List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War

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The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939). The total number of participating personnel is unknown, but an estimated 35,000 foreigners fought on the Republican side in what was known as the International Brigades. In addition, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany sent as many as 20,000 soldiers (not all at the same time) and Benito Mussolini of Italy sent as many as 60,000 soldiers to fight alongside the soldiers of Spanish General Francisco Franco.

Veterans, for this purpose, are defined as people who were members of the armed forces of one of the combatant forces up to and including the date recognized as the end of the War, which was 1 April 1939.

Republican Forces–8 veterans

Nationality Name Date of Birth Age Residence Force served Notes
Czechoslovakia Dufek, Karel 24 January 1916 106 Czech Republic International Brigade Joined in January 1937. Lieutenant-Colonel in Republican Army. Czechoslovak Ambassador to Brazil from 1968–1972.[1]
France Piñol, Antoine 1915 107 France International Brigade [2]
Spain Fernandez del real, Virgilio 26 December 1918 103 Mexico International Brigade [3][4]
Spain Gallego-Nicasio, Manuel 1914 101 Spain Second Spanish Republic Last "La quinta del biberón" fighter. Affiliated with PSOE.[5]
Spain Gonzalez Francisco, Luis 1920 102 United Kingdom International Brigade Volunteered in 1936. Was captured on 2 November 1938 in "Puebla de Masaluca" at 20:30 and was a prisoner of war until 1 April 1939.[citation needed]
Spain Macarro Castillo, Fernando (known as Marcos Ana) 20 January 1920 102 Spain Second Spanish Republic Mobilized in 1936. Secretary general of JSU of Alcala in Peguerinos's zone in 1936. Affiliated to Communist Party of Spain.[6]
United Kingdom Hilton, Stanley 31 December 1918 103 Australia International Brigade Jumped ship in Alicante in November 1937 and trained with the British Battalion. Left Spain in March 1938.[7][8][9]
United States Berg, Delmer 20 December 1915 106 United States Abraham Lincoln Brigade Volunteered in 1938. Served in anti-aircraft. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II. Lives in Columbia, California.[10][11]

Nationalist Forces—3 veterans

Nationality Name Date of Birth Age Residence Force served Notes
Spain Álvarez Limia, José 4 August 1919 102 Spain Nationalist Army Served in Barcelona. Writer.[12]
Spain Gárate Córdoba, José María 8 September 1918 103 Spain Nationalist Army Promoted to captain in 1942. Awarded four medals. Military historian, author, and teacher.[13][14]
Spain Olivera, Faustino 1919 103 Spain Nationalist Army Volunteered in 1937. Wounded on 11 November 1938. Had a bullet removed from his shoulder after 70 years. Lives in Barbastro.[15]

World Totals–11 veterans

  • Verified claims of Republican Forces (incl. International Brigades): 8
  • Verified claims of Nationalist Forces: 3

See also


  1. Karel Dufek (1916) - Životopis "Lieutenant Colonel Karel Dufek (1916)" Check |url= value (help). Post Bellum. Retrieved 8 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Accueil". Retrieved 13 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Virgilio 1". Retrieved 13 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. (PDF) Retrieved 26 March 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Regalado, Antonio (30 October 2009). "Miguel Morayta: Un olvido de cine" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 27 October 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Stan Hilton, an unlikely warrior". Richard Baxell. Retrieved 13 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Williams, Nadya (2 July 2012). "California Vets: Del Berg and Jim Benét". The Volunteer. Retrieved 31 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Dan Kaufman (2015-03-13). "The Last Volunteer". The New York Times Magazine. p. MM38. Retrieved 2015-03-16. Del Berg, 99, is the last known surviving veteran of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, a contingent of nearly 3,000 Americans who fought to defend the democratically elected government during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. José Álvarez Limia's official website (in Spanish)
  13. Córdoba, José (1972). Mil días de fuego: Memorias documentadas de la guerra del treinta y seis. Caralt Editores.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Córdoba, José María Gárate (1970). Cuentos de la guerra de España (in Spanish). San Martín. p. 108.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Govan, Fiona (13 February 2008). "Spanish civil war veteran has bullet removed". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 4 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links