March 1960

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The following events occurred in March 1960.


March 5, 1960: Iconic photo of Che Guevara taken by Albert Korda

March 1, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • NASA established an Office of Life Sciences to work on exobiology, based on Dr. Joshua Lederberg's ideas that space vehicles should be sterilized before and after their missions in order to prevent the possibility of contamination of outer space or of the Earth by microbes.[1]

March 2, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • During a visit to Montevideo, the President of the United States was among the people who fell victim to tear gas, used by the Uruguayan police to disperse rioting university students. Dwight D. Eisenhower and his host, newly inaugurated Uruguayan President Benito Nardone, could be seen rubbing their eyes as their motorcade passed shortly after the gas was used.[2]
  • Lufthansa, the German national airline, entered the jet age with the flight of its first Boeing 707.[3]
  • Born: Hector Calma Filipino basketball player, in Manila
  • Died: Stanisław Taczak, 85, Polish General

March 3, 1960 (Thursday)

March 4, 1960 (Friday)

  • At 3:10 pm, the French cargo ship La Coubre, carrying 70 tons of munitions from Belgium, exploded in Havana Harbor while it was being unloaded. A second explosion happened while aid was being rendered. Seventy-six people were killed, all but six of them bystanders, and more than 200 were injured.[7]
  • Born: John Mugabi, Ugandan boxer, and WBC World Junior Middleweight champion, 1989–90, in Kampala; and Mykelti Williamson, American actor (Forrest Gump), as Michael T. Williamson in St. Louis.
  • Died: American opera singer Leonard Warren, 48, suffered a heart attack while performing at the Metropolitan Opera in New York.

March 5, 1960 (Saturday)

  • The iconic image of Che Guevara (seen above) was taken by photographer Alberto Korda, who was on assignment from the Cuban government newspaper Revolucion to cover a protest rally the day after the explosion of the freighter La Coubre. The photo attained worldwide popularity in 1968 after Korda gave a copy to Italian publisher Giangiacomo Feltrinelli.[8]
  • Staff Sergeant Elvis Presley was honorably discharged from the United States Army, nearly two years after being drafted into the service on March 24, 1958.[9]
  • The Gao-Guenie meteorite, weighing more than one ton, landed near the village of Gao in the African nation of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso). The sound of the impact was heard 100 km away.[10]

March 6, 1960 (Sunday)

  • Four Russian soldiers who had been adrift in the Pacific Ocean since January 17, were rescued after a 49-day search. The American aircraft carrier U.S.S. Kearsarge picked up the four men—Sgt. Viktor Zygonschi, and his men, Antony Kruckhowske, Filip Poplavski, and Feodor Ivan—who had survived seven weeks.[11]
  • President Eisenhower announced that 3,500 American troops would be posted to South Vietnam.[12]
  • President Sukarno of Indonesia dissolved that nation's elected parliament. The legislature would be replaced later that month by a body appointed by Sukarno himself.[13]
  • The Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act took effect. Prior to the amendment, there was no requirement for government approval of additives to food sold in the United States.[14]

March 7, 1960 (Monday)

  • The 14,000 member Screen Actors Guild called a strike for the first time in its history, bringing to a halt the filming of eight major motion pictures and several minor ones.[15]
  • The first 20 Soviet cosmonauts were selected in preparation for manned spaceflight.[16]
  • Born: Ivan Lendl, Czech pro tennis player (French, U.S. and Australian open champion), in Ostrava; and Joe Carter, American MLB outfielder, in Oklahoma City

March 8, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • The New Hampshire primary, first of the nominating primary elections, saw U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy win the state's Democratic Party delegates, and U.S. Vice-President Richard M. Nixon win on the Republican ticket, each with a record number of registered voters from their parties. Other major candidates had declined to participate in New Hampshire. Kennedy defeated Chicago businessman Paul Fisher, 42,969 to 6,784 and Nixon's 65,077 votes were matched by write-ins for four candidates, including 8,428 for New Hampshire Governor Wesley Powell.[17]

