Marvel Entertainment

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Marvel Entertainment, LLC
Subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company
Industry Entertainment
Predecessor Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.
Founded June 1998; 20 years ago (June 1998)[1]
Headquarters New York City, New York, US
Area served
United States, United Kingdom
Key people
Products Comics, Animation, Television, Film
Services Licensing
Number of employees
Parent The Walt Disney Company
Divisions Marvel Toys
Marvel Television

Marvel Entertainment, LLC (formerly Marvel Enterprises and Toy Biz, Inc.) is an American entertainment company formed from the merger of Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and Toy Biz, Inc. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, and is mainly known for its Marvel Comics, Marvel Animation and Marvel Television units. Marvel Entertainment's former film subsidiary, Marvel Studios—which operated directly under the company from 1996 to 2015—became a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Studios, where it develops and produces its own films based on Marvel characters.

In 2009, Disney acquired Marvel Entertainment, Inc. for $4 billion,;[2] it has been a limited liability company (LLC) since then. For financial reporting purposes, Marvel is reported as primarily a part of Disney's Consumer Products segments.[3]

Over the years, Marvel Entertainment has entered in several partnerships and negotiations with other companies across a variety of businesses. As of 2018, Marvel has film licensing agreements with 20th Century Fox and Columbia Pictures, and a theme park licensing agreement with Universal Parks & Resorts extant before Disney's acquisition.[4] Aside from their contract with Universal, Marvel's characters and properties have also appeared at Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, another Disney unit.[5]


Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.

Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.
(later Marvel Property, Inc.)[6][7]
Subsidiary then Public subsidiary (NYSE:MRV)
Industry Entertainment
Genre Superhero
Fate bankrupt, merger
Predecessor Magazine Management
Successor Marvel Enterprises
Defunct June 1998[1]
Products Comics
Services Licensing
  • Marvel Films (1993–1996)
  • Marvel Enterprise (1997–1998)

Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. (Marvel or MEG), incorporated on December 2, 1986[6] as the parent company of Marvel Comics and Marvel Productions, was put up for sale as part of the liquidation of its then parent corporation, Cadence Industries, and sold in 1986 to New World Pictures.[8] On January 6, 1989, Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings group of companies bought Marvel Entertainment Group from New World for $82.5 million,[9] not including Marvel Productions, which was folded into New World's TV and movie business.[8]

"It is a mini-Disney in terms of intellectual property," said Perelman. "Disney's got much more highly recognized characters and softer characters, whereas our characters are termed action heroes. But at Marvel we are now in the business of the creation and marketing of characters."[1]

Going Public and acquisition

Marvel made an initial public offer of 40% of the stock (ticker symbol NYSE:MRV) on July 15, 1991, giving $40 million from the proceeds to Andrews Group, Marvel's then direct parent corporation within MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.[9][10]

Marvel Entertainment Group then began expanding with acquisitions and forming new divisions. Marvel purchased the trading card company Fleer on July 24, 1992.[9] On April 30, 1993, Marvel acquired 46% of ToyBiz, for the rights to make Marvel toys.[9] The Andrews Group named Avi Arad of ToyBiz as the president and CEO of the Marvel Films division and of New World Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary.[11]

In 1993 and 1994, Marvel's holding companies — Marvel Holdings, Inc. and Marvel Parent Holdings, Inc. — were formed between Andrews Group and MEG and issued over half a billion dollars in bonds under the direction of Perelman, secured by Marvel's rising stock, which was passed up in dividends to Perlman's group of companies.[12] Marvel continued making acquisitions with Panini, an Italian sticker-maker on August 4, 1994 for $158.4 million, and SkyBox International on March 8, 1995 for $150 million.[9]

Marvel also purchased Heroes World Distribution, a regional distributor to comic-book shops on Dec. 28, 1994.[9] Marvel's attempt to distribute its products directly led to a decrease in sales and aggravated the losses which Marvel suffered when the comic book bubble[13] popped, the 1994 Major League Baseball strike massacred the profits of the Fleer unit,[14] and Panini, whose revenue depended largely on Disney licensing, was hobbled by poor Disney showings at the box office.[15]

