 2013). "Researcher helps sow climate-change doubt". Boston Globe. Retrieved 1 November 2014. prominent climate-change doubter, Sallie Baliunas, who was studying variations in solar radiation<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. Phillip V Brennan (December 10, 2007). "New Study Explodes Human-Global Warming Story". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2011. [...]observed increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases make only a negligible contribution to climate warming. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. Asten, Michael (29 December 2009). "More evidence CO2 not culprit". The Australian. Retrieved 1 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. Easterbrook, Don (22–25 October 2006). "The Cause of Global Warming and Predictions for the Coming Century". Philadelphia Annual Meeting. Retrieved 31 August 2012. Because the warming periods in these oscillations [of glaciers] occurred well before atmospheric CO2 began to rise rapidly in the 1940s, they could not have been caused by increased atmospheric CO2, and global warming since 1900 could well have happened without any effect of CO2. If the cycles continue as in the past, the current warm cycle should end soon[...]<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. "The views of retired geology professor Don Easterbrook are considered in the minority". 26 March 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2014. warming skeptic who argued that federal scientists have been manipulating climate data to inflate temperatures. The views of retired geology professor Don Easterbrook are considered in the minority.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. Raymond Brusca (January 12, 2009). "Professor denies global warming theory". [Global warming] probably has little to do with carbon dioxide, just like past warmings had little to do with carbon dioxide<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. Legates, David (May 2006). "Climate Science: Climate Change and Its Impacts". National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved 31 August 2012. About half of the warming during the 20th century occurred prior to the 1940s, and natural variability accounts for all or nearly all of the warming.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. Montgomery, Jeff (19 March 2013). "Climate change skeptics say 'sick' science distorts facts". USA Today. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Professor David Legates of the University of Delaware, a former climatologist for the state, bluntly rejected leading climate change claims<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. Silvey, Janese (5 March 2012). "Professor details role as climate consultant". Columbia Tribune. Retrieved 15 April 2014. There's no doubt the climate is changing; that's a given," he said. "But the question is: What's causing it. Is it mankind alone, which a lot of people say? Is it some mix of man and nature? Or is it nature? I would say nature is mostly responsible. There may be a role for man in there somewhere, but how much, I don't know.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. Gerken, James (28 August 2014). "Utility-Sponsored Teacher Training At Mizzou Brings Climate Skepticism And Anti-EPA Message". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. Robinson, Arthur B. (1997). "Science Has Spoken: Global Warming is a Myth" (PDF). Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved 18 February 2014. we needn't worry about human use of hydrocarbons warming the Earth. We also needn't worry about environmental calamities, even if the current, natural warming trend continues: After all the Earth has been much warmer during the past 3,000 years without ill effects.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. Gaston, Christian (10 August 2013). "Former Peter DeFazio opponent Art Robinson elected to lead Oregon Republican Party". The Oregonian. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Robinson, a chemist and outspoken skeptic of human-caused global warming<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  130. Bolt, Andrew (3 August 2011). "New research: warmth produces these carbon dioxide concentrations". Herald Sun. Retrieved 2 April 2014. Salby...suggests that its warmth which tends to produce more CO2, rather than vice versa - which, incidentally is the story of the past recoveries from ice ages.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  131. Darwall, Rupert (Summer 2014). "An Unsettling Climate". City Journal (New York City). Retrieved 30 October 2014. Another dissenter, the American atmospheric physicist Murry Salby...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  132. "I cambi climatici e le loro cause, una discussione su alcuni punti chiave (Climate Change and Its Causes, A Discussion About Some Key Issues)" (PDF). La Chimica e l'Industria. 2010. pp. 70–75. Retrieved 31 August 2012. At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system. A climatic stabilization or cooling until 2030–2040 is forecast by the phenomenological model.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  134. Taylor, James (30 May 2013). "Global Warming Alarmists Caught Doctoring '97-Percent Consensus' Claims". Forbes. Retrieved 30 October 2014. prominent, vigorous skeptic... Nicola Scafetta<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  135. Singer, S. Fred (April 22, 2005). "'Flat Earth Award' nominee's challenge to Chicken Littles". Christian Science Monitor. The greenhouse effect is real. However, the effect is minute, insignificant, and very difficult to detect.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  136. "The Denial Machine (ABC Interview)". 2008. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Hosted here
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  138. Mook, Dean (8 February 2014). "Connecting the dots for climate skeptics". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved 30 October 2014. But, there are always skeptics. For one example among several, Fred Singer, retired University of Virginia professor of physics<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. William J Cromie (April 24, 2003). "Global warming is not so hot: 1003 was worse, researchers find". Harvard University Gazette. Retrieved August 26, 2011. there's increasingly strong evidence that previous research conclusions [...] may have been biased by underestimation of natural climate variations.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. Rowland, Christopher (5 November 2013). "Researcher helps sow climate-change doubt". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 30 October 2014. Willie Soon is a hero of the skeptical movement<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. "Testimony of Roy W. Spencer" (PDF). before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2012. I predict that [scientists will realise] most of the climate change we have observed is natural, and that mankind’s role is relatively minor<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  143. Tomlinson, Stuart (21 February 2008). "Update: Controversial "State Climatologist" Steps Aside". Retrieved 20 March 2014. Taylor said he believes climate change is a combination of natural factor and human factors. "I don't deny that human activities affect climate change," he said. "But I believe up to now, natural variations have played a more important role than human activities.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  145. "Climat: la prévention, oui, la peur, non" (in French). L'Express. May 10, 2006. Archived from the original on November 17, 2006. Retrieved August 26, 2011. :The increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere is an observed fact and mankind is most certainly responsible. In the long term, this increase will without doubt become harmful, but its exact role in the climate is less clear. Various parameters appear more important than CO2. Consider the water cycle and formation of various types of clouds, and the complex effects of industrial or agricultural dust. Or fluctuations of the intensity of the solar radiation on annual and century scale, which seem better correlated with heating effects than the variations of CO2 content. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  146. Lean, Geoffrey (19 June 2009). "Conservatives have always been green". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 October 2014. France's foremost climate sceptic, Claude Allègre<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  147. "ZENIT - Global Warming Natural, Says Expert". 2007-04-27. Retrieved August 31, 2012. it is not possible to exclude the idea that climate changes can be due to natural causes<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. Solomon, Lawrence (22 August 2013). "Lawrence Solomon: Model mockery?". National Post. Retrieved 28 October 2014. climate change skeptics such as... Antonino Zichichi<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. Jacobsen, Siw Ellen (February 29, 2008). "Pål Brekke: Internationally renowned climate sceptic and solar expert". The Research Council of Norway. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) has determined that the earth's temperature has risen by about 0.7° C since 1901. According to Dr Brekke, this time period coincides not only with an increase in human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, but also with a higher level of solar activity, which makes it complicated to separate the effects of these two phenomena. [...] Dr Brekke has published more than 40 scientific articles on the sun and on the interaction between the sun and the earth. "We could be in for a surprise," he cautions. "It's possible that the sun plays an even more central role in global warming than we have suspected. Anyone who claims that the debate is over and the conclusions are firm has a fundamentally unscientific approach to one of the most momentous issues of our time."<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  150. Brekke, Paal (November 16, 2000). "Viewpoint: The Sun and climate change". BBC News. Natural processes involving changes in the Sun could have at least as powerful an effect on global temperature as increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  151. Syun-Ichi, Akasofu (June 15, 2007). "On the Fundamental Defect in the IPCC's Approach to Global Warming Research by Syun-Ichi Akasofu". Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Retrieved 31 August 2012. [T]he method of study adopted by the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) is fundamentally flawed, resulting in a baseless conclusion: Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Contrary to this statement ..., there is so far no definitive evidence that 'most' of the present warming is due to the greenhouse effect. ... [The IPCC] should have recognized that the range of observed natural changes should not be ignored, and thus their conclusion should be very tentative. The term 'most' in their conclusion is baseless.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  152. Alford, Peter (14 March 2009). "Japanese scientists cool on theories". The Australian. Retrieved 30 October 2014. Dr Akasofu and Tokyo Institute of Technology geology professor Shigenori Maruyama are highly critical of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's acceptance that hazardous global warming results mainly from man-made gas emissions.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. Balling, Robert (September 2003). "The Increase in Global Temperature: What it Does and Does Not Tell Us" (PDF). George C. Marshall Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2006. [I]t is very likely that the recent upward trend [in global surface temperature] is very real and that the upward signal is greater than any noise introduced from uncertainties in the record. However, the general error is most likely to be in the warming direction, with a maximum possible (though unlikely) value of 0.3 °C. ... At this moment in time we know only that: (1) Global surface temperatures have risen in recent decades. (2) Mid-tropospheric temperatures have warmed little over the same period. (3) This difference is not consistent with predictions from numerical climate models. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  160. David Deming (December 6, 2006). "U.S. Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works, Hearing Statements". Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2012. The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause – human or natural – is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. Davis, Tony (6 December 2009). "UA prof involved in Climategate replies to critics". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 30 October 2014. longtime warming skeptic David Deming<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. Krueger, Curtis. Most urgent hurricane threat? Overdevelopment, not global warming. "The ongoing cycle of greater and lesser hurricane activity is not attributable to man-made global warming, Goldenberg says. In fact, he does not think humans are causing global warming." Tampa Bay Times. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  163. "Stanley Goldenberg ICCC7". 24 June 2013. (3:59) They are making more strides in understanding el nino, but they cannot predict something like that one or two months in advance. And they are wanting me to believe a climate model projecting 50 years, 70 years in advance, enough said on that.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Further reading

External links