McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II in UK service
The United Kingdom operated the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II as one of its principal combat aircraft from the 1960s to the early 1990s. The UK was the first export customer for the Phantom, which was ordered in the context of political and economic difficulties around indigenous British designs for the roles that it was eventually purchased to undertake. The Phantom was procured to serve both in the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Air Force in a number of different roles including air defence, close air support, low level strike and tactical reconnaissance.
Although assembled in the United States, the UK's Phantoms were a special batch built separately and containing a significant amount of British technology as a means of easing the pressure on the domestic aerospace industry as a result of the major project cancellations. Two individual variants were eventually built for the United Kingdom; the F-4K variant was designed from the outset as an air defence interceptor to be operated by the Fleet Air Arm from the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers, while the F-4M version was procured for the RAF to serve in the tactical strike and reconnaissance roles. In the mid-1980s, a third Phantom variant was obtained when a quantity of second-hand F-4J aircraft were purchased to augment the UK's air defences following the Falklands War.
The Phantom entered service with both the Fleet Air Arm and the RAF in 1969; while in the Royal Navy it had a secondary strike role in addition to its primary use for fleet air defence, in the RAF it was soon replaced in the strike role by other aircraft designed specifically for strike and close air support missions, and by the mid-1970s was transferred to become the UK's principal interceptor, a role in which it continued until the late 1980s.
- 1 Background
- 2 Variants
- 3 Variations
- 4 Replacement
- 5 Aircraft on display
- 6 Specifications (F-4M)
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
In the late 1950s, the British Government began the process to replace their early second generation jet combat aircraft then in service with the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. At the time, the British aerospace industry was still a major source of equipment, with designs from different companies in service in a number of different roles. However, the 1957 Defence White Paper brought about a significant change in the working practices, with the Government compelling a number of the major aerospace manufacturers into amalgamating into two large groups; British Aircraft Corporation (formed from the merger of English Electric, Vickers-Armstrongs, Bristol and Hunting), and Hawker Siddeley (formed from the merger of Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Folland, de Havilland and Blackburn).
The intention was to rationalise the industry in order to cut costs, with the government also offering incentives for amalgamation through promises of contracts for new aircraft orders for the armed forces. At the time, the RAF were looking to replace the English Electric Canberra light bomber in the long range interdictor role, and the Hawker Hunter in the close air support role, while the Royal Navy sought an aircraft to assume the fleet air defence role from the de Havilland Sea Vixen. BAC, through its English Electric subsidiary, had begun developing a new high performance strike aircraft, the TSR-2, that was intended to undertake both long-range, low level strike missions with conventional and tactical nuclear weapons, as well as tactical reconnaissance. Hawker Siddeley were also developing a new aircraft, based on their P.1127 V/STOL demonstrator. The P.1154 was proposed as a supersonic version that could be marketed to both the RAF and Royal Navy to fulfil a number of roles; close air support, air superiority, fleet air defence.
During the early 1960s, aircraft development became increasingly expensive, with the result that major projects often became mired in political and economic concerns. The development of TSR-2 saw increasing cost overruns, combined with the presence of a potentially cheaper alternative then under development in the United States, the F-111. The P.1154 was subject to the ongoing inter-service rivalry between the Royal Navy and RAF, which led to two wildly differing specifications being submitted for the aircraft that were impossible to fit within a single airframe.
In 1964, the Royal Navy withdrew from the P.1154 project, and instead made moves to procure a new fleet air defence interceptor. It eventually selected the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, then in service with the US Navy as its primary air defence aircraft, intended to be operated from both existing and new build aircraft carriers. This better suited the Royal Navy, as it had two engines (providing redundancy in the event of an engine failure), was cheaper than the P.1154 and immediately available. This left the P.1154 as a wholly RAF project. Later the same year, a General Election brought the Labour Party back into power. The new government undertook a defence review, which led to the 1966 Defence White Paper that cancelled a number of different projects, including both the P.1154 and TSR-2. As a consequence of this, the government was forced to order new aircraft to replace the Canberra and Hunter for the RAF, and eventually chose two types – to replace the Canberra in the long range role (which was intended for TSR-2), the F-111 was selected, with plans for a redesigned variant, while the roles undertaken by the Hunter (for which P.1154 was to be procured) would be undertaken by a further purchase of F-4 Phantoms. As the Phantom had been developed primarily for fleet air defence, the Royal Navy was happy with the choice of the aircraft as its Sea Vixen replacement, given that the type had been operational in that role with the US Navy since 1961, and had successfully undertaken touch-and-go landings on both Hermes and Victorious. The RAF was less enthusiastic, as the Phantom was primarily designed to operate in the air defence, rather than close air support role, and had been selected as its Hunter replacement more as a way of decreasing the per unit cost of the overall UK order.
