From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Deutsche Lufthansa AG
IATA ICAO Callsign
Founded 1953[note 1]
Commenced operations 1955
Frequent-flyer program Miles & More
Airport lounge
  • First Class Lounge
  • Senator Lounge
  • Business Lounge
Alliance Star Alliance
Fleet size 266 (excluding subsidiaries)
Destinations 220
Company slogan Nonstop you.
Parent company Private Investors (88.52%)
Headquarters Cologne, Germany
Key people Carsten Spohr, Chairman & CEO[5]
Revenue Decrease 30.0 billion (2014)[6]
Operating income Increase €1.0 billion (2014)[6]
Net income Decrease €55 million (2014)[6]
Total assets Increase €30.5 billion (2014)[6]
Total equity Decrease €4.0 billion (2014)[6]
Employees 118,781 (2014)[6]

Deutsche Lufthansa AG (FWBLHA) (German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈlʊfthanzaː]), commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is a German airline and the largest airline in Europe, both in terms of passengers carried and fleet size (when combined with its subsidiaries).[7] It operates services to 18 domestic destinations and 197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe,[8] using a fleet of more than 280 aircraft. Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997.[9] The name of the company is derived from Luft (the German word for "air"), and Hansa (a Latin term meaning "guild" most commonly used historically in reference to the Hanseatic League).

Besides its own passenger airlines Austrian Airlines, Germanwings and Swiss International Air Lines (referred to in English by Lufthansa as its Passenger Airline Group), Deutsche Lufthansa AG owns several aviation-related companies such as Lufthansa Technik. Combined with its subsidiaries, the group has over 615 aircraft, making it has one of the largest passenger airline fleets in the world.[10] In 2014, the group carried over 106 million passengers.[11]

Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters are in Cologne. The main operations base, called Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC), is at Lufthansa's primary hub at Frankfurt Airport.[12][13][14] The majority of Lufthansa's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based there.[15] Lufthansa's secondary hub is Munich Airport. It also has a considerably smaller base at Düsseldorf Airport.

Lufthasa was a state-owned enterprise (and flag carrier) until 1994.[16] In its annual report for 2014, Lufthansa reported around 60% of its shares were owned by institutional investors and around 40% by private individuals.[17] Since 1970, Lufthansa has involved its employees in profit sharing, giving them the opportunity to choose between cash and preference shares. When Lufthansa was privatised, employees received more than 3% of its shares.[18]


1950s: Post-war (re-)formation

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1955 78
1960 1284
1965 3785
1969 6922
1971 8610
1975 13634
1980 21056
1989 36133
1995 61602
2000 94170
Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1955, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000
Lufthansa's first aircraft, a Convair 340 (type pictured), was delivered in August 1954

Lufthansa traces its history to 1926 when Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (styled as Deutsche Lufthansa from 1933 onwards) was formed in Berlin.[3] DLH, as it was known for short, was Germany's flag carrier until 1945 when all services were suspended following the defeat of Germany. In an effort to create a new national airline, a company called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag),[1] was founded in Cologne on 6 January 1953, with many of its staff having worked for the pre-war Lufthansa. West Germany had not yet been granted sovereignty over its airspace, so it was not known when the new airline could become operational. Nevertheless, in 1953 Luftag placed orders for four Convair CV-340s and four Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellations and set up a maintenance base at Hamburg Airport.[1][2] On 6 August 1954, Luftag acquired the name and logo of the liquidated Deutsche Lufthansa for DM 30,000 (equivalent to € 68000 today),[2] thus continuing the tradition of a German flag carrier of that name.

Lufthansa Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation operating a transatlantic scheduled services from Hamburg to Montreal and Chicago in May 1956.

On 1 April 1955 Lufthansa won approval to start scheduled domestic flights,[2] linking Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, and Munich.[19] International flights started on 15 May 1955, to London, Paris, and Madrid,[19][20] followed by Super Constellation flights to New York City from 1 June of that year,[19] and across the South Atlantic from August 1956. In August 1958 fifteen Lufthansa 1049Gs and 1649s left Germany each week to Canada and the United States, three 1049Gs a week flew to South America, three flew to Tehran and one to Baghdad.

The special status of Berlin meant that Lufthansa was not allowed to fly to either part of Berlin until 1989. Originally thought to be only a temporary matter (and with intentions to move the airline's headquarters and main base there once the political situation changed),[1] the Division of Germany turned out to be long, which gradually led to Frankfurt Airport becoming Lufthansa's primary hub.

East Germany tried to establish its own airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted in a legal dispute with West Germany, where Lufthansa was operating. East Germany instead established Interflug as its national airline in 1963, which coincided with the East German Lufthansa being shut down.[21]

1960s: Introduction of Jetliners

In 1960 Lufthansa joined the jet age with the Boeing 707. The image shows a 707 at Hamburg Airport in 1984, shortly before the type was retired.
A Lufthansa Boeing 727–100 approaching London Heathrow Airport in 1978.

