Maurice Bucaille (French pronunciation: [moris bykaj]; 19 July 1920, Pont-l'Évêque, Calvados – 17 February 1998), son of Maurice and Marie (James) Bucaille, was a French medical doctor, member of the French Society of Egyptology, and an author. Bucaille practiced medicine from 1945–82 and was a specialist in gastroenterology. In 1973, Bucaille was appointed family physician to king Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Another of his patients at the time included members of the family of then President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat.
In 1974 Ramesses II mummy was sent to Paris for examination and study. Bucaille led a team of French scientists in examining the mummy. According to Maurice Bucaille, he was more interested in finding whether Ramesses II was the pharoh at the time of Moses and to find out how Ramesses died. He believes what he found was a turning point in his ideas that led him to become interested in Quran, Islamic sources claim that he converted to Islam later. This is denied by other sources.
The Bible, The Qur'an and Science
In 1976 Bucaille published his book, The Bible, The Qur'an and Science which told that the Qur'an contains no statements contradicting established scientific facts. Bucaille gives examples of astronomy, embryology, and multiple other subjects that had major advances in the 20th century. Bucaille told that the Quran is in agreement with scientific facts, while the Bible is not. He states that in Islam, science and religion have always been "twin sisters" (vii). According to Bucaille, there are "monumental errors" of science in the Bible and not a single error in the Quran. Bucaille's belief is that the Quran's descriptions of natural phenomena make it compatible with modern science. He concludes that the Quran is the Word of God. He also tells that some of the most celebrated scientific discoveries in the 20th century, were described in detail and accuracy.
Bucaille tells that the Old Testament has been distorted because of numerous translations and corrections as it was transmitted orally. He highlights, in his words, "numerous disagreements and repetitions", in the Old Testament and the Gospels. In his analysis, he states that he makes use of many propositions of biblical criticism, such as the documentary hypothesis.
"Bucailleism" is a term used for the movement to relate modern science with religion, and especially that of Islam. Since the publishing of The Bible, the Quran and Science, Bucaillists have promoted the idea that the Quran is of divine origin, arguing that it contains scientifically correct facts.
According to The Wall Street Journal, Bucailleism is "in some ways the Muslim counterpart to Christian creationism" although "while creationism rejects much of modern science, Bucailleism embraces it". It described Bucailleism as being "disdained by most mainstream scholars" but said it has fostered pride in Muslim heritage and played an important role in attracting converts.
William F. Campbell maintains that Maurice Bucaille does not evaluate the Qur'an with the same standards he uses to judge the Bible. Indeed, Bucaille demands that the Bible comply with 20th-century scientific language, while he finds acceptable that the Quran is not written with such scientific rigor, because the Qur'an, as he writes: "is expressed in a language that suits farmers or nomads of the Arabic peninsula". Thus, he claims Bucaille is not objective.
Quranic predictions have also been called "vague descriptions of natural phenomena" employing "stretched or arbitrary" interpretations. Alleged Quranic references in particular to the expanding universe, parallel universes, and cosmic structural hierarchies have been called "blatantly wrong." Anti-Bucailleist arguments do not necessarily argue in favor of unbelief, since as one says, "God does not stand or fall depending on whether our scriptures know their physics."
- What is the Origin of Man?. Islamic Book Service. 2005. p. 228. ISBN 81-7231-293-8.
- La Bible, le Coran et la Science : Les Écritures Saintes examinées à la lumière des connaissances modernes, Seghers 1976, (ISBN 978-2221501535), Pocket 2003, (ISBN 978-2266131032)
- Les Momies des pharaons et la médecine, Séguier, 1987 (ISBN 2906284475). Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations by Maurice Bucaille. Translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the author. Illustrated. 236 pp. New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Réflexions sur le Coran, with Mohamed Talbi, Seghers, (Reflections on the Koran), 1989 (ISBN 2232101487).
- L'homme d'où vient-il? Les réponses de la science et des Écritures Saintes (Man where is he coming from? The responses of science and Scripture), Seghers, 1980 7ème éd.(ISBN 2221007816).
- Moïse et Pharaon ; Les Hébreux en Egypte ; (Moses and Pharaoh, The Hebrews in Egypt) Quelles concordances de Livres saints avec l'Histoire, Seghers, 1995 (ISBN 2-232-10466-4).
- "DNB, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek". Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek.
- Galegroup Biography Resource Center
- New York Times review of Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations by Maurice Bucaille. Translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the author. Illustrated. 236 pp. New York: St. Martin's Press. 
- ملفات متنوعة. "تعالوا معي إلى موريس بوكاي". islamway.net.
- Premiere of the documentary film "Maurice and the Pharaoh" at the GUST Kuwait. YouTube. 10 January 2011.
- "Episode 3: The Islamic world is witnessing a trend for seeking 'scientific miracles' in the Qur'an". Islam and Science. Episode 3. 2 March 2009.
- Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures, ed. Helaine Selin, retrieved 28 March 2011
- Explorations in Islamic science Ziauddin Sardar, (1989), retrieved 28 March 2011
- An illusion of harmony: science and religion in Islam (2007) Taner Edis, retrieved 28 March 2011
- Daniel Golden (23 January 2002). "Western Scholars Play Key Role In Touting 'Science' of the Quran". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 September 2007.
- Sameer Rahim (8 Oct 2010). "Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science by Jim al-Khalili: review". The Telegraph.
- (William F. Campbell 1994, p. 32.)
- (William F. Campbell 1994, p. 29.)
- Turkish physicist and philosopher Taner Edis. "Quran-science": Scientific miracles from the 7th century?
- Taner Edis. Ghost in the Universe. Quotes from page 14. Prometheus Books.
- William Campbell, The Qur'an and the Bible in the light of history and science, 343pp., Middle East Resources 1992, Paperback, ISBN 1-881085-00-7
- Biography from Center for Islam and Science
- The Quran and Modern Science by Dr. Maurice Bucaille Edited by Dr. A. A. B. Philips
- Bible,Quran and Science by Dr. Maurice Bucaille Translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the Author
- Snakes from Staves? Science, Scriptures and the Supernatural in Maurice Bucaille by S. Bigliardi (A philosophical criticism of Bucaille's theories)