Partly as a means of guaranteeing employment in the British aerospace industry, agreement was reached that significant amounts of the structure of the UK's Phantoms would be built domestically. The F-4J variant, which was then the primary version in service with the US Navy, was taken as the basis for the UK aircraft, with major redesign. The most significant change was the substitution of the larger and more powerful Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan for the GE J79 turbojet to allow operations from RN carriers Ark Royal, Eagle and potentially the smaller Hermes, all of which were smaller than the USN carriers that J79-GE-8 and -10 powered Phantoms operated from. To accommodate the larger engines, BAC redesigned and built the entire rear fuselage section. The Westinghouse AN/AWG-10 radar carried by the F-4J was to be procured and built under licence by Ferranti as the AN/AWG-11 for Fleet Air Arm aircraft and AN/AWG-12 for those of the RAF. The overall changes to the aircraft led to the two variants being given their own separate series letters, with the FAA version being designated as the F-4K and the RAF version as the F-4M.
Initially, there was an intention to procure up to 400 aircraft for the Royal Navy and the RAF, but the development cost associated with the changes specified by the United Kingdom to accommodate the Spey turbofans meant that the per unit price eventually ended up being three-times the price of an F-4J; because the government then had a policy of negotiating fixed-price contracts it meant that these costs could not be evened out by a large production run, which left the total order at 170.
The British Government ordered a total of four prototypes (two F-4K and two F-4M), together with a pair of pre-production F-4K aircraft. The first UK Phantom, a prototype F-4K (designated as YF-4K), first flew on 27 June 1966 at the McDonnell Douglas plant in St. Louis. The second made its first flight on 30 August 1966. The two pre-production F-4K aircraft were constructed alongside the prototypes, and were initially used for fit check trials of the various systems they would be fitted with – the first was used for catapult/arrestor and deck landing trials, while the second was primarily for testing the radar and missile systems. All four were delivered to the UK from 1969–1970 for continued use in testing work by both the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment and British Aerospace. One of the pre-production examples was subsequently delivered to the RAF for operational use, but was lost in 1978. The first F-4M prototype (designated YF-4M) first flew on 17 February 1967, with both again used for fit check work before delivery to the UK.
F-4K Phantom FG.1
|F-4K Phantom FG.1|
|A Royal Navy Phantom FG.1 of 892 NAS aboard HMS Ark Royal in 1972|
|Role||Fleet air defence fighter
Air defence interceptor
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||27 June 1966|
|Introduction||30 April 1968 (FAA)
1 September 1969 (RAF)
|Retired||27 November 1978 (FAA)
30 January 1990 (RAF)
|Primary user||Royal Air Force
Fleet Air Arm
In 1964, a total of 140 new build Phantoms were ordered for the Fleet Air Arm to serve as the Royal Navy's primary fleet air defence aircraft, combined with a secondary strike capability. These were procured to replace the Sea Vixen then in service in the role, with the intention that they operate from the decks of four brand new or modernised aircraft carriers. At the time, the Royal Navy's carrier force consisted primarily of five fleet or light fleet carriers of differing sizes and ages.
Of the five in service, only Eagle and Ark Royal, each displacing approximately 50,000 tons, were big enough to accommodate the Phantom, and so plans were put in place to rebuild the two ships to enable the operation of the aircraft. At the same time, plans were in place to construct two new aircraft carriers to a new design, termed as "CVA-01"; the requirements for the intended force of four carriers meant that up to five squadrons of Phantoms were planned to be purchased. However, in its 1966 Defence White Paper the Government decided to cancel CVA-01 (as well as cancelling TSR-2), which led to a reduction in the total procurement order for the Royal Navy's Phantoms, from 140 down to 48. The intention was to form a pair of front-line squadrons, each of twelve aircraft, that would operate from the two remaining, heavily modernised fleet carriers, with the remainder of the fleet as a reserve and for training.