In 1958 Lufthansa ordered four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March 1960. Boeing 720Bs were later bought to back up the 707 fleet. In February 1961 Far East routes were extended beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong and Tokyo. Lagos, Nigeria and Johannesburg, South Africa were added in 1962.

Lufthansa introduced the Boeing 727 in 1964 and that May began the Polar route from Frankfurt to Tokyo via Anchorage. In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737s that went into service in 1968. Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737 and was one of four buyers of the 737-100s (the others were NASA, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines, and Avianca – while the NASA airframe was the first built, it was the last delivered and originally intended for delivery to Lufthansa). Lufthansa was the first foreign launch customer for a Boeing airliner.

1970s–1980s: The wide-body era

The wide-body era for Lufthansa started with a Boeing 747 flight on April 26, 1970. It was followed by the introduction of the DC-10-30 on November 12, 1973, and the first Airbus A300 in 1976. In 1979 Lufthansa and Swissair were launch customers for the Airbus A310 with an order for twenty-five aircraft.

The company's fleet modernisation programme for the 1990s began on June 29, 1985 with an order for fifteen Airbus A320s and seven Airbus A300-600s. Ten Boeing 737-300s were ordered a few days later. All were delivered between 1987 and 1992. Lufthansa also bought Airbus A321, Airbus A340, and Boeing 747-400 aircraft.

In 1987 Lufthansa, together with Air France, Iberia, and Scandinavian Airlines, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a GDS) that would enable travel agencies to sell the founders and other airlines' products from a single system.

Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in 1988. The fleet was given a new livery, while cabins, city offices, and airport lounges were redesigned.

1990s–2000s: Further expansion

The Boeing 737 is the best-selling jet airliner in the history of aviation.[22] Lufthansa was the launch customer of the original 737-100 version. The image shows an aircraft of that type at Hannover Airport in 1968.
Lufthansa operated the high-capacity Airbus A300-600 on domestic and European routes until 2009. The image shows an aircraft of that type on final approach at Frankfurt Airport in 2003.

On October 28, 1990, 25 days after reunification, Berlin became a Lufthansa destination again. On May 18, 1997, Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International, and United Airlines formed Star Alliance, the world's first multilateral airline alliance.

In 2000, Air One became a Lufthansa partner airline and nearly all Air One flights were code-shared with Lufthansa until Alitalia purchased Air One. Lufthansa has a good track record for posting profits, even in 2001, after 9/11, the airline suffered a significant loss in profits but still managed to stay 'in the black'. While many other airlines announced layoffs (typically 20% of their workforce), Lufthansa retained its current workforce.[18]

On December 6, 2001, Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos with 10 more options, which was confirmed on December 20. The A380 fleet will be used for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively.

In June 2003, Lufthansa opened Terminal 2 at Munich's Franz Josef Strauß Airport to relieve its main hub, Frankfurt, which was suffering from capacity constraints. It is one of the first terminals in Europe partially owned by an airline.

In autumn 2003, the implementation of a new sales strategy initiated by then-incumbent Executive Vice President Thierry Antinori to make the company fit for the digital era led to the abolition of commission payments for travel agencies and led to a revolution in the German travel business with many travel agencies disappearing from the market on the one hand, and the rise of new digital distribution platforms on the other hand.[23]

On May 17, 2004, Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by Boeing in-flight online connectivity service.

On March 22, 2005, Swiss International Air Lines was purchased by Lufthansa's holding company. The acquisition included the provision that the majority shareholders (the Swiss government and large Swiss companies) be offered payment if Lufthansa's share price outperforms an airline index during the years following the merger. The two companies will continue to be run separately.

On December 6, 2006, Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing 747-8s, becoming the launch customer of the passenger model. The airline is also the second European airline to operate the Airbus A380 (after Air France). The first A380 was delivered on May 19, 2010, while the first 747-8 entered service in 2012.[24]

On September 15, 2008, Lufthansa Group announced its purchase of a stake in Brussels Airlines. In June 2009 the EU Commission granted regulatory approval for this strategic partnership between Brussels Airlines and Lufthansa. The decision paved the way for Lufthansa to acquire an initial 45% stake in SN Airholding SA/NV, the parent company of Brussels Airlines.[25] Lufthansa has an option to purchase the remaining 55% of Brussels Airlines until 2017.

In September 2009, Lufthansa purchased Austrian Airlines with the approval of the European Commission.[26]

On June 11, 2010, Airbus A380 service between Frankfurt and Tokyo started.[27]

2010s: Belt-tightening

After a loss of 381 million euros in the first quarter of 2010 and another 13 million loss in the year 2011 due to the economic recession and the cost of restructuring, Deutsche Lufthansa AG cut 3,500 administrative positions or around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16,800.[28] In 2012 Lufthansa announced a restructuring program called SCORE to improve its operating profit. As a part of the restructuring plan the company started to transfer all short-haul flights outside its hubs in Frankfurt, Munich and Düsseldorf to the company’s re-branded low-cost carrier Germanwings.[29]

In September 2013 Lufthansa Group announced its biggest order, for 59 wide-body aircraft valued more than 14 billion euros at list prices. Earlier in the same year Lufthansa placed an order for 100 next-generation narrow-body aircraft.[30]