Marvel Studios and bankruptcy

While licensing revenue reached $50 million in 1995, MEG laid off 275 employees on January 4, 1996,[16] as losses for the 1995 year were $48.4 million.[9] On November 12, 1996 Perelman offered to have the Andrews Group purchase additional shares with an issue for $350 million in November 1996 (the "Andrews Plan"), which would have required ToyBiz to become a wholly owned subsidiary of Marvel. Meanwhile, Carl Icahn began buying Marvel's bonds at 20% of their value and moved to block Perelman's plan. The Marvel group of companies filed for bankruptcy on December 27, 1996, but the noteholders, led by Icahn, initially blocked this.[1][9]

In August 1996, Marvel created Marvel Studios, an incorporation of Marvel Films, due to the sale of its film and TV sister company, New World Communications Group, to News Corporation. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to finance the new corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutter's Zib, Inc. and Avi Arad sold Toy Biz stocks, which Marvel had started and took public in February 1995.[17][18]

Icahn fought to take control of the company from Perelman.[15] The court ruled on February 26, 1997 that Icahn could foreclose on a controlling interest in Marvel shares put up for collateral for the company's bonds.[9] On April 28, 1997, ToyBiz and Marvel agreed to a plan supported by Chase Bank that would merge the two companies, grant then lenders a $250 million loan proceeds, a 5-year, $170 million note, 28% of merged entity's equity and all stock in subsidiaries Fleer/SkyBox and Panini subsidiaries with Marvel shareholders receiving two sets of stock warrants.[19] Finally Icahn took control of Marvel's board and became Marvel's chairman on June 20.[9] Bankruptcy proceedings continued with multi-way arguments among Perelman, Icahn, Toy Biz, and the banks.[1] A plan for reorganization agreed to by Icahn and the MEG's secured creditors fell apart on October 8 with the introduction of the better Toy Biz plan. The Bankruptcy Court on December 24 appointed a trustee to oversee the company.[9]

In June 1997, Marvel formed its Marvel Enterprise division, headed by president and CEO Scott C. Marden, to manage its trading card and sticker businesses, as well as Marvel Interactive, an Internet-entertainment and software-publishing company.[20]

A lawsuit by bond holders and Marvel's litigation trustees was filed in 1997, accusing Perelman and other Marvel Board Directors of diverting $553.5 million in proceeds from 1993 and 1994 notes to other MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings' companies, prior to Marvel's 1996 bankruptcy. The lawsuit asked for $470.8 million in damages. The appellate court ruled that, “None of the proceeds went to Marvel, or were used for Marvel’s benefit”, but instead improperly enriched the directors. While denying any wrongdoing, Perelman agreed in August 2008 to settle for $80 million, which the trustees accepted. The settlement fund, after paying off trustees' and legal fees, administrative expenses and a $2 million loan, had $50 million to distribute to some Marvel Entertainment Group shareholders and unsecured creditors.[12]

On February 18, 1998, Marvel and co-owner Universal Studios Hollywood opened Marvel Mania Restaurant near Universal Studios in California,[21] as well as Planet Hollywood. However, Planet Hollywood had financial problems due to expanding too quickly, and closed Marvel Mania.[22]

Another Toy Biz reorganization plan supported by the most creditors is submitted to the court on February 13, 1998. New York Stock Exchange stops trading of Marvel stock on April 17.[9] Toy Biz owners Ike Perlmutter and Avi Arad, with the banks on their side, snatched Marvel from Perelman and Icahn, in order to protect their own financial interests.[15] Retailer and columnist Chuck Rozanski estimated that Perelman made $200 to $400 million from Marvel,[23] while Forbes magazine believes he made nothing;[24] and the judge in the Marvel bankruptcy trial estimated that Perelman made $280 million plus various tax advantages.[15] The judge ousted Icahn as Marvel's chairman in December 1997, naming a trustee to run Marvel while discussion continued between the various factions.[1]

Marvel Enterprises

ToyBiz and Marvel Entertainment Group were merged into Marvel Enterprises to bring it out of bankruptcy in June 1998.[1] In February 1999, Fleer/Skybox was sold to a corporation owned by Alex and Roger Grass, a father and son, for US$30 million.[25]