March 9, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • The Scribner shunt, a flexible Teflon tube that could be permanently implanted to connect an artery to a vein, was first implanted into a human patient. For the first time, persons with kidney failure could receive dialysis on a regular basis. Prior to the shunt's invention by Dr. Belding H. Scribner, glass tubes had to be inserted into blood vessels every time that dialysis was given. As one observer noted, "Scribner took something that was 100% fatal and overnight turned it into a condition with a 90% survival." The historic operation took place at the University of Washington hospital, and 39-year-old machinist Clyde Shields was the first beneficiary. At the same time, a new issue in bioethics was created, since decisions had to be made about which patients would be selected to receive the lifesaving treatment.[18]
  • The journal Physical Review Letters received the paper "Apparent Weight of Photons" from physicists Robert V. Pound and Glen A. Rebka, Jr., reporting the first successful laboratory measurement of the gravitational redshift of light, described later as a key event in proving the theory of general relativity.[19]
  • Died:U.S. Senator Richard L. Neuberger, 47 (D-Ore.). Senator Neuberger was in the final year of his first term. His widow, Maurine Neuberger, had only two days to file as a candidate in the Democratic primary, and was elected as U.S. Senator in 1960, serving until 1967.[20]
  • Died: Jack Beattie, 75, Northern Ireland Labour Party leader, 1929–33 and 1942–43

March 10, 1960 (Thursday)

  • The first mitral valve replacement was performed on a 16-year-old girl, who had implanted in her a prosthesis, made of polyurethane and Dacron, and designed by Drs. Nina Braunwald and Andrew Morrow. The girl survived the operation, but died 60 hours later. The next day, a 44-year-old woman received the valve and made a full recovery eight weeks later.[21]
  • The first implantation of the caged ball heart valve, developed by Drs. Dwight E. Harken and William C. Birtwell, was made on Mary Richardson, who survived for 30 years after the surgery.[22]
  • Eight persons were pulled alive from the rubble of Agadir, ten days after the deadly earthquake that had killed 12,000 people in Morocco.[23]

March 11, 1960 (Friday)

  • At five seconds after 8:00 a.m., EST, Pioneer V was launched from Cape Canaveral as the third man-made object to become a "planetoid" in solar orbit. Unlike the Soviet and American probes launched previously, Pioneer V would orbit between the Earth and Venus.[24]
  • Died: Roy Chapman Andrews, 76, American explorer, adventurer and naturalist

March 12, 1960 (Saturday)

  • At the age of 21, Prince Constantine Bereng Seeiso of Basutoland (later Lesotho) formally became the Paramount Chief, and, upon the African nation's independence from the United Kingdom in 1966, King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho. He reigned until his death in an auto accident in 1996.[25]

March 13, 1960 (Sunday)

  • Author Ian Fleming was a dinner guest at the home of future American President John F. Kennedy, and described to the assemblage some humorous suggestions for how James Bond would get rid of Fidel Castro, including causing Castro's beard to fall out. CIA official John Bross, another dinner guest, called agency director Allen Dulles afterward and reported Fleming's "ideas", some of which were tried later.[26]
  • Born: Adam Clayton, Irish rock bassist (U2), in Chinnor, Oxfordshire, England; and Joe Ranft, American animator and Pixar voice actor, in Pasadena (killed in auto accident, 2005)

March 14, 1960 (Monday)

  • West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer met with Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, the first time a German leader had conferred with a leader of the Jewish state. Two weeks earlier, the two countries had secretly negotiated German financial and military aid to Israel.[27]
  • Richard Bissell, who oversaw the CIA's U-2 spy plane program, was warned by his aide, USAF Col. William Burke, that the Soviets had developed the missile capability to shoot down the high altitude (70,000 feet) U-2. Nevertheless, the spy flights continued, and on May 1, 1960, a U-2 would be downed in Soviet territory.[28]
  • Born: Kirby Puckett, Minnesota Twins infielder, Baseball Hall of Famer, in Chicago; (d. 2006); and Fateh Kamel, al-Qaida terrorist leader, in El Harrach, Algeria.