The group has had a long-standing dispute with the Vereinigung Cockpit union which has demanded a scheme in which pilots can retire at the age of 55 and 60% of their pay be retained, which Lufthansa insists is no longer affordable. Lufthansa pilots were joined by pilots from the group's budget carrier Germanwings to stage a nationwide strike in support of their demands in April 2014 which lasted 3 days. The pilots staged another 6 hours strike at the end of the Summer holidays in September 2014, which caused the cancellation of 200 Lufthansa flights and 100 Germanwings flights.[31]

In November 2014, Lufthansa signed an outsourcing deal worth $1.25 billion with IBM that will see the US company take over the airline’s IT infrastructure services division and staff.[32]

In June 2015, Lufthansa announced it would to close its small long-haul base at Düsseldorf Airport for economic reasons by October 2015. The base currently consists of two Airbus A340-300s which serve Newark and Chicago. Newark remains a year-round service which will be operated in a W-pattern from Munich Airport (Munich - Newark - Düsseldorf - Newark - Munich), the future of the Chicago service remains unclear as Lufthansa suspended the route for the winter 2015/2016 season.[33]

Corporate affairs


Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne
Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport
Hangar of Lufthansa Technik at Frankfurt Airport
Lufthansa advertisement in Lisbon

Deutsche Lufthansa AG shares have been publicly traded on all German stock exchanges since 1966. In addition to floor trading, it is also traded electronically using the Xetra system. It is a DAX index share and is listed in the German Stock Exchange’s Prime Standard.[34] In its annual report for 2014, Lufthansa reported around 60% of its shares were owned by institutional investors and around 40% by private individuals, and reported having 118,781 employees on 31 December 2014.[17]


Lufthansa's corporate headquarters are in Cologne. In 1971, Lawrence Fellows of The New York Times described the then-new headquarters building that Lufthansa occupied in Cologne as "gleaming".[35] In 1986, terrorists bombed the building.[36] No one was injured.[37] In 2006, builders laid the first stone of the new Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne. By the end of 2007 Lufthansa planned to move 800 employees, including the company's finance department, to the new building.[38] However, in early 2013 Lufthansa revealed plans to relocate its head office from Cologne to Frankfurt by 2017.[39]

Several Lufthansa departments are not at the headquarters; instead they are in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport. These departments include Corporate Communications,[40] Investor Relations,[41] and Media Relations.[42]

Airline subsidiaries

In addition to its main passenger operation, Lufthansa has several airline subsidiaries, including:[43]

Wholly owned by Lufthansa
Partly owned by Lufthansa
Former subsidiaries

Other subsdiaries

In addition to the airlines mentioned above, Lufthansa maintains further aviation affiliated subsidiaries:[43]

Brand history

The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was created in 1918 by Otto Firle. It was part of the livery of the first German airline, Deutsche Luft-Reederei (abbreviated DLR), which began air service on February 5, 1919. In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol, and in 1954, Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it, too.

The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F.A. Fischer von Puturzyn. In 1925, he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa" which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time. Luft Hansa was the name given to the new airline which resulted from the merger of Junkers' airline (Luftverkehr AG) and Deutscher Aero Lloyd.[46]

Alliances and partnerships

Lufthansa Check-in area
Lufthansa First Class lounge


Lufthansa bought a 19% stake in JetBlue Airways in December 2007 and entered a code-sharing agreement with the airline. It was the first major investment by a European carrier in an American carrier since the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement came into effect in 2008. Lufthansa sold its stake in JetBlue in March 2015. In late 2007, Lufthansa Cargo was forced to relocate a hub from Kazakhstan to Russia.

On August 28, 2008, Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were negotiating joining together.[47]

Lufthansa acquired a 45% stake in Brussels Airlines in 2009. It has an option to acquire the remaining 55% by 2017. As a part of the deal Brussels Airlines joined Star Alliance in December 2009.[48][49][50]

On October 28, 2008, Lufthansa exercised its option to purchase a further 60% share in BMI (in addition to the 20% Lufthansa already owned), this resulted in a dispute with former owner Sir Michael Bishop. Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June 2009, and the acquisition took place with effect from July 1, 2009.[51] Lufthansa acquired the remaining 20% from Scandinavian Airlines on November 1, 2009, taking complete control of BMI.[52]

Lufthansa completed the purchase of Austrian Airlines from the Austrian government in January 2009.

In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined because it acted as a whistleblower.[53]

In April 2012, Lufthansa completed the sale of BMI to International Airlines Group (IAG), owner of British Airways and Iberia for £172.5 million.

In July 2012, a Qantas–Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to support the partnership. This resulted in 164 engineers becoming redundant. This follows just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which resulted in 400 additional job losses. It was announced that the Lufthansa Technik–Qantas partnership would end in September.[54]

Lufthansa also coordinates scheduling and ticket sales on transatlantic flights with Air Canada and United Airlines (as do Brussels Airlines, Swiss and Austrian Airlines). Lufthansa (with Swiss and Austrian Airlines) cooperates similarly with ANA on flights to Japan. Both ventures required approval of competition authorities.