The Royal Navy received its first F-4K Phantoms, which received the British designation FG.1, in April 1968. These were assigned to 700P Naval Air Squadron, which was to serve as Intensive Flying Trials Unit. Upon completion of the successful flight trials, 767 Naval Air Squadron was commissioned in January 1969 as the FAA's training squadron. This was followed at the end of March 1969 by 892 Naval Air Squadron, which commissioned as the Royal Navy's first operational Phantom unit, intended to embark in Ark Royal once her three-year refit had completed in 1970.
At the same time as the Fleet Air Arm was receiving its first aircraft, the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment had three FG.1s delivered to its 'C' Squadron for flight deck trials aboard Eagle. Two sets of trials were successfully carried out in March and June 1969; the first set was a set of approaches and touch and go landings, while the second set of trials involved full up catapult launch and arrested recovery. As a result of the reheat from the Spey turbofans, the ship's jet blast deflectors (JBD) were not used; instead a steel plate was fixed to the deck to absorb the heat of the engines building to launch, with fire hoses needed after each launch to prevent them melting.
Ark Royal had entered refit to accommodate the Phantom in 1967; this involved amongst other elements the installation of water-cooled JBDs and bridle catchers.[lower-roman 1] Once this was complete, Eagle was then scheduled to undergo a similar modernization. However, in 1969, the planned refit of Eagle was cancelled. As a consequence, it was then decided to further reduce the FAA's Phantom fleet to just 28 aircraft. The remaining 20 aircraft were then allocated to the Royal Air Force.
In 1970, Ark Royal embarked 892 NAS as part of her air group for the first time. However, the first operational use of the Royal Navy's Phantoms had come in 1969, when 892 NAS had embarked for training with the US aircraft carrier USS Saratoga in the Mediterranean, and had undertaken air defence missions alongside the ship's own F-4Js. During Ark Royal's first three-year commission, 892 NAS, which had initially used RNAS Yeovilton in Somerset as its home base, moved to RAF Leuchars in Fife where, during the periods when it was not embarked, it undertook Quick Reaction Alert duties alongside the RAF's 43 Squadron. The Phantom served in the Fleet Air Arm until 1978, when Ark Royal was finally withdrawn from service, leaving no ship left in the Royal Navy capable of operating the type. The final catapult launch from Ark Royal was a Phantom of 892 NAS on 27 November 1978 during the disembarkation of the air group following the ship's final deployment; the squadron's aircraft were delivered to RAF St Athan in Wales where they were then handed over to the RAF. During the type's service with the Royal Navy, a total of 11 of the total FAA fleet of 28 were lost.
Royal Air Force
Following the cancellation of the planned refit of HMS Eagle to allow her to operate the Phantom, a total of 20 airframes that had originally been ordered for the Fleet Air Arm were diverted to the Royal Air Force to serve in the air defence role. At the time, the RAF's primary interceptor was the English Electric Lightning, which suffered badly both in terms of range, loiter time and weapons fit, all of which hampered its effectiveness, especially in long interceptions of Soviet Air Forces and Soviet Naval Aviation bombers and reconnaissance aircraft over the North Sea and North Atlantic. So a new Phantom squadron was formed at RAF Leuchars, the UK's most northerly air defence base at the time, to take advantage of the improvements that the Phantom provided over the Lightning – it could carry more fuel, and could thus fly further for longer; it was fitted with a more powerful radar; and it could carry more missiles (up to 8, compared to 2 for the Lightning). On 1 September 1969, 43 Squadron was formed at Leuchars, operating as part of the UK's northern QRA zone alongside the Lightnings of 11 Squadron and, from 1972, more Phantoms from 892 Naval Air Squadron.