March 15, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • Government forces in Masan, South Korea, arrested students protesting against rigged elections. Although President Syngman Rhee's re-election to a fourth term had been ensured when his opponent died of an illness, separate elections for Vice-President would determine the 85-year-old Rhee's successor. With the aid of government measures, including the stuffing of ballot boxes, Rhee's running mate, Lee Ki Poong, officially received 79.2% of the votes in what was expected to be a close race against opponent Chang Myun. Over the next weeks, students in other cities followed the example of Masan, and Rhee was forced to resign.[29]
  • Police in Orangeburg, South Carolina arrested 389 African-American protesters who had converged upon the town's lunch counters at the noon hour.[30] Meanwhile, in Atlanta, 77 students were arrested after beginning sit-ins at government offices.[31]

March 16, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • Robert Sobukwe, leader of the Pan Africanist Congress, gave advance notice to South Africa's police commissioner that, beginning on March 21, the PAC would stage five days of non-violent protests against national laws that required all black South Africans to carry passes. What was intended as a peaceful demonstration would become the Sharpeville Massacre.[32]
  • At a cave in Starved Rock State Park near Ottawa, Illinois, the bodies of three women were found. All three, residents of Riverside, Illinois, and the wealthy wives of Chicago business executives, had been beaten to death two days before, during an afternoon of birdwatching. A dishwasher at the park later confessed to killing the women after attempting to rob them.[33] Chester Weger, convicted of the murder, was sentenced to life imprisonment, and was denied parole as recently as December 2009.[34]

March 17, 1960 (Thursday)

  • Northwest Airlines Flight 710 crashed, killing all 63 persons on board. The wings fell off of the Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop airplane at an altitude of 18,000 feet while the flight was en route from Chicago to Miami, and crashed into a soybean field near Cannelton, Indiana at 4:20 p.m., leaving a 12-foot-deep (3.7 m) crater.[35]
  • Following a 2:30 meeting at the White House with Allen Dulles and Richard Bissell of the CIA, President Eisenhower authorized the agency to train and equip Cuban exiles to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro, an operation which would become, in 1961, the Bay of Pigs Invasion.[36]
  • Sculptor Jean Tinguely introduced the first piece of "autodestructive art" at New York's Museum of Modern Art. Homage to New York, composed of bicycle wheels and motors, was activated at 6:30 pm and destroyed itself within an hour.[37]

March 18, 1960 (Friday)

The Snark
  • The "Snark missile" began its brief service as a nuclear tipped American ICBM. Designed by Northrop and named after the Lewis Carroll poem, "The Hunting of the Snark", the 30 missiles were deployed at Presque Isle AFB in Maine as part of the 702d Strategic Missile Wing. Fifteen months later, the Snarks were declared to be obsolete, and deactivated by order of President Kennedy.[38]

March 19, 1960 (Saturday)

  • In parliamentary elections in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), the Ceylon Democratic Party headed by Prime Minister Wijayananda Dahanayake was voted out of its majority. The United National Party of Ceylon formed a new government, and Dudley Senanayake became the new Premier.[39]
  • A portion of the Great Wall of China was opened for visitors after repairs that had first been suggested in 1952 by Guo Moruo, an official in the Communist Chinese government. The section near Badaling was originally set aside for visits by foreign diplomats, and its first guest was Nepal's Foreign Minister. In 1972, television viewers in the West would see the wall at Badaling during a visit by President Nixon of the United States, and the area is now open to tourists.[40]
  • Ohio State University won the NCAA basketball championship by upsetting the defending champion, the University of California, 75–55.[41]
  • Denver University won the 1960 NCAA ice hockey championship, 5–3 over Michigan Tech, after John MacMillan scored two goals in the final 63 seconds of the game.[42]
  • Dallas Rangers general manager Tex Schramm announced that the new NFL team was going to change its name to avoid a conflict with the minor league baseball team of the same name. "It seems Dallas is becoming big league in baseball as well as in football", Schram said, "and since both 'Rangers' will be around here for a long time, and since the baseball club had the name first, we're changing ours." The new name selected was the Dallas Cowboys.[43]

March 20, 1960 (Sunday)