Until April 2009 Lufthansa inventory and departure control systems, based on Unisys were managed by LH Systems. Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early 1990s. Following a decision to outsource all components of the Passenger Service System, the functions were outsourced to the Altéa platform managed by Amadeus.

Partner airlines

Lufthansa describes Air Malta, Air India, Luxair, LATAM and bmi regional as partner airlines. The partnerships mainly involve code-sharing and recognition of each other's frequent flier programmes.


Lufthansa sponsors Bundesliga clubs Bayern Munich and Eintracht Frankfurt.[55] The Lufthansa Group also sponsors the German Sports Aid Foundation - promoting its sociopolitical goals and the athletes it sponsors.[56]


Codeshare agreements

Besides fellow Star Alliance members, Lufthansa has codeshare agreements with the following airlines (as of April 2015):[57]


Current fleet

Lufthansa Airbus A320-200
Lufthansa Airbus A321-200
in 1960s retro livery
Lufthansa Airbus A340-300
Lufthansa Boeing 747-8
in 1970s retro livery
Lufthansa Airbus A380-800

As of December 2015, the Lufthansa mainline fleet (excluding all subsidiaries) consists of the following aircraft:[58]

Lufthansa mainline fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Options Passengers Notes
F B E+ E Total
Airbus A319-100 30 0 var 0 var 138 D-AILF painted in Star Alliance livery, D-AILU painted in Lufthansa Kids Club LU livery
Airbus A320-200 51 28 50[A] 168 D-AIPC and D-AIPD painted in Star Alliance livery
Airbus A320neo 61 TBA Launch customer [59] Lufthansa expects to take delivery of the A320neo on January 2016.[60][61][62][63][64]
Airbus A321-100 20 0 var 0 var 200 D-AIRW painted in Star Alliance livery, D-AIRY painted in Die Sendung mit der Maus livery
Airbus A321-200 44 D-AIDV painted in special 1960s retro livery
Airbus A321neo 40 TBA
Airbus A330-300 19
8 30 21 177 236
42 145 216
Airbus A340-300 18 0 18 19 261 298 D-AIGN, D-AIGP and D-AIGV painted in Star Alliance livery
8 aircraft to be transferred to and leased-back from Lufthansa CityLine to be operated in a high-density configuration on leisure routes.[65]
42 28 181 251
30 221 279
Airbus A340-600 24
8 44 32 213 297
56 28 189 281
Airbus A350-900 25[66] 15[66] TBA Deliveries 2016-2023[67]
Airbus A380-800 14 8 78 52 371 509
Boeing 737-300 8 0 var 0 var 140 to be retired and replaced by Airbus A320 family aircraft
Boeing 737-500 6 120
Boeing 747-400 13
0 53 32 308 393
67 272 371
Boeing 747-8 19
8 92 32 208 340 D-ABYP is the 1500th Boeing 747 built, D-ABYO is the 75th Boeing 747 operated by Lufthansa
D-ABYI painted in special Fanhansa Siegerflieger livery, D-ABYT painted in special 1970s retro livery
80 244 364
Boeing 777-9 34[68] 7 TBA Deliveries 2020-2025[68]
Total 266 188 72

A Lufthansa does not specify if these Options are for A320-200 or A320neo.[69]

Historic fleet

Lufthansa Boeing 737-200
in 1984
Lufthansa Airbus A310-200
in 1984
Lufthansa Boeing 747-200
in 1989
Lufthansa McDonnell Douglas DC-10 in 1994
Lufthansa Boeing 767-300ER
in 2003
Lufthansa Mainline Historical Fleet since 1955
Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A300B2/B4 1976 1984
Airbus A300-600R 1987 2009
Airbus A310-200/300 1984 2005
Airbus A319-100 1996
Airbus A320-200 1989
Airbus A321-100/-200 1994
Airbus A330-200 2002 2006
Airbus A330-300 2004
Airbus A340-200 1993 2006
Airbus A340-300 1993
Airbus A340-600 2003
Airbus A380-800 2010
Boeing 707 1960 1984 Also used in cargo configuration
Boeing 720 1961 1965
Boeing 727-100 1964 1979 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 727-200 1971 1993
Boeing 737-100 1967 1982 Launch customer, dubbed City Jet
Boeing 737-200 1969 1997 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 737-300 1986 Also used in Quick Change version
Boeing 737-400 1992 1998
Boeing 737-500 1990
Boeing 747-100 1970 1979
Boeing 747-200 1971 2004 Also used in cargo configuration
Boeing 747-400 1989
Boeing 747-8 2012 Launch customer
Boeing 767-300ER 1994
Leased from Condor[70]
Convair CV-340/440 1955 1968
Curtiss C-46 1964 1969 Leased cargo aircraft
Douglas DC-3 1955 1960 Also used in cargo configuration
Douglas DC-4 1958 1959 One single leased cargo aircraft
Douglas DC-8 1965 1966 One single leased cargo aircraft
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1974 1994
Fokker F27 Friendship ~1965 ~1966 Leased from Condor
Lockheed Super Constellation/Starliner 1955 1967 Also used in cargo configuration
Vickers Viking 1956 1961 Two leased cargo aircraft
Vickers Viscount 1958 1971

