September 10, 1935 |
Maple Heights, Ohio
|Notable awards||National Book Award
|Partner||Molly Malone Cook|
Mary Oliver (born September 10, 1935) is an American poet who has won the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. The New York Times described her as "far and away, this country's best-selling poet".
Mary Oliver was born to Edward William and Helen M. V. Oliver on September 10, 1935, in Maple Heights, Ohio, a semi-rural suburb of Cleveland. Her father was a social studies teacher and an athletics coach in the Cleveland public schools. She began writing poetry at the age of 14, and at 17 visited the home of the late Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Edna St. Vincent Millay, in Austerlitz, upper New York state. She and Norma, the poet's sister, became friends, and Oliver "more or less lived there for the next six or seven years, running around the 800 acres like a child, helping Norma, or at least being company to her," and assisting with organizing the late poet's papers.
Adult life and career
Oliver’s first collection of poems, No Voyage and Other Poems, was published in 1963, when she was 28. During the early 1980s, Oliver taught at Case Western Reserve University. Her fifth collection of poetry, American Primitive, won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1984. She was Poet In Residence at Bucknell University (1986) and Margaret Banister Writer in Residence at Sweet Briar College (1991), then moved to Bennington, Vermont, where she held the Catharine Osgood Foster Chair for Distinguished Teaching at Bennington College until 2001. She won the Christopher Award and the L. L. Winship/PEN New England Award for her piece House of Light (1990), and New and Selected Poems (1992) won the National Book Award. Oliver's work turns towards nature for its inspiration and describes the sense of wonder it instills in her. "When it's over," she says, "I want to say: all my life / I was a bride married to amazement. I was the bridegroom, taking the world into my arms." ("When Death Comes" from New and Selected Poems (1992).) Her collections Winter Hours: Prose, Prose Poems, and Poems (1999), Why I Wake Early (2004), and New and Selected Poems, Volume 2 (2004) build the themes. The first and second parts of Leaf and the Cloud are featured in The Best American Poetry 1999 and 2000, and her essays appear in Best American Essays 1996, 1998 and 2001.
On a return visit to Austerlitz, in the late 1950s, Oliver met photographer Molly Malone Cook, who would become her partner for over forty years. In Our world she says "I took one look and fell, hook and tumble." Cook was Oliver's literary agent. They made their home largely in Provincetown, Massachusetts, where they lived until Cook's death in 2005, and where Oliver still lived until relocating to Florida. Greatly valuing her personal privacy, Oliver has given very few interviews, saying she prefers for her writing to speak for itself. Of Provincetown she recalls "I too fell in love with the town, that marvelous convergence of land and water; Mediterranean light; fishermen who made their living by hard and difficult work from frighteningly small boats; and, both residents and sometime visitors, the many artists and writers.[...] M. and I decided to stay."
Mary Oliver's poetry is grounded in memories of Ohio and her adopted home of New England, setting most of her poetry in and around Provincetown since she moved there in the 1960s. Influenced by both Whitman and Thoreau, she is known for her clear and poignant observances of the natural world. Her creativity is stirred by nature, and Oliver, an avid walker, often pursues inspiration on foot. Her poems are filled with imagery from her daily walks near her home: shore birds, water snakes, the phases of the moon and humpback whales. In Long life she says "[I] go off to my woods, my ponds, my sun-filled harbor, no more than a blue comma on the map of the world but, to me, the emblem of everything." She commented in a rare interview "When things are going well, you know, the walk does not get rapid or get anywhere: I finally just stop, and write. That's a successful walk!" She says that she once found herself walking in the woods with no pen and later hid pencils in the trees so she would never be stuck in that place again. She often carries a 3-by-5-inch hand-sewn notebook for recording impressions and phrases. Maxine Kumin calls Oliver "a patroller of wetlands in the same way that Thoreau was an inspector of snowstorms."
Oliver has also been compared to Emily Dickinson, with whom she shares an affinity for solitude and inner monologues. Her poetry combines dark introspection with joyous release. Although she has been criticized for writing poetry that assumes a dangerously close relationship of women with nature, she finds the self is only strengthened through an immersion with nature. Oliver is also known for her unadorned language and accessible themes. The Harvard Review describes her work as an antidote to "inattention and the baroque conventions of our social and professional lives. She is a poet of wisdom and generosity whose vision allows us to look intimately at a world not of our making."
Maxine Kumin describes Mary Oliver in the Women's Review of Books as an "indefatigable guide to the natural world, particularly to its lesser-known aspects." Reviewing Dream Work for The Nation, critic Alicia Ostriker numbered Oliver among America's finest poets: "visionary as Emerson [... she is] among the few American poets who can describe and transmit ecstasy, while retaining a practical awareness of the world as one of predators and prey." New York Times reviewer Bruce Bennet stated that the Pulitzer Prize–winning collection American Primitive, "insists on the primacy of the physical" while Holly Prado of Los Angeles Times Book Review noted that it "touches a vitality in the familiar that invests it with a fresh intensity."