Later, the rights to names like "Spider-Man" were being challenged. Toy Biz hired an attorney to review its license agreement. Los Angeles patent attorney Carole E. Handler found a legal loophole in the licensing of the Marvel name and was successful in reclaiming Marvel Enterprises' movie rights to its character Spider-Man.[26][27][28]

Marvel Enterprise organized itself into four major units, Marvel Studios, Toy Biz, Licensing and Publishing, while in November 1999 adding Marvel Characters Group to manage Marvel's IP and oversee marketing.[29]

In 2003, Bill Stine purchased back Quest Aerospace, a 1995 Toy Biz acquisition, from Marvel.[30] In summer 2003, Marvel places an offer for Artisan Entertainment.[31] A new unit, Marvel International, was set up in London under a president, Bruno Maglione, to extend the company's operation and presence in major overseas markets in November 2003.[32] In December 2003, Marvel Entertainment acquired Cover Concepts from Hearst Communications, Inc.[33] In November 2004, Marvel consolidated its children's sleepwear-apparel licensing business with American Marketing Enterprises, Inc.[34]

In November 2004, the corporation sued South Korea-based NCSoft Corp. and San Jose, California-based Cryptic Studios Inc. over possible trademark infringement in their City of Heroes massive multiplayer online game.[35] Marvel settled a film-royalties lawsuit in April 2005 with its former editor-in-chief and publisher, Stan Lee, paying him $10 million and negotiating an end to his royalties.[36]

Marvel Entertainment

In September 2005, Marvel Enterprises changed its name to Marvel Entertainment to reflect the corporation's expansion into financing its own movie slate.[37]

In 2007, several Stan Lee Media related groups filed lawsuits against Marvel Entertainment for $1 billion and for Lee's Marvel creations in multiple states most of which have been dismissed.[38] Additionally, a lawsuit over ownership of the character Ghost Rider was filed on March 30, 2007, by Gary Friedrich and Gary Friedrich Enterprises, Inc.[39]

Disney subsidiary

On August 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4.24 billion, with Marvel shareholders to receive $30 and approximately 0.745 Disney shares for each share of Marvel they own.[40] The voting occurred on December 31, 2009 and the merger was approved.[2][41] The acquisition of Marvel was finalized hours after the shareholder vote, therefore giving Disney full ownership of Marvel Entertainment.[42] The company was delisted from the New York Stock Exchange under its ticker symbol (MVL), due to the closing of the deal.

On June 2, 2010 Marvel announced that it promoted Joe Quesada to Chief Creative Officer of Marvel Entertainment.[43] In June 2010, Marvel set up a television division headed by Jeph Loeb as executive vice president.[44] Three months later, Smith & Tinker licensed from Marvel the character rights for a superhero digital collectible game for Facebook and Apple's mobile platform.[45] On October 1, 2010, Marvel moved its offices to a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) suite at 135 W. 50th Street, New York City, New York, under a nine-year sublease contract.[46]

Stan Lee Media's lawsuit against Marvel was dismissed again in February 2011.[38]

In March 2013, Feld Entertainment agreed with Marvel to produce a Marvel Character based live arena show. Marvel was also launching a new pop culture and lifestyle web show, “Earth’s Mightiest Show”.[47] On August 22, 2013, Marvel Entertainment announced that it was working with Hero Ventures on The Marvel Experience, a traveling production/attraction.[48] In April 2014, Hong Kong Disneyland announced the construction of Iron Man Experience, the first Marvel ride at any Disney theme park. It will be built on a location in the park's Tomorrowland.[49]

On September 16, 2009,[50] the Jack Kirby estate served notices of termination to Walt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, Universal Pictures, Paramount Pictures, and Sony Pictures to attempt to gain control of various Silver Age Marvel characters.[51][52] Marvel sought to invalidate those claims.[53][54] In mid-March 2010 Kirby's estate "sued Marvel to terminate copyrights and gain profits from [Kirby's] comic creations."[55] In July 2011, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York issued a summary judgment in favor of Marvel,[50][56] which was affirmed in August 2013 by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.[57] The Kirby estate filed a petition on March 21, 2014 for a review of the case by the Supreme Court of the United States,[58][59] but a settlement was reached on September 26, 2014 and the family requested that the petition be dismissed.[60]