Aircraft naming conventions

In September 1960, the Lufthansa Boeing 707 (D-ABOC), which would serve the Frankfurt-New York intercontinental route, was christened Berlin after the divided city of Berlin by then-mayor Willy Brandt. Following the Berlin, other Lufthansa 707 planes were named "Hamburg", "Frankfurt", "München", and "Bonn." With these names, the company established a tradition of naming the planes in its fleet after German cities and towns or federal states, with a rule of thumb that the airplane make, size, or route would correspond roughly to the relative size or importance of the city or town it was named after.

This tradition has continued to this day, with two notable exceptions until 2010. The first was an Airbus A340-300 registered D-AIFC, name "Gander/Halifax", named after Gander and Halifax, two Canadian cities along the standard flight path from Europe to North America. It became the first Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city. The name is meant to commemorate the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports during Operation Yellow Ribbon after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

The other aircraft not named after a German city was an Airbus A321-100 registered as D-AIRA, which was designated Finkenwerder in honour of the collaborative Airbus facility in the borough of Hamburg-Finkenwerder, where about 40% of Airbus narrowbody models are manufactured.

In February 2010, Lufthansa announced that the first two Airbus A380s delivered would be named Frankfurt am Main and München, following its naming tradition. However, the subsequent A380 aircraft are named after Star Alliance hub cities like Tokyo, Beijing, Brussels, and New York.

Vintage aircraft restoration

Lufthansa Technik, the airline's maintenance arm, restored a Junkers Ju 52/3m built in 1936 to airworthiness; this aircraft was in use on the 10-hour Berlin to Rome route, across the Alps, in the 1930s. Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation, using parts from three such aircraft bought at auction. Lufthansa's Super Constellations and L1649 "Starliners" served routes such as Hamburg-Madrid-Dakar-Caracas-Santiago. Lufthansa Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour.[71][72]


First Class

First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft (Airbus A330-300, A340-300, A340-600, the front part of the upper deck of all Airbus A380s, and the main deck nose section of all Boeing 747–8s). Each seat converts to a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) bed, includes laptop power outlets, as well as entertainment facilities. Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa offers dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated First Class lounges in Frankfurt and Munich, as well as a dedicated first class terminal in Frankfurt. Arriving passengers have the option of using Lufthansa's First Class arrival facilities, as well as the new Welcome Lounge. Lufthansa has introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A380 and plans to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft.[73] With the new programme SCORE, introduced to boost profits by 1.5 billion euros over the following years, LH will stop route expansion and extensively decrease its First Class offerings on most routes.[74][75]

Business Class

Business Class on the upper deck of a Boeing 747-8

Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. Newer seats convert to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) lie-flat beds and include laptop power outlets and entertainment facilities.[76] Lufthansa offers dedicated Business Class check-in counters at all airports, as well as dedicated Business Class lounges at most airports, or contract lounges at other airports, as well as the Lufthansa Welcome Lounge upon arrival in Frankfurt. The original, Business Class features angle-lie flat seats with 150 degrees of recline.[76] Business Class on all Boeing 747-8s features fully flat bed seats,[77] and a larger seat-back entertainment screen.[77] The new seats are gradually being rolled out across the rest of the Airbus A330, A340, A380 and Boeing 747-400 fleet.

Premium Economy

Introduced in 2014,[78] Lufthansa's long-haul Premium Economy is being rolled out on all long-haul aircraft, starting with some Boeing 747-8s. Similar in design to Air Canada's Premium Economy or British Airways' World Traveller Plus cabins, Premium Economy features 38-inch (970 mm) pitch along with up to 3 inches (76 mm) more width than economy class, depending on the aircraft. The seats also feature a 11 or 12 inches (280 or 300 mm) personal seat-back entertainment screens and a larger armrest separating seats.

Economy Class

Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 Economy Class

Lufthansa's long-haul Economy Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. All have a 31-inch (790 mm) seat pitch except the Airbus A380s, which have a 33-inch (840 mm) seat pitch. Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks. Moreover, the whole fleet offers Audio-Video-On-Demand (AVOD) screens in Economy Class.

