Lockheed L-100 Hercules
|A Tepper Aviation L‑100‑30 taking off from Mojave Spaceport, California|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||April 20, 1964|
|Introduction||September 30, 1965|
|Primary users||Indonesian Air Force
Lynden Air Cargo
|Developed from||C-130 Hercules|
The Lockheed L‑100 Hercules is the civilian variant of the prolific C‑130 Hercules military transport aircraft made by the Lockheed Corporation. Its first flight occurred in 1964. Longer L‑100‑20 and L‑100‑30 versions were developed. L‑100 production ended in 1992 with 114 aircraft delivered. The LM-100J is set to start production in 2018-2019. It is an updated variant of the L-100.
In 1959, Pan American World Airways ordered 12 of Lockheed's GL‑207 Super Hercules to be delivered by 1962, to be powered by four 6,000 eshp Allison T61 turboprops. The Super Hercules was to be 23 ft 4 in (7.11 m) longer than the C‑130B; a variant powered by 6,445 Rolls‑Royce Tynes and a jet-powered variant with four Pratt & Whitney JT3D‑11 turbofans were also under development. Both Pan American and Slick Airways (which had ordered six) cancelled their orders and the other variants did not evolve past design studies.
Lockheed decided to produce a commercial variant based on a de-militarised version of the C‑130E Hercules. The prototype L‑100 (registered N1130E) first flew on April 20, 1964 when it carried out a 1-hour, 25-minute flight. The type certificate was awarded on 16 February 1965. Twenty-one production aircraft were then built with the first delivery to Continental Air Services on September 30, 1965.
Slow sales led to the development of two new, longer versions, the L‑100‑20 and L‑100‑30, both of which were larger and more economical than the original model. Deliveries totaled 114 aircraft, with production ending in 1992. Several L-100-20 aircraft were operated on scheduled freight flights by Delta Air Lines between 1968 and 1973.
An updated civilian version of the Lockheed Martin C-130J‑30 Super Hercules was under development, but the program was placed on hold indefinitely in 2000 to focus on military development and production. On February 3, 2014, Lockheed Martin formally relaunched the LM-100J program, saying it expects to sell 75 aircraft. Lockheed sees the new LM-100J as an ideal replacement for the existing civil L-100 fleets.
Civilian variants are equivalent to the C‑130E model without pylon tanks or military equipment.
- L‑100 (Model 382)
- One prototype powered by four Allison 501‑D22s and first flown in 1964
- L‑100 (Model 382B)
- Production variant
- L‑100‑20 (Model 382E and Model 382F)
- Stretched variant certified in 1968 with a new 5 ft (1.5 m) section forward of the wing and 3 ft 4 in (1.02 m) section aft of the wing.
- L‑100‑30 (Model 382G)
- A further stretched variant with an additional 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) fuselage section.
- LM‑100J (Model 382J)
- An updated civilian version of the military C-130J model.
In July 2009 a total of 36 Lockheed L‑100 Hercules aircraft were in commercial service. Operators include Safair (9), Lynden Air Cargo (6), Transafrik (5), Libyan Arab Air Cargo (3), First Air (2), and other operators with single aircraft.
In January 2009, 35 Lockheed L‑100s were in use with military operators, including:
- Indonesian Air Force (10 ordered, 8 current with 6 in service)
- Libyan Air Force (5)
- Algerian Air Force (3)
- Ecuadorian Air Force (1)
- Kuwait Air Force (3 – L‑100‑30)
- Peruvian Air Force (3)
- Philippine Air Force (4)
- Royal Saudi Air Force (3 L‑100‑30 for Royal Flight)
Other users with fewer aircraft.
- Gabon Air Force (2 – 1 L‑100‑20 and 1 L‑100‑30)
- United Arab Emirates Air Force (1 – L‑100‑30)
- Argentine Air Force (1 – L‑100‑30 – LV‑APW, later TC‑100)
- Free Libyan Air Force (1 L-100 following Libyan civil war)
Accidents and incidents
- On April 11, 1968: a Zambian Air Cargo L-100-10 (registration 9J-RCY) was destroyed in a ground collision with another L-100 (9J-RBX) at Ndola, when returning from Dar es Salaam due to a brake failure.