Vicki Graham suggests Oliver over-simplifies the affiliation of gender and nature: "Oliver's celebration of dissolution into the natural world troubles some critics: her poems flirt dangerously with romantic assumptions about the close association of women with nature that many theorists claim put the woman writer at risk." In her article "The Language of Nature in the Poetry of Mary Oliver", Diane S. Bond echoes that "few feminists have wholeheartedly appreciated Oliver's work, and though some critics have read her poems as revolutionary reconstructions of the female subject, others remain skeptical that identification with nature can empower women." In The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review, Sue Russell notes that "Mary Oliver will never be a balladeer of contemporary lesbian life in the vein of Marilyn Hacker, or an important political thinker like Adrienne Rich; but the fact that she chooses not to write from a similar political or narrative stance makes her all the more valuable to our collective culture."
Selected awards and honors
- 1969/70 Shelley Memorial Award from the Poetry Society of America.
- 1980 Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship
- 1984 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for American Primitive
- 1992 National Book Award for Poetry for New and Selected Poems
- 1998 Lannan Literary Award for poetry
- 1998 Honorary Doctorate from The Art Institute of Boston
- 2007 Honorary Doctorate Dartmouth College
- 2008 Honorary Doctorate Tufts University
- 2012 Honorary Doctorate from Marquette University
- 1963 No Voyage, and Other Poems (Dent (New York, NY), expanded edition, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1965.
- 1972 The River Styx, Ohio, and Other Poems Harcourt (New York, NY) ISBN 978-0-15-177750-1
- 1978 The Night Traveler Bits Press
- 1978 Sleeping in the Forest Ohio University (a 12-page chapbook, p. 49–60 in The Ohio Review—Vol. 19, No. 1 [Winter 1978])
- 1979 Twelve Moons Little, Brown (Boston, MA), ISBN 0316650013
- 1983 American Primitive Little, Brown (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-316-65004-5
- 1986 Dream Work Atlantic Monthly Press (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-87113-069-3
- 1987 Provincetown Appletree Alley, limited edition with woodcuts by Barnard Taylor
- 1990 House of Light Beacon Press (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6810-6
- 1992 New and Selected Poems [volume one] Beacon Press (Boston, MA), ISBN 978-0-8070-6818-2
- 1994 White Pine: Poems and Prose Poems Harcourt (San Diego, CA) ISBN 978-0-15-600120-5
- 1995 Blue Pastures Harcourt (New York, NY) ISBN 978-0-15-600215-8
- 1997 West Wind: Poems and Prose Poems Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-395-85085-5
- 1999 Winter Hours: Prose, Prose Poems, and Poems Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-395-85087-9
- 2000 The Leaf and the Cloud Da Capo (Cambridge, MA), (prose poem) ISBN 978-0-306-81073-2
- 2002 What Do We Know Da Capo (Cambridge, MA) ISBN 978-0-306-81206-4
- 2003 Owls and Other Fantasies: poems and essays Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6868-7
- 2004 Why I Wake Early: New Poems Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6879-3
- 2004 Blue Iris: Poems and Essays Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6882-3
- 2004 Wild geese: selected poems, Bloodaxe, ISBN 978-1-85224-628-0
- 2005 New and Selected Poems, volume two Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6886-1
- 2005 At Blackwater Pond: Mary Oliver Reads Mary Oliver (audio cd)
- 2006 Thirst: Poems (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6896-0
- 2007 Our World with photographs by Molly Malone Cook, Beacon (Boston, MA)
- 2008 The Truro Bear and Other Adventures: Poems and Essays, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0-8070-6884-7
- 2008 Red Bird Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6892-2
- 2009 Evidence Beacon (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6898-4
- 2010 Swan: Poems and Prose Poems (Boston, MA) ISBN 978-0-8070-6899-1
- 2012 A Thousand Mornings Penguin (New York, NY) ISBN 978-1-59420-477-7
- 2013 "Dog Songs" Penguin Press (New York, NY) ISBN 978-1-59420-477-7
Non-fiction books and other collections
- Garner, Dwight. (February 18, 2007.) "Inside the List". New york Times. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Poetry Foundation Oliver biography". Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- Duenwald, Mary. (July 5, 2009.) "The Land and Words of Mary Oliver, the Bard of Provincetown". New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- Mary Oliver's bio at publisher Beacon Press (note that original link is dead; see version archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20090508075809/http://www.beacon.org/contributorinfo.cfm?ContribID=1299 ; retrieved Oct. 19, 2015).
- ""Poetry: Past winners & finalists by category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "National Book Awards–1992". National Book Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "Oliver Biography". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Kumin, Maxine. "Intimations of Mortality". Women's Review of Books 10: April 7, 1993, p. 16.
- Graham, p. 352
- Bond, p. 1
- Russell, pp. 21–22.
- Lawder, Melanie (14 November 2012). "Poet Mary Oliver receives honorary degree". The Marquette Tribune. Retrieved 6 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bond, Diane. "The Language of Nature in the Poetry of Mary Oliver". Womens Studies 21:1 (1992), p. 1.
- Graham, Vicki. "'Into the Body of Another': Mary Oliver and the Poetics of Becoming Other". Papers on Language and Literature, 30:4 (Fall 1994), pp. 352–353, pp. 366–368.
- McNew, Janet. "Mary Oliver and the Tradition of Romantic Nature Poetry". Contemporary Literature, 30:1 (Spring 1989).
- Russell, Sue. "Mary Oliver: The Poet and the Persona". The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review, 4:4 (Fall 1997), pp. 21–22.
|Mary Oliver—Listening to the World, On Being, October 15, 2015|
|Oliver reading at Lensic Theater in Santa Fe, New Mexico on August 4, 2001, video (45 mins)|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mary Oliver|