Miles & More

Lufthansa's frequent-flyer programme is called Miles & More, and is shared among several European airlines, including Austrian Airlines, Adria Airways, Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Luxair, Swiss International Air Lines, and Brussels Airlines.[79] Miles & More members may earn miles on Lufthansa flights and Star Alliance partner flights, as well as through Lufthansa credit cards, and purchases made through the Lufthansa shops. Status within Miles & More is determined by miles flown during one calendar year with specific partners. Membership levels include: Miles & More member (no minimal threshold), Frequent Traveller (Silver, 35,000-mile (56,000 km) threshold or 30 individual flights), Senator (Gold, 100,000-mile (160,000 km) threshold), and HON Circle (Black, 600,000-mile (970,000 km) threshold over two calendar years). All Miles & More status levels higher than Miles & More member offer lounge access and executive bonus miles, with the higher levels offering more exclusive benefits.[79]


Overview and access

Lounge Access by class Access by status
(Miles&More / Star Alliance)
Notes Number[80]
First Class Terminal First Class only
(Lufthansa & SWISS only)
HON Circle only
No Star Alliance Gold
Only available at Frankfurt Airport 1
First Class Lounge First Class only
(Lufthansa & SWISS only)
HON Circle only
No Star Alliance Gold
Available at Frankfurt Airport (Terminals 1A and 1B) and Munich Airport 3
Senator Lounge First Class only
(Lufthansa, SWISS & Star Alliance)
Senator or higher
Star Alliance Gold
Business Lounge First and Business Class
(Lufthansa & Star Alliance)
Frequent Traveller or higher
Star Alliance Gold
Welcome Lounge First and Business Class
(Lufthansa, SWISS & United only)
Frequent Traveller or higher
No Star Alliance Gold
Only available at Frankfurt Airport 1

Lufthansa operates four types of lounges: First Class, Senator, Business, and Welcome Lounges. Each departure lounge is accessible both through travel class, or Miles and More/Star Alliance status; the Welcome Lounge is limited to arriving premium passengers of the Lufthansa Group and United Airlines only.[81]

First Class Terminal

Lufthansa operates a first class terminal at Frankfurt Airport. The first terminal of its kind, access is limited only to departing Lufthansa First Class, same day Lufthansa Group first class and HON Circle members. Approximately 200 staff care for approximately 300 passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant, full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms, and offices, as well as bath facilities. Guests are driven directly to their departing flight by Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Porsche Cayenne, Porsche Panamera, or Mercedes-Benz V-Class.

Accidents and incidents

This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline aircraft since 1954. For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft Hansa. For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were operated by other airlines, see the respective articles (Lufthansa CityLine, Lufthansa Cargo, Contact Air, Germanwings, and Air Dolomiti).


  • On January 11, 1959, Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lufthansa Lockheed Super Constellation (registered D-ALAK) crashed onto a beach shortly off Galeão Airport in Rio de Janeiro following a scheduled passenger flight from Hamburg, Germany. Of the 29 passengers and 10 crew members on board, only the co-pilot and 2 flight attendants survived. Investigation into the accident resulted in blaming the pilots for having executed a too low approach, which may have been caused by fatigue.[82]
  • On December 4, 1961, a Lufthansa Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOK) crashed of unknown causes near Mainz during a training flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, killing the three occupants. It was the first crash involving an aircraft of that type.[83]
  • On July 15, 1964, another Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOP) crashed during a training flight, with the three people on board losing their lives (in what was only the second crash for this aircraft type). The accident occurred near Ansbach after the pilots had lost control of the aircraft when executing an aileron roll.
D-ABYB, the aircraft destroyed in the disaster of Flight 540, was the 2nd of 3 Boeing 747-100 delivered to Lufthansa.[85] It is seen here during a promotional event at Nuremberg Airport in 1970.
  • On July 26, 1979 at 21:32 UTC, a cargo-configured Boeing 707 (registered D-ABUY) that was en route Lufthansa Flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Dakar and onwards to Germany (at that time cargo flights were operated in-house, the German Cargo subsidiary had not been founded yet) crashed into a mountain 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Galeão Airport during initial climb, killing the three crew members on board. A flawed communication between the pilots and the air traffic controller had resulted in the aircraft flying on a wrong path.[87]


  • On December 20, 1973 at 00:33 local time, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (registered D-ABOT) with 98 passengers and 11 crew members on board collided with a middle marker shack upon approaching Palam Airport in Delhi following a scheduled passenger flight from Bangkok (as part of a multi-leg flight back to Germany). There were no injuries, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. At the time of the incident, there had been poor visibility conditions.[90]



Employment relations

Relations between Lufthansa and their pilots have been very tense in the past years, with many strikes occurring, causing hundreds of flights to be cancelled, as well as major losses to the company.[107] Since 2007 there have been poor industrial relations, with a number of strike actions, due to the push to expand Lufthansa's low-cost airline Germanwings.