Governor Collins
  • LeRoy Collins, the Governor of Florida, surprised the state and the rest of the world in a televised speech. Though he had been a defender of Florida's segregation laws, Governor Collins endorsed the goal of sit-in demonstrations to allow African-Americans to eat at lunch counters. "People have told me that our racial strife could be eliminated if the colored people would just stay in their place," said the Governor, "but friends, we can never stop Americans from struggling to be free."[44]
  • Born: Norm Magnusson, American artist, founder of "funism"

March 21, 1960 (Monday)

  • Sharpeville Massacre: At 1:20 p.m., in a moment that shocked the world, white police at the South African township of Sharpeville fired their guns into a crowd of unarmed black protestors, killing 69 people and wounding 180. Subsequent investigations determined that two policemen had fired their guns, and that 50 others then began shooting into the crowd as they fled. Within 40 seconds, 705 rounds were fired. Of 155 bullets extracted from the dead and wounded, only 30 were frontal entry wounds. Most of the victims had been shot in the back as they ran. Of the dead, 31 were women, and 19 were children.[45] Since the end of white minority rule, South Africa observes Human Rights Day annually on March 21.
  • In Buenos Aires, Ricardo Klement brought a bouquet of flowers to his wife at their home at 16 Garibaldi Street, confirming to Mossad agents that the Argentine businessman was, as they suspected, Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann. The Israeli intelligence service was aware that Eichmann had married on March 21, 1935, while Eichmann was unaware that he had been found after 15 years on the run. The architect of Germany's "Final Solution" genocide, Eichmann eluded capture after the end of World War II. In May, he would be abducted and brought to Israel to stand trial.[46]
  • Born: Ayrton Senna, Brazilian race car driver, three time Formula One champion, in São Paulo; killed at 1994 San Marino Grand Prix
  • Died: Polly Thomson, 75; after the death of Anne Sullivan in 1936, Thomson served as the interpreter for Helen Keller

March 22, 1960 (Tuesday)

March 23, 1960 (Wednesday)

March 24, 1960 (Thursday)

Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-124 at Arlanda, April 1966.jpg

March 25, 1960 (Friday)

Cromwell 1650

March 26, 1960 (Saturday)

  • At the 12-hour endurance event at Sebring, Florida, race car driver Jim Hughes lost control of his car 23 minutes after the start, and his car rolled over onto George Thompson, a photographer for the Tampa Tribune. Both men were killed. The race was won by Olivier Gendebien, who had alternated with Hans Hermann.[52]
  • The Minneapolis Lakers played their last NBA game, losing in Game 7 of the Western Conference playoffs, 97–86, to the St. Louis Hawks. The Lakers would move to Los Angeles during the off-season.[53]
  • Various Ku Klux Klan groups burned crosses along highways in Alabama and South Carolina, apparently in retaliation for sit-ins by African-Americans at lunch counters.[54]
  • Born: Marcus Allen, American NFL player, Hall of Famer; in San Diego
  • Died: Dr. Emil Herman Grubbe, 85, the first person to be injured by radiation. After following Roentgen's work in x-rays in 1895, Grubbe underwent 93 operations for radiation-induced cancer on his hands and face; and Ian Keith, 61, American actor

March 27, 1960 (Sunday)

March 28, 1960 (Monday)

March 29, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • The New York Times ran a full page advertisement on page L25, with the heading "Heed Their Rising Voices". Part of the ad referred to disturbances in Montgomery, Alabama and described actions by that city's police. One of the three City Commissioners of Montgomery, L.B. Sullivan, would bring a suit against the Times for libel and get a $500,000 judgment in an Alabama court. From the controversy came a landmark United States Supreme Court ruling in New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).[58]
  • Dr. Melvin Cook received the first patent for a water-based explosive product. Water gel, slurry, and emulsion explosives are less sensitive to impact and shock and safer than dynamite, and are primarily used in industrial applications.[59]

March 30, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • A state of emergency was proclaimed in South Africa by Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd at 3:00 a.m., nine days after the Sharpeville Massacre, and the government began arresting dissidents.[60] On the same day, thirty thousand black South Africans marched through Cape Town in protest of the pass laws, the massacre, and the arrest of black leaders.[61]
  • In the United States, five thousand black Americans marched through Baton Rouge, the state capital of Louisiana, in protest over discrimination at lunch counters and arrests of protesters by the police.[62]
  • Died: Jamil Mardam Bey, 65, former Prime Minister of Syria

