Livarot

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Livarot
The church in Livarot
The church in Livarot
Coat of arms of Livarot
Coat of arms
Livarot is located in France
Livarot
Livarot
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Country France
Region Normandy
Department Calvados
Arrondissement Lisieux
Canton Livarot
Intercommunality Pays de Livarot
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Sébastien Leclerc
Area1 12.09 km2 (4.67 sq mi)
Population (2008)2 2,309
 • Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 14371 / 14140
Elevation 52–184 m (171–604 ft)
(avg. 64 m or 210 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Livarot is a commune in the Calvados department in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France.

The population is composed of 2,183 inhabitants[note 1] and the name of its inhabitants is Livarotais.

The town is home to many companies of renowned such as the Georges Leroy factory, Graindorge cheese manufacturing which produces Livarot, among others. The commune gave its name to its cheese; Livarot cheese. The La Fermière (CCLF) calvados cider is also produced in the commune.

Geography

Livarot is situated at the junction of the D4 and D579 roads. The nearest city is Caen, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the north-west.

Toponymy

The place is attested late in the form Livarrot in 1155,[1] and Livar(r)ou in 1156 or 1157.[2]

The etymological explanation of this place name has no unanimity among toponymists:

  • Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, based on a false attestation of Livaron from 1137 (form and date wrong), described it as "obscure", while evoking a derivision of ivos, an assumed Gallic word designating if, and declaring it unlikely.[3] They perhaps resume in these previous assumptions. In reality, the term *ivos or *īvos is not attested and should include an asterisk.
  • fr (Ernest Nègre), reasoning from this same erroneous form, considered that it might be from the Germanic name Liubwar, which is followed by the suffix -o /-onem[4] and that the final would be modified by attraction of names in -ot. However, François de Beaurepaire notes that a Germanic name is never used with this suffix.[5]
  • Dominique Fournier refuted Livaron (cacography attributed to Albert Dauzat, and badly dated) and based it on the actual form Livar(r)ou, stemming from the Chronicle of Robert of Torigni, to advance the hypothesis of a Gallo-Roman person named Libarius followed by the suffix of Gallic origin -avo which explains most of the words ending in -ou of Normandy.[6]

History

Battle of Normandy

On 17 July 1944, the pharmacist and Mayor of Livarot, brought first aid to Rommel[7] following the strafing of his car by an Allied aircraft, not far away, between the villages of Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery and Vimoutiers. He was then evacuated, the same day, to the German military hospital in Bernay.

Livarot was liberated on 19 August. Following Operation Paddle, the British 7th Armoured Division was on the banks of the fr (Vie (river); Vie).[7] The division then faced a strong resistance by the 272nd Division of the German infantry, but also suffered losses to friendly fire from Allied aircraft.[7] On 19 August, British artillery heavily bombed the area. The British arrived to seize a bridge, which hadn't been destroyed, across the river to Saint-Michel-de-Livet,[7] north of Livarot. The French Resistance then learned that the Germans had abandoned Livarot and that the first British soldiers had entered the same day.[7]

Heraldry

Arms of Livarot
Of Azure on a chief party at 1. Lozenges argent and gules and 2. Bendlet gules and or with a crosier of or over all, to an escutcheon of argent with lion of gules crowned or and over the crosier, between two fleurs-de-lis also of or.



Politics and administration

List of mayors
Start End Name Party Other details
1850 Alfred de Neuville[8]
1919 1938 Georges Bisson Cheese maker
September 1998 March 2008 Jeannine Louis School principal
March 2008[9] In progress Sébastien Leclerc UMP Managing director, general counsel

The municipal council is composed of 23 members, including the mayor and six assistants.[10]