Germanwings accident crisis management

Germanwings is a subsidiary of Lufthansa. Carsten Spohr, Lufthansa’s CEO, oversaw the Germanwings Flight 9525 disaster, "the darkest day for Lufthansa in its 60-year history".[108]

Nonetheless, damage control by Spohr and his team was poor according to several sources, as compared to other CEOs in the face of a major accident, with contradictory information given about the mental health and the airworthiness of the co-pilot Andreas Lubitz. It was revealed that Lubitz suffered from a severe case of depression and mental disorders and had intentionally crashed Germanwings Flight 9525 into the French Alps, killing all 150 aboard. Spohr had misleadingly said the co-pilot “was 100% airworthy without any restrictions, without any conditions”.[109]

GDS Surcharge

On September 1, 2015, Lufthansa implemented its controversial 16 euro surcharge on GDS bookings. The surcharge is payable unless tickets are purchased directly from the airline's website, or at its service centers and ticket counters at the airport. In a statement responding to Lufthansa’s strategy, Amadeus said the new model would make “comparison and transparency more difficult because travelers will now be forced to go to multiple channels to search for the best fares.[110] For the period between September 1–14, the airline experienced a 16.1% drop in revenue, indicating to some that the new fee backfired, although the airline maintains the decrease was due to the pilot strike, and "other seasonal effects".[111]