Following the withdrawal of HMS Ark Royal in 1978, the Phantoms of the Fleet Air Arm were turned over to the RAF and used to form a second squadron at Leuchars. At the time, 111 Squadron was stationed there operating the FGR.2 version of the Phantom, having been there since 1975. In 1979, to save costs resulting from the differences between the FG.1 and FGR.2, the squadron converted to the ex-Navy aircraft, dispersing its existing airframes to other Phantom units. Both 43 and 111 Squadrons retained the FG.1 until 1989, when they converted to the new Tornado F.3. Following the standing down of the two operational squadrons and the final withdrawal of the type from service, the bulk of the RAF's FG.1 Phantoms were scrapped. The RAF lost a total of nine of their FG.1s in crashes throughout the type's twenty year service.
- United Kingdom
- Royal Navy
- Royal Air Force
Phantom FG.1 of 43 Squadron approaching an air-to-air refuelling tanker in 1980
Phantom FG.1 of 111 Squadron on the flightline in 1989
F-4M Phantom FGR.2
|F-4M Phantom FGR.2|
|A Royal Air Force Phantom FGR.2 of 23 Squadron at RAF Finningley in 1977|
|Role||Air defence interceptor
Low level strike
Close air support
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||17 February 1967|
|Introduction||23 August 1968|
|Retired||1 November 1992|
|Primary user||Royal Air Force|
Close air support
Following the cancellation of both the TSR-2 and P.1154 programmes, the RAF were still left with a requirement to replace both the Canberra and Hunter in the long-range strike, close air support and reconnaissance roles. This resulted in the procurement of two aircraft, the General Dynamics F-111K, intended for the long-range interdiction roles carried out by the Canberra, and the F-4M Phantom, which would be used in the close air support role undertaken by the Hunter. While the F-111K was cancelled within a year of being ordered, the order for over 100 Phantoms went ahead alongside the Phantom order for the Royal Navy. The RAF Phantom, given the designation FGR.2, was broadly similar to the naval version, with some minor variations in terms of engines, avionics and structure, which related to its use as a land-based, rather than carrier-based aircraft.
The first RAF Phantom unit was 228 Operational Conversion Unit, which was stood up in August 1968. The Phantom entered operational service in May 1969, when 6 Squadron was formed at RAF Coningsby in the tactical strike role. 54 Squadron was formed in September the same year, while 41 Squadron came in 1972 as a tactical reconnaissance unit. A further four squadrons were formed in RAF Germany on the Phantom in these roles, with 2, 14, 17 and 31 Squadrons all formed at RAF Brüggen in 1970 and 1971. After Initial Work-up No II(AC) squadron moved to and operated from RAF Laarbruch in the tactical reconnaissance role. The aircraft assigned to the two tactical reconnaissance units were fitted with a recce pod containing 4 optical cameras, an infrared linescan and a sideways looking radar.
During the 1970s, the RAF was in the process of developing a new aircraft specifically for the tactical strike and reconnaissance missions, which eventually became the SEPECAT Jaguar. This was introduced into service in 1974, and led to a re-think in the use of the Phantom as, at the same time, the limitations of the Lightning as an interceptor were becoming more apparent. The conversion of the RAF's FGR.2 squadrons to operate the Jaguar, combined with the use of the Blackburn Buccaneer, which had been purchased to assume some of the strike roles intended for the F-111K, meant that it was possible to begin transferring Phantoms to operate purely as interceptors in the air defence role.
In October 1974, 111 Squadron converted from the Lightning to the Phantom FGR.2, becoming the first unit to operate the type in the air defence role (notwithstanding 43 Squadron, which had used the FG.1 version since 1969). As more Jaguars were delivered, enabling the strike squadrons in the UK and Germany to convert, more Phantoms were released enabling existing Lightning squadrons to be converted; 19 Squadron and 92 Squadron, the forward deployed air defence units in Germany, converted in 1976 and 1977 respectively, at the same time moving from RAF Gütersloh, which was the closest RAF base to the East German border, to RAF Wildenrath, taking advantage of the Phantom's superior range over the Lightning. Three further UK based squadrons, 23, 29 and 56, were also converted between 1974 and 1976. 111 Squadron, which had been the first unit to use the FGR.2 as an interceptor, converted to the FG.1 version in 1979 following the transfer of the Royal Navy's remaining airframes to the RAF. The Phantom subsequently served as the RAF's primary interceptor for over a decade until the introduction into service of the Panavia Tornado F.3 in 1987.