Demographics

In 2012, the municipality had 2,183 inhabitants. Since 2004, censuses in municipalities of less than 10,000 inhabitants are held every five years (in 2008, 2013, 2018, etc. for Livarot)[11] and legal municipal population are estimations in other years.[note 2] Livarot counted 2,654 inhabitants in 1975.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1793 1,033 —    
1800 996 −3.6%
1806 1,066 +7.0%
1821 662 −37.9%
1831 1,162 +75.5%
1836 1,215 +4.6%
1841 1,291 +6.3%
1846 1,376 +6.6%
1851 1,464 +6.4%
Year Pop. ±%
1856 1,576 +7.7%
1861 1,386 −12.1%
1866 1,499 +8.2%
1872 1,557 +3.9%
1876 1,761 +13.1%
1881 1,842 +4.6%
1886 1,823 −1.0%
1891 1,851 +1.5%
1896 1,763 −4.8%
Year Pop. ±%
1901 1,813 +2.8%
1906 2,080 +14.7%
1911 2,281 +9.7%
1921 2,266 −0.7%
1926 2,147 −5.3%
1931 2,193 +2.1%
1936 2,255 +2.8%
1946 2,434 +7.9%
1954 2,391 −1.8%
Year Pop. ±%
1962 2,494 +4.3%
1969 2,535 +1.6%
1975 2,654 +4.7%
1982 2,538 −4.4%
1990 2,469 −2.7%
1999 2,516 +1.9%
2006 2,356 −6.4%
2008 2,309 −2.0%
2012 2,183 −5.5%
From 1962 to 1999: Population without double counting; for the years following: municipal population.
Source: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1999[12] and INSEE from 2004[13]

Economy

Places and monuments

Activity and events

Twinning

Sports

The Étoile Sportive Livarotaise [Livarotaise Sports Star] evolved two football teams in fr (District départemental de football; district divisions).[16]

The cycling section of the club has trained many riders such as father and son François and Romain Lemarchand,[citation needed] and also fr (Fabien Taillefer). Stage 7 of the 2015 Tour de France is also planned to start in Livarot.

Events

The Livarot Cheese Fair is held every year in August.

Personalities linked to the commune

See also

Notes

  1. fr (Population figures for France; Municipal population) 2012.
  2. In the table of censuses, by convention in Wikipedia, the principle has been retained for legal populations after 1999 to display in the table of censuses those populations corresponding to the year 2006, the first published legal population calculated in accordance with the concepts defined in Decree No. 2003-485 of 5 June 2003, and the years corresponding to an exhaustive census investigation of communes under 10,000 inhabitants, as well as the last legal population published by Insee.

References

  1. Charte confirmative de Goscelin Crespin et de son fils Guillaume, 1155, in « Histoire de l’abbaye du Bec », Études Lexoviennes I, 1915, p. 656.
  2. Léopold Delisle, Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé du Mont-Saint-Michel, Le Brument, Rouen, vol. I, 1872, p. 207; entrée concernant l'an 1137.
  3. Albert Dauzat et Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieu en France, Librairie Guénégaud, Paris, 1989, ISBN 2-85023-076-6, p. 406.
  4. Ernest Nègre, Toponymie générale de la France, vol. II, Librairie Droz, 1990, p. 865.
  5. François de Beaurepaire (préf. Marcel Baudot), Les Noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de l'Eure, Paris, A. et J. Picard, 1981 (ISBN 2-7084-0067-3) (OCLC 9675154).
  6. Dominique Fournier, Les noms de lieux du pays de Livarot; vol. I : communes, anciennes paroisses, principaux cours d’eau, Éditions des Mortes-Terres, Saint-Georges-en-Auge, 2010, p. 40-42. Information reprise dans Ouest-France, 14 octobre 2010 (l'article n'est plus en ligne), Ouest-France.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Quétel (dir.), Claude (2011). Dictionnaire du débarquement. Rennes: éditions Ouest-France. p. 435. ISBN 978-2-7373-4826-6. 560.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Annuaire du département du calvados, année 1850, p.357.
  9. "Livarot :Sébastien Leclerc". ouest-france.fr. Ouest-France.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Livarot (14140) - Municipales 2014". ouest-france.fr. Ouest-France.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Recensement de la population" [census of the population] (in français). INSEE. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Livarot". Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "14371-Livarot 2006" (in français). INSEE. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "14371-Livarot 2008" (in français). INSEE. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> and "14371-Livarot 2012" (in français). INSEE. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Monuments historiques" (in français). Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Monuments historiques". Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Site officiel de la Ligue Basse-Normandie – Ét. S. Livarotaise".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links