See also



  1. The company that today is known as Deutsche Lufthansa AG was founded as Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag) on 6 January 1953.[1] It sees itself in the tradition of Deutsche Lufthansa, the former German national airline that was founded in 1926 and liquidated in 1951, whose name and logo it acquired in 1954.[2] Lufthansa frequently names "1926" as its founding date, but it is not the legal successor of the earlier airline.[3]
  2. Lufthansa also counts Düsseldorf Airport, Vienna International Airport and Zurich Airport as its hubs.[4] They are not listed here because they are home to Lufthansa's subsidiaries Germanwings, Austrian Airlines and Swiss International Air Lines, respectively. For the same reason, all other Germanwings bases are omitted.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "We Call on Luftag". Flight International (5 February 1954): 165. Retrieved 19 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Klussmann, Niels (2007). Lexikon der Luftfahrt. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 396–397.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "As Time Flies By". Lufthansa. Retrieved 19 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Our hubs in Frankfurt, Munich, Dusseldorf, Zurich and Vienna". Lufthansa. Retrieved 1 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Lufthansa Group Annual Report 2014 12 March 2015
  7. Dinah Deckstein (9 May 2012). "Restructuring Plans Further Along Than Thought for German Airline Lufthansa". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 5 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Lufthansa Group - Route Map" (in Deutsch). 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2013-10-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Star Alliance Website: [1] ("The airlines engaged in the passenger transportation business are Lufthansa German Airlines...") Retrieved 5 July 2014
  10. "Lufthansa Fleet".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Lufthansa Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Retrieved July 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "We hereby invite our shareholders to attend the 51st Annual General Meeting" (PDF). Retrieved August 25, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "How to get there". Retrieved July 30, 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Lufthansa opens new office complex in Frankfurt (Lufthansa eroffnet neue Konzernzentrale in Frankfurt)". Europe Intelligence Wire. July 19, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Lufthansa Flies to 50-Year Milestone". Deutsche Welle. January 4, 2005. Retrieved August 25, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Blüthmann, Heinz (13 May 1994). "Neue Freiheit". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2013. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1
  18. 18.0 18.1 Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, A. (2009). ""Chapter 5" Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees". Cornell University Press, Ithaca. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 "A German Airline Again". Flight. 15 April 1955. pp. 472–473. Retrieved 9 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Die Tabellen-Piloten". Der Spiegel (22/1955): 32–40. 25 May 1955. Retrieved 19 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Michał Petrykowski, Samoloty Ił-18 Lufthansy, Lotnictwo Nr. 12/2009, p.20 (Polish)
  22. Kingsley-Jones, Max. "6,000 and counting for Boeing’s popular little twinjet." Flight International, Reed Business Information, April 22, 2009. Retrieved: April 22, 2009.
  23. Axel Kaune (Hrsg.): Konfliktmanagement im Tourismus - Die Einführung der Nullprovision. In: Change Management mit Organisationsentwicklung. Berlin 2010
  24. "Another airline enters the "A380 era" as Lufthansa receives its initial 21st century flagship aircraft". Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved November 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "History of Brussels Airlines". Retrieved August 13, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Green Light for Merger of Austrian Airlines and Lufthansa | News". Breaking Travel News. Retrieved 2012-10-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Webb, Alex (May 3, 2012). "Lufthansa to Scrap 3,500 Administrative Posts After Loss". Bloomberg.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Lufthansa on course with its SCORE programme". Retrieved 2013-10-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Lufthansa Group orders 59 wide-body aircraft". Retrieved 2013-10-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Lufthansa pilots' strike causes cancellation of more than 200 flights". Travel Trade.Org. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Lufthansa signs $1.25 billion outsourcing deal with IBM" (Press release). Reuters. 18 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. - "Lufthansa dissolves Düsseldorf long-haul base" (German) 29 June 2015
  34. "[2]." Lufthansa. Retrieved on 1 January 2016.
  35. Fellows, Lawrence. "Germans Setting Own Office Hours; Some German Workers Set Their Own Hours -Within Reason." The New York Times. Monday July 12, 1971. Page 1. Retrieved on February 14, 2010. "At Lufthansa's gleaming new office building here, and at many other offices and factories around West Germany, men and women now go to work when they want and stay as long as they want – within reason."
  36. "Terrorists Shoot Berlin Official, Bomb Airline". Los Angeles Times. October 28, 1986. p. Section 1, Late Final Desk. Start Page 2. Retrieved February 14, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Around the World; Bomb Rips Offices Of Lufthansa in Cologne". Associated Press at The New York Times. October 29, 1986. Retrieved November 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Grundsteinlegung für Lufthansa Hauptverwaltung in Köln." Retrieved on February 12, 2010. "Die Lufthansa hat mit einer Grundsteinlegung in Köln-Deutz den Beginn der Arbeiten für ihre neue Kölner Konzernzentrale gefeiert. Ende 2007 werden rund 800 Kölner Lufthanseaten, vor allem aus dem Konzernressort Finanzen, das Hochhaus am Rhein verlassen und in den nur wenige hundert Meter entfernten Neubau umziehen, erklärte das Unternehmen."
  39. Hofmann, Kurt. "Lufthansa deepens cuts." (Archive) Air Transport World. 20.2.2013. Retrieved on 15 November 2013.
  40. "Service Contact Person." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 15, 2010. Archived September 27, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  41. "Contacts Investor Relations." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 14, 2010.
  42. "Media Relations." Lufthansa. Retrieved on February 14, 2010.
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Lufthansa Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Retrieved March 30, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Lufthansa Chronicle. (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  47. (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived April 3, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  48. Official press release by Lufthansa. (June 28, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived December 13, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  49. Retrieved on April 2, 2012
  50. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  51. "Lufthansa Strikes BMI Deal, Ending Dispute". Dow Jones Deutschland. July 22, 2009. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Lufthansa to gain full control of bmi from SAS, while BA confirms interest in the UK carrier". Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. October 2, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Eleven airlines fined in European cargo cartel investigation". Retrieved November 10, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Job Losses After Qantas-Lufthansa Deal Falls Through". Airport International. July 26, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "German giants sign Samsung extension".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Commitment to Sports". Retrieved 10 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Codeshare Partners". Retrieved 21 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. - Lufthansa retrieved 20 December 2015
  66. 66.0 66.1 19 September 2013. "Lufthansa, Airbus' biggest airline customer, commits to up to 55 A350s | Airbus News & Events". Retrieved 2013-09-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. 19 September 2013 (September 19, 2013). "Lufthansa confirms huge Airbus, Boeing jet order". Retrieved 2013-09-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. 68.0 68.1 Boeing Launches 777X with Record Breaking Orders and Commitments
  69. "Lufthansa Group Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Lufthansa Group. March 13, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013. External link in |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "Engineering Veteran Plays a Vital Role In Plane's Rebirth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Lufthansa First Class". Retrieved November 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Richard Weiss (2013-02-21). "Lufthansa to Shrink First-Class Fleet Below British Airways". Retrieved 2013-08-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Lufthansa To Reduce First Class Capacity". LufthansaFlyer (Blog). 2013-02-22. Retrieved 2013-08-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[unreliable source?]
  76. 76.0 76.1 Snyder, Brett. "Photos: Inside Lufthansa's New Business Class". Conde Nast Traveler. Retrieved 12 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. 77.0 77.1 "Lufthansa unveils new fully-flat business class seat". Business Traveler. 2012-03-08. Retrieved May 20, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Miles & More status levels". Retrieved 2013-10-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Airports with Lufthansa / SWISS / Austrian Lounges Lufthansa
  81. Lounge types and access Lufthansa.
  82. Lufthansa 1959 crash at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  83. Lufthansa 1961 accidents at the Aviation Safety Network. (December 4, 1961). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  84. Lufthansa Flight 5 at the Aviation Safety Network. (January 28, 1966). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  86. Flight 540 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  87. Flight 527 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  88. Universität Bielefeld (German)
  89. Flight 2904 at the Aviation Safety Network. (September 14, 1993). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  90. 1973 incident at the Aviation Safety Network. (December 20, 1973). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  91. February 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  92. "On This Day—23 February1972: Hijackers surrender and free Lufthansa crew". BBC. February 23, 1972. Retrieved 29 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. July 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. (July 10, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  94. October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. (October 11, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  95. 29 October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  96. Peter Chalk (2012). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved February 28, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Sattar, Majid (9 November 2006). "Folgen eines Anschlags" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 26 July 2013. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. 1973 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  99. Arab Hijackers Land in Kuwait; Hostages Freed," The New York Times, December 19, 1973. Page 1.
  100. June 1977 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. (June 28, 1977). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  101. Flight 181 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  102. 1979 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. (September 12, 1979). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  103. February 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. (February 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  104. March 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. (March 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  105. March 1985 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. (March 29, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  106. Flight 595 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  107. ksb/bk. (2015). "No sign of take off as Lufthansa pilots extend strike to three days". Deutsche Welle, Bonn.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "Lufthansa boss says past hours 'darkest in 60-year history'". ITV News. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. "Lufthansa Chief Carsten Spohr Under Spotlight After Germanwings Crash". The Wall Street Journal. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Lufthansa to charge fee for GDS Bookings". Oct 24, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "Lufthansa disputes report that says GDS bookins are way down". Oct 24, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

Media related to Lufthansa at Wikimedia Commons

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.