In May 1982, three Phantoms from 29 Squadron were forward deployed to RAF Wideawake on Ascension Island to provide air cover during the RAF's operations as part of Operation Corporate, replacing Harriers of 1 Squadron, which were transiting to the war zone. In August 1982, following the end of the conflict and the reconstruction of the runway, 29 Squadron detached a number of its aircraft to RAF Stanley to provide air defence for the Falkland Islands. Late the following year, 23 Squadron took up the role, remaining stationed there until October 1988, when they were replaced by 1435 Flight. To make up for the loss of an entire squadron from the UK Air Defence Region, the RAF procured 15 second-hand F-4J Phantoms that had previously been used by the US Navy. These aircraft were operated by 74 Squadron from 1984 until 1991, when they were replaced by FGR.2 Phantoms that had been released by other squadrons following their conversion to the Tornado. Initially, it was intended that Phantoms and Tornados serve alongside each other; a total of 152 Tornado F.3s were ordered for the RAF, enough to convert four squadrons of Phantoms and two of Lightnings, but insufficient to completely convert every air defence squadron; both 23 and 29 Squadrons converted from the Phantom FGR.2 to the Tornado between 1987 and 1988, alongside the conversion of the final two remaining Lightning squadrons; the intention was to retain a pair of UK based Phantom squadrons at RAF Wattisham alongside a pair of Tornado units at RAF Coningsby to provide air defence cover for the southern half of the UK Air Defence Region, with another two squadrons stationed in Germany. The end of the Cold War however led to a more rapid withdrawal of Phantom units than had originally been planned; under the Options for Change defence review the Phantom was to be withdrawn from service, with the two Germany based units disbanded as part of the gradual run down of the RAF's presence, and a reduction in the number of air defence squadrons leading to the two UK based units being disbanded in late 1992. However, just prior to the final withdrawal of the Phantom, it was recalled operationally as a result of Operation Granby, the UK's participation in the First Gulf War, when a total of six aircraft from 19 and 92 Squadrons were forward deployed to provide air defence cover at RAF Akrotiri; this was to replace the Tornados that had been originally deployed there on exercise, and were subsequently sent to the Gulf region. Following their final withdrawal from service, with a few exceptions, the bulk of the RAF's FGR.2 fleet was scrapped. Over its service life, 37 FGR.2s were lost to crashes.
Phantom FGR.2 of 228 OCU at NAS Patuxent River in 1970
Phantom FGR.2 of 6 Squadron at RAF Coningsby in 1974
Phantom FGR.2 of 19 Squadron alongside a US Navy F-14 in 1990
F-4J(UK) Phantom F.3
|F-4J(UK) Phantom F.3|
|A Royal Air Force Phantom F.3 of 74 Squadron in 1984|
|Role||Air defence interceptor|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||10 August 1984|
|Introduction||19 October 1984|
|Retired||31 January 1991|
|Primary user||Royal Air Force|
Following the end of the Falklands War, the UK government began a programme of upgrading the defences of the Falkland Islands to guard against any further potential aggression from Argentina. One of the measures taken was the deployment of an interceptor squadron to the islands themselves, with 23 Squadron forming at RAF Stanley in October 1983. At the time, the air defence variant of the Panavia Tornado was still in development, meaning that the Phantom was the UK's primary air defence aircraft (supported by two remaining squadrons of Lightnings). The removal of a squadron of Phantoms to the Falkland Islands left a gap in the UK's air defences with nothing immediately available to fill it, given that the Tornado was still some years from entering service. As a consequence, the UK government decided to purchase an additional squadron of Phantoms. However, because the aircraft in service with the RAF were the special production batch built to UK specifications, it would not be possible to obtain identical aircraft. So, a total of 15 second-hand airframes were procured from among the best of the ex-US Navy F-4Js stored at the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis–Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona. The F-4J was chosen as it was the variant from which the RAF's F-4Ks and F-4Ms had been developed, and thus the closest available to the British aircraft. The 15 that were selected were extensively refurbished and brought to a standard almost equivalent to the F-4S, which was the last variant in service with the US Navy, with the only differences being the absence of leading-edge slats and a helmet gun sight. The major difference between the F-4J and the British Phantoms was the absence of the Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan, with instead the aircraft being fitted with the GE J79-10B, which produced less power than the British engine, but had a faster afterburner light up, giving it better performance at high altitude, at the expense of slightly poorer acceleration at low level; the high altitude performance was helped by the reduced drag from its smaller air intakes. Initially delivered capable of carrying the Sparrow and Sidewinder air-to-air missiles (AAM), they were soon made compatible with the Skyflash and SUU-23A gun pod, bringing them into line with the rest of the RAF's Phantoms. However, in spite of some modifications to allow them to operate with the rest of the fleet, the F-4Js retained the vast bulk of the equipment they were originally fitted with, which even led to their crews requiring American flying helmets.