March 31, 1960 (Thursday)


  1. Steven J. Dick and James E. Strick, The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology (Rutgers University Press, 2005), p29
  2. "Ike Periled by Tear Gas Used to Stop Student Riot", Oakland Tribune, March 2, 1960, p1
  3. website
  4. "Pope Names 7 to College of Cardinals", Oakland Tribune, March 3, 1960, p1
  5. "Lucy Weeps On Set; She'll Divorce Desi", Oakland Tribune, March 4, 1960, p1
  6. Gerald Nachman, Raised on radio: in quest of the Lone Ranger (University of California Press, 2000), p422
  7. Alejandro de Quesada, The Bay of Pigs: Cuba, 1961 (Osprey Publishing, 2009), p8; "Havana Ship Disaster Blamed on U.S. 'Plot'", Oakland Tribune, March 5, 1960, p1
  8. Michael Chanan, Cuban Cinema (University of Minnesota Press, 2004), p248
  9. John Robertson, Elvis Presley: The Complete Guide To His Music (Omnibus 2004), p33
  10. "The Guenie and Gao chondrites from Burkina Faso", by Michele Bourot-Denise, et al., Meteorics and Planetary Science 33, A181 (1998)
  11. "Navy Saves Four Russians From Pacific", Oakland Tribune, March 8, 1960, p1; "Russ Sailor Tells Of 49-Day Ordeal", Oakland Tribune, March 16, 1960, p1
  12. Sharon Monteith, American Culture in the 1960s (Edinburgh University Press, 2008), p16
  13. Audrey R. Kahin and George McT. Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia (University of Washington Press, 1995) p301
  14. Arti Bhatia, Encyclopaedia of Health and Nutrition (Anmol, 1999), p298
  15. Kathleen Sharp, Mr. & Mrs. Hollywood: Edie and Lew Wasserman and Their Entertainment Empire (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003), p82
  16. David Darling, The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity (Wiley, 2003) p442
  17. "Kennedy's Stock Soars With Record N.H. Vote", Tucson Daily Citizen, March 9, 1960, p1
  18. Murray Longmore, Ian B. Wilkinson and Supraj Rajagopalan, Mini Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine, 6th Ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006), p289
  19. Clifford M. Will, Was Einstein Right?: Putting General Relativity to the Test (BasicBooks, 1993), p5
  20. "Neuberger, Maurine Brown", From Suffrage to the Senate: An Encyclopedia of American Women in Politics by Suzanne O'Dea (ABC-CLIO, 1999), p498
  21. Stephen Westaby and Cecil Bosher, Landmarks in Cardiac Surgery (Informa Health Care, 1997), p153
  22. Richard J. Bing, Cardiology: The Evolution of the Science and the Art (Taylor & Francis, 1992), p243
  23. "8 More Found Alive In Ruins of Quake", Oakland Tribune, March 10, 1960, p1
  24. "U.S. Fires Rocket to Sun Orbit; Radio Signals on Schedule", Oakland Tribune, March 11, 1960, p1
  25. "Moshoeshoe II", Historical Dictionary of Lesotho (Scarecrow Press, 2004), p286
  26. Edward P. Comentale, Stephen Watt, and Skip Willman, Ian Fleming & James Bond: The Cultural Politics of 007 (Indiana University Press, 2005) pp178–179; Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy (Yale University Press, 1989), p116
  27. Michael Wolffsohn, Eternal Guilt?: Forty Years of German-Jewish-Israeli Relations (Columbia University Press, 1993), p23
  28. Thomas Fensch, The C.I.A. and the U-2 Program, 1954–1974 (New Century Books, 2001), pp173–174
  29. Jürgen Kleiner, Korea: A Century of Change (World Scientific, 2001), pp125–126
  30. "400 Negroes Arrested in Rights March", Oakland Tribune, March 15, 1960, p1; Jack Bass and W. Scott Poole, The Palmetto State: The Making of Modern South Carolina (University of South Carolina Press, 2009), p98
  31. Townsend Davis, Weary Feet, Rested Souls: A Guided History of the Civil Rights Movement (W.W. Norton, 1999), p157