- On April 30, 1968: a Pakistan Air Force L-100-20 (serial number 24142) (6th Squadron) crashed into a mountain in Pakistan. All ten aboard perished.
- On May 18, 1968: an Aérea-Aerovías Ecuatorianas L-100-20 (U.S. registration N9267R) burned after a propeller struck the ground while taxiing in Macuma, Ecuador. There were no fatalities.
- On July 16, 1969: a Pacific Western Airlines L-100-20 (registration CF-PWO) crashed in Cayaya, Peru, after a wing hit the ground during go-around in fog.
- On November 21, 1976: a Pacific Western Airlines L-100-20 (registration CF-PWX) crashed in Eastville, Kisangani, Zaire (today Democratic Republic of the Congo), low fuel, emergency landing in fog at airfield for night and lights off on arrival, not enough fuel to return, let down in jungle, one survivor.
- On February 19, 1978: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration 394) crashed when engine shut down during take-off in Tarapoto, Peru.
- On May 15, 1979: a TAAG Angola Airlines L-100-20 (registration D2-FAF) damaged when it overshot landing in São Tomé and was written off.
- On September 5, 1980: a Kuwait Air Force L-100-20 (serial number KAF-317) crashed near Montelimar in southeastern France due to a lightning strike.
- On April 24, 1981: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration FAP-396) had an emergency landing at night, no fuel, near San Juan, Peru.
- On May 16, 1981: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-EAS) was shot down by an infrared missile near Menongue, the provincial center of the Cuando Cubango province, Angola. The cause of the crash was similar to that of the Aeroflot Antonov An-12 four years later.
- On June 9, 1983: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration FAP-383) crashed in Puerto Maldonado near southern Peru.
- On June 8, 1986: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-THA) wheels up landing in Dondo, Angola and was written off.
- On April 8, 1987: a Southern Air Transport L-100-30 (registration N-517SJ) crashed due to loss of power in two engines, during an attempted go-around at Travis Air Force Base, California. All five people on board died.
- On October 14, 1987: a Zimex Aviation L-100-30 (registration HB-ILF) was shot down after take-off in Cuito, Angola.
- On April 9, 1989: a Transafrik L-100-20 (registration S9-NAI) had a crash landing at Luena, Moxico Province, Angola due to a fire in two engines.
- On August 1, 1989: an Air Algérie Lockheed L-100-30 (registration 7T-VHK) was damaged when it skidded off the runway while making an emergency landing in Tamanrasset, Algeria and was written off.
- On January 5, 1990: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-FAG) was hit by an anti-aircraft missile, stalled and crash-landed in Menonque, Angola and was written off.
- On February 27, 1991: a Kuwait Air Force L-100-30 (serial number 322) was hit by a bomb, the center fuselage was badly damaged. Transported by road to Kuwait and scrapped in March 1995.
- On March 16, 1991: an L-100-30 leased to Transafrik (registration CP-1564) was shot down by the UNITA FIM-92 Stinger missile in Malanje, Angola.
- On September 17, 1991: an Ethiopian Airlines L-100-30 (registration ET-AJL) crashed into a mountain near Arey in the south of Djibouti.
- On April 7, 1994: a TAAG Angola Airlines L-100-20 (registration D2-THC) was damaged beyond repair by fire after landing at Malenge, Angola and overheated its brakes.
- On September 23, 1994: a Heavylift Cargo Service [lower-alpha 1] L-100-30 (registration PK-PLV) leased from Pelita Air Service, crashed off Kai Tak International Airport in Hong Kong after the number four propeller oversped, killing six of the 12 on board.
- On December 26, 1998: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration S9-CAO)) was shot down by UNITA after take-off from Huambo, Angola on an UN mission.