Although the new Phantoms were assigned a UK designation as the F.3, they were generally referred to as the F-4J(UK). They were assigned to 74 Squadron at RAF Wattisham, which stood up in October 1984, just two months after the first flight. The aircraft remained in service through the transition to the Tornado, which began entering service in 1987. In 1990, thanks to the conversion of F-4M squadrons to the Tornado, the RAF were able to transfer the best of its remaining FGR.2s to 74 Squadron, which meant that the F.3 was able to be withdrawn in January 1991. With a couple of exceptions, all of the RAF's F-4Js were broken up for scrap. One of the 15 airframes was lost in a crash in 1987, killing both crew members.
Phantom F.3 on the flightline at RAF Valley in 1987
FG.1 and FGR.2
The Phantom FG.1 and FGR.2 as built were similar, being fitted as they were with broadly the same engines and avionics, although in both cases there were minor differences. The FGR.2 was fitted with the Mark 202 version of the Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan, while the FG.1 had the Mark 203; this was fundamentally the same, but had a modified control system for the afterburner, which allowed it to light faster, to enable power to be applied quickly in the event of a bolter on the small decks of the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers. Both variants were fitted with a licence built version of the Westinghouse AN/AWG-10 avionics package; the FG.1 was fitted with the AN/AWG-11, which differed primarily in having a nose radome that was hinged and able to fold backwards against the aircraft's fuselage to allow for storage in the hangar of an aircraft carrier; the system was designed to be integrated with both the AGM-12 Bullpup missile and WE.177 as required. The AN/AWG-12 fitted to the FGR.2 was not foldable, and featured a better ground mapping mode, to take into account the strike role for which the type was originally procured; allied to this was a Ferranti inertial navigation/attack system (removed when the type converted to the air defence role). It was also configured to be able to control the SUU-23A gun pod, which the FG.1 was not fitted with.
British Phantoms and other Phantoms
Although there were some minor differences between the two types of Phantom built for the United Kingdom, there were many significant ones between the British Phantoms and those built for the United States. The most obvious one was the substitution of the Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan for the General Electric J79 turbojet. The Spey was shorter in length than the J79, but wider in diameter, which meant that the intakes had to be redesigned for a higher airflow, making them 20% larger (with a consequent increase in drag), while the fuselage was widened by 152 mm (6.0 in). The position of the afterburner also meant that the rear of the fuselage had to be made deeper. In addition auxiliary intake doors were fitted on the rear fuselage. Estimates on the performance of the Spey engined Phantom as opposed to its American equivalent had the aircraft requiring a 30% shorter take-off distance, 20% faster climb to altitude, higher top speed and longer range. The Spey was certainly more efficient at lower altitudes, and had better acceleration at low speed, giving British Phantoms better range and acceleration, which was shown during the deployment of 892 NAS to the Mediterranean aboard USS Saratoga in 1969, when the F-4K was repeatedly quicker off the deck than the F-4J used by the Americans. But, it was less efficient at higher altitudes, with British Phantoms lacking speed compared with J79 powered versions owing to the increased drag of the re-designed fuselage. This discrepancy became apparent when the F-4J was obtained by the UK in 1984; this was regarded as being the best of the three variants to serve in the RAF.
