Kusunoki Masashige

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In this Japanese name, the family name is Kusunoki.
Statue of Kusunoki Masashige outside Tokyo's Imperial Palace
The same statue from a different angle, close-up.

Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成?, 1294 – July 4, 1336) was a 14th-century samurai who fought for Emperor Go-Daigo in the Genko War, the attempt to wrest rulership of Japan away from the Kamakura shogunate and is remembered as the ideal of samurai loyalty. His origin has not been validated and it was merely six years between the start of his military campaign in 1331 and his demise in 1336. He received the highest decoration from the Meiji government of Japan in 1880.

"Legend has it that Emperor Go-Daigo had a dream in which he was sheltering under a camphor tree ('Kusunoki'), and that this dream led him to the surname of the warrior who would support him."[1][2]

Tactician

A brilliant tactician and strategist, Kusunoki's cunning defense of two key Loyalist fortresses at Akasaka, the Siege of Akasaka, and Chihaya, the Siege of Chihaya, helped allow Go-Daigo to briefly return to power.[2]:160,164,173,175,180 However, one of the loyalist generals, Ashikaga Takauji, betrayed Go-Daigo and led an army against Kusunoki and the remaining loyalists.[3] Kusunoki suggested to the Emperor that they take refuge on sacred Mount Hiei and allow Takauji to take Kyoto, only to swoop down from the mountain, and with the help of the monks of Mount Hiei, trap Takauji in the city and destroy him.[2]:181-182

Disaster

Go-Daigo was unwilling to leave the capital however, and insisted that Kusunoki meet Takauji's superior forces in the field in a pitched battle. Kusunoki, in what would later be viewed as the ultimate act of samurai loyalty, obediently accepted his Emperor's foolish command, left his death poem with his young son Masatsura[4] and knowingly marched his army into almost certain death. The battle, which took place at Minatogawa in modern-day Chūō-ku, Kobe, was a tactical disaster. Kusunoki, his army completely surrounded, down to only 73 of the original 700 horsemen, died from wounds sustained in battle along with his brother Masasue, 11 close clan members, and 60 others. According to legend, his brother's last words were Shichisei Hōkoku! (七生報國; "Would that I had seven lives to give for my emperor!") and Kusunoki Masashige agreed. There are two accounts of arguments that Kusunoki Masashige made to emperor Go-Daigo. One was that they regroup and attack from two sides, the other was that they bring back general Takauji to their side thus balancing the scales. Both arguments were ignored.

Legacy

His son, Masatsura, served the emperor's successor, the 12-year-old Murakami, in a relationship of reciprocal trust and devotion mirroring the figure of his father Kusunoki and keeping the flame of loyalist resistance alive.[5] Masatsura died alongside his brother Masatoki and cousin Wada Takahide in a battle that saw the end of the Kusunoki clan and there followed a less-than-ideal scramble for power and gain among the Courts.[5]

Kusunoki Masashige's successful defence of Chihaya castle is believed to have helped turn the tide against the Kamakura shounate. Partly because he held out so long in his castle, Ashikaga Takauji revolted and came to the aid of the emperor, and thus ended the Kamakura bakufu. However, Takauji quickly learned that he did not like following the emperor's commands, and revolted again to seize power. He was able to establish his own shogunate after defeating Masashige and the commander in chief Yoshisada in the final battle. Kusunoki Masashige tried to intervene and bring Ashikaga Takauji back to the emperor's side, but the emperor rejected this plan.

Legend

After the full-scale introduction of Neo-Confucianism as a state philosophy by the Tokugawa Shogunate, Kusunoki Masashige, once-called a traitor by the Northern Court, was resurrected with Emperor Go-Daigo as a precursor of Sinocentric absolutists, based upon the Neo-Confucian theories. During the Edo period, scholars and samurai who were influenced by the Neo-Confucian theories created the legend of Kusunoki and enshrined him as a patriotic hero, called Nankō (楠公) or Dai-Nankō (大楠公), who epitomized loyalty, courage, and devotion to the Emperor. Kusunoki later became a patron saint of sorts to the World War II kamikaze, who saw themselves as his spiritual heirs in sacrificing their lives for the Emperor.

References

  1. Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 95. ISBN 0026205408. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Sato, Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. p. 158-159. ISBN 9781590207307. 
  3. Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford University Press. p. 43-44. ISBN 0804705259. 
  4. Turnbull, The Samurai: A Military History p. 56
  5. 5.0 5.1 Turnbull, p. 97 and 98
  • Turnbull, Stephen R. (2005 [1996]). The Samurai: A Military History (second edition). Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeCurzon. pp. 89–97. ISBN 9781873410387.

External links