The company's operating units, as of 2015, include:


  • Marvel Toys (formerly Toy Biz)
  • Marvel Custom Solutions, customized comic books[61]


  • Asgard Productions LLC (Delaware)
  • Cover Concepts, Inc.[33]
  • Green Guy Toons LLC (Delaware)
  • Marvel Entertainment International Limited (United Kingdom)
  • Marvel Film Productions LLC (Delaware)
  • Marvel Internet Productions LLC (Delaware)
  • Marvel Television (2010-) television production division[62]
  • Marvel Toys Limited (Hong Kong)
  • Marvel Worldwide, Inc. publisher of Marvel Comics
  • MRV, Inc. (Delaware)
  • MVL International C.V. (The Netherlands)
  • MVL Film Finance LLC: holder of Marvel's Movie debt and theatrical film rights to the twelve characters and supporting characters as collateral.[7][67]
  • MVL Iron Works Productions Canada, Inc. (Province of Ontario)
  • MVL Incredible Productions Canada, Inc. (Province of Ontario)
  • Squad Productions LLC (Delaware)[68]
Intellectual property holding companies
  • Iron Works Productions LLC, movie rights subsidiary
  • Incredible Productions LLC (Delaware), movie rights subsidiary[7]
  • Marvel Characters, Inc.: subsidiary holding general rights of all Marvel Comics characters
    • MVL Rights, LLC: subsidiary holding Marvel Comics characters' movie rights (film slate contracted with MVL Film Finance LLC)[69][70]
  • Marvel Characters B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Marvel International Character Holdings LLC (Delaware)
  • Marvel Property, Inc. (Delaware) incorporated 12/2/1986[6] (formerly Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.[7])
  • MVL Development LLC (Delaware), rights subsidiary




Office of the Chief Executive


  • Stan Lee (1972-1973)[89][90]
  • Al Landau (1973-1977)
  • Jim Galton (1975-1991)[91]
  • Terry Stewart (1993)[92]
  • Rick Ungar (?-November 1993)
  • Avi Arad (November 1993-?)[78]
  • Bruce Stein (?-November 1994)
  • William Bevins Jr. (November 1994-?)[79]
  • Terry Stewart (May 1995)[80]
  • Jerry Calabrese (May 1995-Mid 1996) & (October 1998-November 1998)[80]
  • Scott C. Marden (interim) (Mid 1996-September 1996)[80]
  • David Schreff (September 1996-?)[80]
  • Joseph Calamari (?-October 1998)[80]
  • Eric Ellenbogen (November 1998-July 1999)[80]
  • F. Peter Cuneo (July 1999[80]-February 2000)
  • Bill Jemas (February 2000 - [93] -2003)[94]


See subsidiaries' articles for their executives.




Year(s) Series Production Distributor Original
Marvel Films Animation
1992–1997 X-Men[20] Saban Entertainment Fox Kids
1994–1998 Spider-Man: The Animated Series Marvel Films Animation/Saban New World Communications
1994–1996 Fantastic Four New World Animation & Wang Films New World Communications The Marvel Action Hour
Iron Man New World Animation & Rainbow Animation Group & Koko
1996–1997 The Incredible Hulk New World Animation Saban Entertainment UPN
Marvel Studios Animation
1998 Silver Surfer Saban Entertainment Fox Kids
1999–2001 Spider-Man Unlimited
1999–2000 The Avengers: United They Stand
2000-2003 X-Men: Evolution Film Roman Warner Bros. Television Distribution Kids' WB
2006-2007 Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes Moonscoop MoonScoop Group
Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network


Series Aired Production Distributor Original
Mutant X October 6, 2001 – May 17, 2004 Fireworks Entertainment
Tribune Entertainment
Marvel Studios
Marvel Enterprise
CanWest Global Communications
Blade: The Series June 28, 2006 – September 13, 2006 Phantom Four
New Line Television
Marvel Entertainment Spike