The small size of the aircraft carriers Eagle and Ark Royal from which the Royal Navy's Phantoms were intended to operate, compared to the US Navy carriers of the period, meant that the F-4K version required significant structural changes compared to the F-4J, from which it was descended, and which performed a similar role. In addition to the folding nose radome to allow for storage in the smaller hangars of the British ships, it had to have a significantly strengthened undercarriage to account for the higher landing weight (British policy was to bring back unused ordnance); a telescopic nosewheel oleo that extended by 40 inches (100 cm) to provide an increased take-off attitude (the extension of the nosewheel put the Phantom at a 9° attitude) due to the shorter and less powerful catapults; and drooping ailerons, enlarged leading edge flaps and a slotted tailplane, increased flap and leading edge blowing, all to improve the lift and handling characteristics of operation from the much smaller carriers of the Royal Navy.
As the Phantom continued in service, other changes were made, most notably the addition of the Marconi ARI.18228 Radar Warning Receiver in an installation mounted on top of the vertical stabiliser, the only Phantom variants to be so fitted. The RWR installation was fitted in the mid-1970s to both the FG.1 and FGR.2 Phantoms, but was not fitted to the F.3. From 1978, the Skyflash air-to-air missile (AAM), derived from the AIM-7 Sparrow, began to be delivered to RAF Phantom units, and was used concurrently with the Sparrow; all three UK Phantom variants were eventually fitted to operate the Skyflash.
|Variant||Powerplant||Speed (at 40,000 ft)||Ceiling||Range||Weight||Wingspan||Length||Height||Production total|
|2 x RR Spey 203 low-bypass turbofan||1,386 mph (2,231 km/h)||57,200 ft (17,400 m)||1,750 mi (2,820 km)||31,000 lb (14,000 kg)||58,000 lb (26,000 kg)||38 ft 5 in (11.71 m)||57 ft 7 in (17.55 m)||16 ft 1 in (4.90 m)||52|
|2 x RR Spey 202/204 low-bypass turbofan||16 ft 9 in (5.11 m)||118|
|2 x GE J79-10B axial flow turbojet||1,434 mph (2,308 km/h)||61,900 ft (18,900 m)||29,900 lb (13,600 kg)||58 ft 3 in (17.75 m)||16 ft 6 in (5.03 m)||15|
In the early 1970s, the RAF issued an Air Staff Requirement for the development of a new interceptor intended to replace both the Phantom and the Lightning. One initial proposal was a plan introduced by McDonnell Douglas for a variable geometry wing Phantom. This was rejected by the RAF owing to the fact that there was little apparent improvement in performance over the existing Phantom, and that it might affect the development of the "Multi-Role Combat Aircraft" (MRCA). Another idea that the MRCA concept, which eventually evolved into the Panavia Tornado, could be used in the interceptor role, was ruled out, as both its avionics and engines were optimised for the low level interdictor mission. The UK's partners in the MRCA project displayed no enthusiasm for the idea of developing an air defence version of the Tornado, so the UK alone began the process, with the authorisation for what came to be known as the Tornado ADV issued in March 1976. With the aircraft in development, the initial plan was for the Tornado to replace the remaining two squadrons of Lightnings, as well as all seven squadrons of Phantoms. However, while the Tornado was in development, the RAF looked at interim measures to replace the Phantom, which had been in service for over a decade by 1980, and was beginning to suffer from fatigue issues; one proposal looked at was the possibility of leasing or purchasing a quantity of F-15 Eagles to re-equip 19 and 92 Squadrons, the units stationed in Germany. However, subsequent to this came a decision that the Tornado, once it had entered service, would only re-equip three of the Phantom squadrons, with two retained in the UK and two in Germany. Eventually, the Tornado accounted for the two FG.1 squadrons at RAF Leuchars (43 and 111 Squadrons), plus two FGR.2 units (23 Squadron and 29 Squadron), with 56 and 74 Squadrons remaining with the Phantom.
