Massif Central

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Massif Central
Puy de dome 2001-12-15.jpg
Puy de Dôme is the highest volcano in the chain of volcanoes Chaine des Puys
Highest point
Peak Puy de Sancy
Elevation 1,886 m (6,188 ft)
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Geography
Location of the Massif Central in France
Country France
States/Provinces
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The Massif Central is an elevated region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus. It covers 15 percent of the country.

Subject to volcanism that has subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by a deep north-south cleft created by the Rhône River and known in French as the sillon rhodanien (literally "the furrow of the Rhône").

The region was a barrier to communication until the opening of the A75 motorway, which not only made north-south travel easier, but also opened up the Massif Central itself.

Geography, Geology

Chaine des Puys in Auvergne

Massif Central is an old massif of Hercynian period essentially consisted of granitic and metamorphic rocks. It was powerfully raised and made look younger in the East by the uplift of the Alps (Paleogene) and in the South by the uplift of Pyrenees. The massif thus presents a strongly asymmetrical profile with on one hand, highlands in the South and in the East dominating brutally the valley of the Rhône and the plains of Languedoc (all the highlands can be called "Cévennes" to simplify) and, on the other hand, the region of Limousin in the northwest, less high because less raised, the Alps and Pyrenees being more far away.

On this crystalline basement, we can find a big variety of volcanoes : volcanic plateaus (Aubrac, Cézallier), stratovolcanoes (Mounts of Cantal, Monts Dore) and small very recent monogenic volcanoes (Chaîne des Puys, Vivarais). The entire region contains a large concentration of approximately 450 extinct volcanoes. One strip alone, running north to south and less than 60 square miles (160 km2), contains 115 of them.[citation needed] The Auvergne Volcanoes National Park is in the massif.

In the South, the region of Causses is a particular case within the massif because this one is constituted by raised calcareous plateaus which are cut by very deep canyons (the most famous is the canyon of Tarn).

Mountains

Mountain ranges, with notable individual mountains, are (roughly north-to-south):

Puy de Sancy (1886 m)
The Cévennes range

Plateaus

Causse Méjean

Administration

The following départements are generally considered as part of the Massif Central: Allier, Ardèche, Aude, Aveyron, Cantal, Corrèze, Creuse, Gard, Haute-Loire, Haute-Vienne, Hérault, Loire, Lot, Lozère, Puy-de-Dôme, Rhône and Tarn.

The following régions are part of the Massif Central: Auvergne, Limousin. Part of the following régions are in the Massif Central: Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, and Rhône-Alpes.

The largest cities are Clermont-Ferrand and Saint-Étienne.

References

See also