Year Film Directed by Written by Production by Budget Gross
1998 Blade Stephen Norrington David S. Goyer New Line Cinema $40 million $131.2 million
2000 X-Men Bryan Singer Story by Tom DeSanto & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by David Hayter
20th Century Fox $75 million $296.3 million
2002 Blade II Guillermo del Toro David S. Goyer New Line Cinema $54 million $155 million
Spider-Man Sam Raimi David Koepp Columbia Pictures $139 million $821.7 million
2003 Daredevil Mark Steven Johnson 20th Century Fox $78 million $179.2 million
X2 Bryan Singer Story by Zak Penn and David Hayter & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by Michael Dougherty & Dan Harris and David Hayter
$110 million $407.7 million
Hulk Ang Lee Story by James Schamus
Screenplay by John Turman and Michael France and James Schamus
Universal Pictures $137 million $245.4 million
2004 The Punisher Jonathan Hensleigh Jonathan Hensleigh and Michael France Artisan Entertainment $33 million $54.7 million
Spider-Man 2 Sam Raimi Story by Alfred Gough & Miles Millar and Michael Chabon
Screenplay by Alvin Sargent
Columbia Pictures $200 million $783.8 million
Blade: Trinity David S. Goyer New Line Cinema $65 million $128.9 million
2005 Elektra Rob Bowman Zak Penn and Stuart Zicherman & Raven Metzner 20th Century Fox $43 million $56.7 million
Man-Thing Brett Leonard Han Rodionoff Lions Gate Films N.A. $1.1 million
Fantastic Four Tim Story Mark Frost and Michael France 20th Century Fox $100 million $330.6 million
2006 X-Men: The Last Stand Brett Ratner Simon Kinberg & Zak Penn 20th Century Fox $210 million $459.4 million
2007 Ghost Rider Mark Steven Johnson Columbia Pictures $110 million $228.7 million
Spider-Man 3 Sam Raimi Screenplay by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi and Alvin Sargent
Story by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi
$258 million $890.9 million
Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer Tim Story Screenplay by Don Payne and Mark Frost
Story by John Turman and Mark Frost
20th Century Fox $130 million $289 million
2008 Punisher: War Zone Lexi Alexander Nick Santora and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway Lionsgate $35 million $10.1 million
2009 X-Men Origins: Wolverine Gavin Hood David Benioff and Skip Woods 20th Century Fox $150 million $373.1 million
2011 X-Men: First Class Matthew Vaughn Screenplay by Ashley Edward Miller, Zack Stentz and Jane Goldman & Matthew Vaughn
Story by Sheldon Turner and Bryan Singer
$140–$160 million $353.6 million
2012 Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance Mark Neveldine and Brian Taylor Screenplay by Scott M. Gimple and Seth Hoffman & David S. Goyer
Story by David S. Goyer
Columbia Pictures $57 million $132.6 million
The Amazing Spider-Man Marc Webb Screenplay by James Vanderbilt and Alvin Sargent & Steve Kloves
Story by James Vanderbilt
$230 million $757.9 million
2013 The Wolverine James Mangold Christopher McQuarrie and Mark Bomback 20th Century Fox $120 million $414.8 million
2014 X-Men: Days of Future Past Bryan Singer Screenplay by Simon Kinberg
Story by Matthew Vaughn and Jane Goldman & Simon Kinberg
$200 million $747.9 million
2015 Fantastic Four Josh Trank Jeremy Slater, Seth Grahame-Smith, T.S. Nowlin & Simon Kinberg $120 million $168 million
2016 Deadpool Tim Miller Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick $58 million $762 million
2016 X-Men: Apocalypse Bryan Singer Simon Kinberg, Dan Harris, and Michael Dougherty 20th Century Fox $234 million Post-production[97]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Raviv, Dan (April 2002). Comic Wars. Broadway Books, Random House, Heroes Books. ISBN 0-7679-0830-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fritz, Ben (September 23, 2009). "Disney tells details of Marvel Entertainment acquisition in a regulatory filing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 April 2011. |archive-url= is malformed: liveweb (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Part I: Page 1: ITEM 1. Business. Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Financial Report And Shareholder Letter. The Walt Disney Company. Accessed on December 27, 2013. "Marvel businesses are reported primarily in our Studio Entertainment and Consumer Products segments."