  32. Godfrey Mwakikagile, South Africa in Contemporary Times (New Africa Press, 2008), p55
  33. "Bodies of 3 Women Found In Park Cave", Oakland Tribune, March 16, 1960, p1; Alex Woolf, Investigating Thefts and Heists (Heinemann Library, 2004), pp18–19
  34. "Parole denied again for Starved Rock killer", Chicago Tribune, December 17, 2009.
  35. "U.S. Probes Plane Bomb Hint; 63 Die", Oakland Tribune, March 18, 1960, p1; Geza Szurovy, Classic American Airlines (MBI, 2003) p135
  36. Arthur M. Schlesinger and David Sobel, A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Houghton Mifflin, 1965), p65; Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Anchor Books, 2008), p182
  37. Matthijs van Boxsel, The Encyclopædia of Stupidity (Reaktion, 2004), pp170–171
  38. "Weapons That Did Not Make the Cut", The Brookings Institution website
  39. "Minority Govt. In Ceylon", Winnipeg Free Press, March 21, 1960, p1
  40. Julia Lovell, The Great Wall: China Against the World, 1000 BC-AD 2000 (Grove Press, 2006), p317
  41. "Ohio State Stuns California in NCAA Finals", Colorado Springs Gazette, March 20, 1960, pB-1
  42. "DU Scores Late to Rip Tech for NCAA Crown", Colorado Springs Gazette, March 20, 1960, pB-1
  43. "Dallas Changes Grid Team Name", Colorado Springs Gazette, March 20, 1960, pB-1
  44. "Fla. Governor Criticizes Segregated Store Cafes", Charleston (WV) Gazette, March 21, 1960, p2; Glenda Alice Rabby, The Pain and the Promise: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Tallahassee, Florida (University of Georgia Press, 1999), p107
  45. Godfrey Mwakikagile, Africa and America in the Sixties: A Decade That Changed the Nation and the Destiny of a Continent (New Africa Press, 2006), pp49–50; "50 Slain, 156 Wounded in Africa Riot", Oakland Tribune, March 21, 1960, p1; "The Sharpeville Massacre", TIME Magazine, April 4, 1960
  46. Ephraim Kahana, Historical Dictionary of Israeli Intelligence (Scarecrow Press 2006),3
  47. Nick Taylor, Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War (Citadel Press Books, 2000), p114
  48. "He once had chance to get freedom, turned it down", The Bend (OR) Bulletin, March 24, 1960, p12; "Milestones", TIME Magazine, April 4, 1960
  49. website
  50. Antonia Fraser, Cromwell, the Lord Protector (Grove Press, 1973), p698; Los Angeles Times, August 11, 1996
  51. Euromast website (English)
  52. "Napa Racer and Cameraman Killed", Oakland Tribune, March 26, 1960, p1
  53. "Hawks Whip Lakers for Final Playoff Berth", Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, Wisconsin), March 27, 1960, p3-1
  54. "KKK Crosses Burn In Two States", Oakland Tribune, March 28, 1960, p32;
  55. Handbook of Texas online
  56. "The End of Steam Engines"
  57. "Rep. Russell Mack Collapses, Dies", Oakland Tribune, March 28, 1960, p1
  58. Kermit L. Hall and John J. Patrick, The Pursuit of Justice: Supreme Court Decisions that Shaped America (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp141–148
  59. James T. Thurman, Practical Bomb Scene Investigation (CRC Press, 2006), p79
  60. Les Switzer and Mohamed Adhikari, South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation Under Apartheid (Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2000), p132
  61. "30,000 Africans In Demonstration", Oakland Tribune, March 30, 1960, p1
  62. "5,000 Negro Students In Protest", Oakland Tribune, March 30, 1960, p1
  63. Grzegorz Ekiert, The State Against Society: Political Crises and Their Aftermath in East Central Europe (Princeton University Press, 1996), p107