- On January 2, 1999: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration D2-EHD) and operating for the United Nations was shot down by UNITA after take-off from Huambo, Angola.
- On December 27, 1999: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration S9-NOP) ran off a wet runway on landing in Luzamba, Angola, it went into a 40-foot ravine and was written off.
- On December 20, 2001: an Indonesian Air Force L-100-30 (serial number A-1329) was written off during landing in Malikul Saleh when it ran off the runway.
- On August 13, 2006: Air Algérie Flight 2208, a Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules (registration 7T-VHG) cargo flight crashed in Northern Italy as a result of an autopilot malfunction. The aircraft struck the ground in a sparsely populated area after a very steep and rapid descent, narrowly avoiding crashing into a highly populated zone. All three crew members were killed
- On August 25, 2008: a Philippine Air Force L-100-20 (serial number 4593) of 220th Airlift Wing based in Mactan, Cebu, crashed into the sea shortly after take-off in Davao City in the Philippines. The aircraft had lost contact after taking off from Francisco Bangoy International Airport shortly before midnight. The cause of the crash was unknown. Two pilots, seven crewmen which consists of an Instructor Flight Engineer, student flight engineer, a Crew Chief, two Load Masters, one student Load Master and a flight mechanic, and two Scout Rangers were on board when it crashed. Until now, the authorities are still puzzled by the plane's mysterious crash.
- On May 20, 2009: an Indonesian Air Force L-100-30 (serial number A-1325) of 31st Squadron was carrying soldiers and their families (amongst them children) when it crashed into homes and erupted in flames, killing at least 98 people. The burning wreckage of the Hercules was scattered in a rice paddy near Magetan, East Java, about 160 kilometres east of Yogyakarta]. The plane was carrying more than 100 passengers and crew as it was flying from Jakarta to the eastern province of Papua via Magetan.
- On October 12, 2010: a Transafrik L-100-20 (registration 5X-TUC) and operating flight 662 when it crashed into a mountain near Pol-e Charki on a flight from Bagram Air Base to Kabul International Airport, Afghanistan, killing all eight crew.
- Crew: 3-4: (two pilots, navigator, flight engineer/loadmaster)
- Payload: 51,050 lb (23,150 kg)
- Length: 112 ft 9 in (34.35 m)
- Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
- Height: 38 ft 3 in (11.66 m)
- Wing area: 1,745 ft² (162.1 m²)
- Empty weight: 77,740 lb (35,260 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Allison 501‑D22A turboprops, 4,510 shp (3,360 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 308 knots (354 mph (570 km/h)) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
- Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph (541 km/h))
- Range: 1,334 nmi (1,535 mi (2,470 km))
- Ferry range: 4,830 nmi (5,554 mi (8,938 km))
- Service ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
- Related development
- C-130 Hercules
- C-130J Super Hercules
- AC‑130 Spectre/Spooky
- Lockheed DC-130
- Lockheed EC-130
- Lockheed HC-130
- Lockheed LC-130
- Lockheed MC-130
- Lockheed WC-130
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Now defunct UK company, not to be confused with current Australian company
- Frawley, Gerald. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004. Fishwick, Act: Aerospace Publications, 2003. ISBN 1‑875671‑58‑7.
- Lockheed L-100 Hercules. airliners.net
- "Lockheed-Martin to Update Civilian Version of the Hercules". Retrieved 6 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "World Airliner Census". Flight International, 18–24 August 2009.
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2009 Aerospace Source Book. Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2009.
- US notifies Congress of potential Libyan C-130J sale - Flightglobal.com, 11 June 2013
- NTSB report of the crash of L-382G N-517SJ, at Travis AFB, California
- ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules PK-PLV Hong Kong-Kai Tak International Airport (HKG)
- Olausson, Lars, "Lockheed Hercules Production List – 1954–2005, 22nd ed.", self-published, page 104.
- Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed C‑130 Hercules". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0‑7607‑0592‑5.
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