  4. MacDonald, Brady (March 2, 2013). "What's next for Marvel characters at Disney theme parks". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 19, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Chu, Karen (8 October 2013). "Hong Kong Disneyland to Open 'Iron Man' Experience in 2016". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 19 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "MARVEL PROPERTY, INC". General Information Name Search. State of Delaware Department of State: Division of Corporations. Retrieved 25 June 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Note: Secure site: File number 2109460 must be entered.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Marvel Entertainment FORM 8-K". RealDealDocs. 29 September 2006. p. 6. Retrieved 25 June 2012. Sec.3 (d) a fully-executed assignment agreement, in substantially the form of the Assignment Agreement dated as of August 30, 2005 by and among MEI, Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and MCI, assigning MEI’s, Marvel Property, Inc.’s (formerly known as Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.) and MVL Development LLC ’s rights in the Unencumbered Characters to MCI;<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Hicks, Jonathan (November 8, 1988). "The Media Business; Marvel Comic Book Unit Being Sold for $82.5 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 Bryant, Adam (May 24, 1998). "Pow! The Punches That Left Marvel Reeling". New York Times. p. 4. Retrieved March 14, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc.". International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 28. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale / St. James Press, via 1999. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved 2008-05-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Marvel Entertainment and Avi Arad to Develop Media Projects". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Perelman to Settle Marvel Suit". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. August 7, 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. A minority of dissidents maintain no bubble existed. Rozanski, Chuck. "The Vicious Downward Spiral of the 1990s". Tales from the Database. Mile High comics. Retrieved 2007-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Lott, Jeremy (2002). "Smash! Pow! Bam!". Reason Magazine. Retrieved 2007-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Raviv, pp. 38-39
  16. Leonhardt, David (22 January 1996). "What Evil Lurks in the Heart of Ron?". Business Week. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Hass, Nancy (1996-08-11). "Marvel sets up division to put its own characters into movies". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Toy Biz, Inc. Prospectus". New York Stock Exchange. Retrieved 10 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Marvel & Toy Biz Sign Letter of Intent". Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 13 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Marvel Entertainment Unifies Three Major Business Operations By Forming Marvel Enterprises, A New Unit". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Zoltak, James (March 2, 1998). "Spiderman And The Hulk Add Punch To Opening Of Marvel Mania Eatery". Amusement Business. BPI Communications Inc. Retrieved 2011-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Rhoades, Shirrel. Comic Books: How the Industry Works. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing. p. 204. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Roznski, Chuck. "Perelman's Team Nearly Destroyed the Entire World of Comics". Mile High Comics. Retrieved 2007-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Miller, Matthew (2005). "Don't Mess With Me". The Forbes 400. Forbes Publishing. Retrieved 2007-01-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Taylor, Ted (February 4, 1999). "Fleer/skybox Sale Finally Goes Through". Retrieved March 16, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Shprintz, Janet (August 19, 1998). "Spider-Man's legal web may finally be unraveled, Judge tying up Marvel's loose ends". Variety. Retrieved March 16, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Guardian Unlimited, Court web snares Spider-Man, April 27, 2003
  28. Bing, Jonathan. "Inside Move: Rights snares had Spidey suitors weaving", Variety, May 19, 2002: "Marvel lawyer Carole Handler found a legal loophole: The original sale to Cannon hadn't been registered with the U.S. Copyright Office, so rights reverted to Marvel."
  29. "Marvel Enterprises, Inc. Announces Organizational Changes". Write News. November 1, 1999. Retrieved May 27, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "NARCON 2011 Presentations". NARCON. Washington Aerospace Club. Retrieved 10 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Farrow, Boyd (April 16, 2004). "New York-Based Marvel Enterprises Launches London-Based International Division". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. Retrieved 1 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Publishing Industry Soundbytes: People". The Write News. November 21, 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. 33.0 33.1 DeMott, Rick (December 18, 2003). "Marvel Acquires Cover Concepts". Animation World Network. Retrieved July 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Marvel Consolidates Sleepwear Licensing Business with Industry Leader American Marketing Enterprises". Business Wire. Marvel Enterprises, Inc. November 15, 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Marvel sues over online role-playing game". NBC. 12 November 2004. Retrieved 2011-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Marvel Settles Suit With Lee". Los Angeles Times. Bloomberg News. April 29, 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Vincent, Roger (September 6, 2005). "Marvel to Make Movies Based on Comic Books". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. 38.0 38.1 Gardner, Eriq. "Marvel Dodges Bullet as $1 Billion Lawsuit over Stan Lee Company Is Dismissed", The Hollywood Reporter, February 9, 2011.
  39. "'Ghost Rider' creator sues over copyright". Reuters. 2007-04-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Wilkerson, David B. "Disney to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4B". Retrieved 2009-08-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Donley, Michelle (December 31, 2009). "Marvel Shareholders OK Disney Acquisition".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Disney Completes Marvel Acquisition, Fox Business, December 31, 2009
  43. "Marvel's Joe Quesada Promoted to Chief Creative Officer", Newsarama, June 2, 2010
  44. Andreeva, Nellie (June 28, 2010). "Marvel Entertainment Launches TV Division". Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 2010-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Smith & Tinker to Unleash Marvel Collectible Game Online". Market Wire. 04 March 2011.
  46. "Marvel Signs 60,000 S/F Sublease". Real Estate Weekly via September 22, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2011. |archive-url= is malformed: liveweb (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Marvel, circus company join forces for superhero arena show". Los Angeles Times. March 13, 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Truitt, Brian (August 22, 2013). "Heroes hit the road for 'The Marvel Experience' in 2014". USA TODAY. Grannett. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. MacDonald, Brady (24 April 2014). "Hong Kong Disneyland set to debut first Iron Man ride". LA Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 Marvel Worldwide, Inc., Marvel Characters, Inc. and MVL Rights, LLC, against Lisa R. Kirby, Barbara J. Kirby, Neal L. Kirby and Susan M. Kirby, 777 F.Supp.2d 720 (S.D.N.Y. 2011).
  51. Fritz, Ben (September 21, 2009). "Heirs File Claims to Marvel Heroes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Kit, Borys and Matthew Belloni (September 21, 2009). "Kirby Heirs Seeking Bigger Chunk of Marvel Universe". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Melrose, Kevin (January 8, 2010). "Marvel Sues to Invalidate Copyright Claims by Jack Kirby's Heirs". Robot 6. Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Marvel Sues for Rights to Superheroes". Associated Press via The Hollywood Reporter. January 8, 2010. Archived from the original on November 13, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. Gardner, Eriq (December 21, 2010). "It's on! Kirby estate sues Marvel; copyrights to Iron Man, Spider-Man at stake". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Finke, Nikki (July 28, 2011). "Marvel Wins Summary Judgments In Jack Kirby Estate Rights Lawsuits". Archived from the original on August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Marvel Characters Inc. v. Kirby, 726 F.3d 119 (2d. Cir. 2013).
  58. Patten, Dominic (April 2, 2014). "Marvel & Disney Rights Case For Supreme Court To Decide Says Jack Kirby Estate". Archived from the original on April 4, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Kirby v. Marvel Characters, Inc". SCOTUSblog.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Patten, Dominic (September 26, 2014). "Marvel & Jack Kirby Heirs Settle Legal Battle Ahead Of Supreme Court Showdown". Archived from the original on September 26, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Kim, Susanna (June 8, 2013). "Captain America Comic Pitches Skin Care Products". ABC News. Retrieved June 8, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Phegley, Kiel (2 July 2010). "Jeph Loeb Talks Marvel TV". Retrieved 13 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Moody, Annemarie (April 21, 2008). "Marvel Promotes Eric Rollman To President, Marvel Animation". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 2008-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Marvel Animation Entity Information. Corporation & Business Entity Database. Division of Corporations, State Records and Uniform Commercial Code. New York State Department of State. Accessed on November 11, 2013.
  65. "D23′s How We Do It: Marvel Animation Studios". News & Features. D23 - Disney Official Fan Club. Retrieved September 12, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Sands, Rich (June 12, 2012). "Exclusive: Marvel Assembles New Animated Series for the Hulk and Avengers". TV Guide. Retrieved July 5, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Marvel Launches Independent Film Slate". Marvel Entertainment, Inc. press release. September 5, 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2007-11-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Form 10-K 2/28/08 EX-21 • Subsidiaries of the Registrant". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Retrieved 2008-05-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Form 8-K SEC File 1-13638". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Retrieved 2008-05-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "EXCLUSIVE LICENSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN MVL RIGHTS LLC AND MARVEL CHARACTERS, INC". RealDealDocs. Retrieved 25 June 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Schmuckler, Eric (February 11–22, 1985). "Clash of the Comic Book Giants". New York City Business. New York, NY. p. 28. Retrieved 28 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Keppel, Bruce (November 21, 1986). "Cadence Selling Comic-Book, Animation Unit : New World Pictures to Acquire Marvel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 5, 2011. |archive-url= is malformed: liveweb (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Masters, Kim; Belloni, Matthew (August 31, 2015). "Marvel Shake-Up: Film Chief Kevin Feige Breaks Free of CEO Ike Perlmutter (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 31, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. 74.0 74.1 "New World Entertainment Inc. Completes Sale of Marvel for $82.5 Million; Company Begins 1989 With Busy Schedule and Further Debt Reduction". PR Newswire. January 25, 1989. Retrieved 4 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. 75.0 75.1 "NWCG [New World Communications Group] Holdings Corp. Form 10-K405". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Retrieved 2011-11-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. DeMott, Rick (December 3, 2007). "Ratatouille Cooks Up Most Annie Nominations". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "Marvel Animation: The Future". January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. 78.0 78.1 Freeman, Mike. New world of animation: former Marvel Entertainment chief Rick Ungar will head new division concentrating on original animated series, including upcoming 'Stealth Warriors.' November 1, 1993. Broadcasting & Cable.
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Company Town Annex: Marvel Entertainment President Quits". Los Angeles Times. October 20, 1994. Retrieved November 5, 2011. |archive-url= is malformed: liveweb (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 80.5 80.6 80.7 Rhoades, Shirrel (2008). A Complete History of American Comic Books. New York City, New York: Peter Lang Publishing. pp. X–XI. ISBN 978-1-4331-0107-6. Retrieved 2011-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Marvel Enterprises Announces New Board of Directors and Search for New CEO". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Marvel gets new CEO". Money. November 24, 1998. Retrieved 13 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Marvel Enterprises Names New CEO". Bloomberg News. September 17, 2002. Retrieved 12 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. 84.0 84.1 Weiland, Jonah (2004-10-15). "Isaac Perlmutter New CEO Marvel Enterprises". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Blake, Meredith (February 26, 2014). "Netflix, Disney, Marvel to bring superheroes series to New York". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. 86.0 86.1 86.2 "Marvel Promotes Alan Fine". ICV2. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 10 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. 87.0 87.1 Szalai, Georg. "Marvel GC Upped to Shared Executive Post". Retrieved 3 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. "Marvel Studios' David Maisel to step down after Disney deal". Los Angeles Times. December 7, 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and the American Comic Book Revolution. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-566-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Lee, Stan, and Mair, George. Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee (Fireside, 2002), p.5. ISBN 0-684-87305-2
  91. Foerster, Jonathan (May 30, 2010). "Business Monday: Marvel Comics' miracle man set up business' success". Naples Daily News. Naples, Florida. Retrieved 31 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Marvel, Toy Biz & Avi Arad Form New Toy Company". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 12 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "Marvel Enterprises Appoints Bill Jemas President of Publishing & New Media". Write February 18, 2000. Retrieved 9 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Langshaw, Mark (Oct 25, 2011). "Wizard Comics joins forces with ex-Marvel president Bill Jemas". Digital Spy. Retrieved 9 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "John Semper on "Spider-Man": 10th Anniversary Interview". Marvel Animation Age. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. Cawley, John. "Marvel Films Animation 1993–1997". Home of John Cawley. John Cawley. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Jayson, Jay (August 22, 2015). "X-Men: Apocalypse Wraps Main Filming". Retrieved August 22, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

  • No URL found. Please specify a URL here or add one to Wikidata.