In the Royal Navy, the withdrawal of the conventional aircraft carrier was envisaged to see the end of fixed-wing aviation at sea. Because of this policy, 892 Naval Air Squadron used a black capital Omega (Ω) letter on the tailfins of their aircraft, as it was believed they would be the final fixed-wing squadron to be commissioned. However, in the 1970s the Royal Navy was developing what was known as the "Through Deck Cruiser", a 20,000 ton ship with a full length flight deck intended to embark a squadron of large anti-submarine warfare helicopters. Almost as soon as the first ship, HMS Invincible, was ordered, an additional specification was added to the design; as well as the helicopters, a small squadron of STOVL aircraft would form part of the air group to act as a deterrent to long range reconnaissance aircraft. To this end, a navalised version of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier was developed – over the design process, the Sea Harrier was given, in addition to its air defence role, responsibility for reconnaissance and maritime strike missions. In March 1980, 14 months after 892 Naval Air Squadron was decommissioned and its Phantoms turned over to the RAF, 800 Naval Air Squadron was formed as the first operational Sea Harrier squadron.
Aircraft replaced by and replacing the Phantom
Sir Sydney Camm, the Chief Designer at Hawker for many years, once said that no British aircraft could be considered a success until it was able to match the capabilities of the Phantom. The Phantom's versatility was such that, in the RAF and Royal Navy, it was the direct replacement in squadron service for a total of four different aircraft types, with nine separate variants amongst them. In turn, when the Phantom was replaced in service, its major roles required three separate aircraft (see table):
|Unit||Formed||Variant||Role||Previous Aircraft (Withdrawn)||Disbanded||Replaced by||Reference|
|892 NAS||1969||FG.1||Fleet Air Defence||Sea Vixen FAW.2 (1969)||1978||N/A[lower-roman 2]|||
|2 Sqn||1970||FGR.2||Tactical Reconnaissance||Hunter FR.10 (1970)||1976||Jaguar GR.1|||
|6 Sqn||1969||FGR.2||Close Air Support/Tactical Strike||Canberra B.16 (1969)||1974||Jaguar GR.1|||
|14 Sqn||1970||FGR.2||Canberra B(I).8 (1970)||1975||Jaguar GR.1|||
|17 Sqn||1970||FGR.2||Canberra PR.7 (1970)||1975||Jaguar GR.1|||
|19 Sqn||1977||FGR.2||Air Defence||Lightning F.2A (1977)||1992||Hawk T.1[lower-roman 3]|||
|23 Sqn||1975||FGR.2||Lightning F.3/F.6 (1975)||1988||Tornado F.3|||
|29 Sqn||1975||FGR.2||Lightning F.3/F.6 (1975)||1987||Tornado F.3|||
|31 Sqn||1971||FGR.2||Close Air Support/Tactical Strike||Canberra PR.7 (1971)||1976||Jaguar GR.1|||
|41 Sqn||1972||FGR.2||Tactical Reconnaissance[lower-roman 4]||Bloodhound Mk.2 SAM (1970)||1977||Jaguar GR.1|||
|43 Sqn||1969||FG.1||Air Defence||Hunter FGA.9 (1967)||1989||Tornado F.3|||
|54 Sqn||1969||FGR.2||Close Air Support/Tactical Strike||Hunter FGA.9 (1969)||1974||Jaguar GR.1|||
|56 Sqn||1976||FGR.2||Air Defence||Lightning F.6 (1976)||1992||Tornado F.3[lower-roman 5]|||
|64 Sqn[lower-roman 6]||1968||FG.1/FGR.2||Operational Conversion||Javelin FAW.7/FAW.9[lower-roman 7] (1967)||1991||N/A|||
|74 Sqn||1984||F.3[lower-roman 8]||Air Defence||Lightning F.6 (1971)||1991||Hawk T.1A[iii]|||
|92 Sqn||1977||FGR.2||Lightning F.2A (1977)||1992||Hawk T.1A[iii]|||
|111 Sqn||1974||FGR.2[lower-roman 9]||Lightning F.3/F.6 (1974)||1990||Tornado F.3|||
Aircraft on display
- XT597 Bentwaters Airfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England – not on public display.
- XT864 Maze-Long Kesh, Lisburn, Ulster Aviation Society, Northern Ireland.
- XV582 RAF Leuchars, Fife, Scotland.
- XV586 RNAS Yeovilton, Somerset, England – stored not on display.
- XT891 RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, England.
- XT889 Kbely Museum, Czech Republic.
- XT905 Bentwaters Airfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England – not on public display.
- XT907 Bentwaters Airfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England
- XT914 Wattisham Airfield, Suffolk, England.
- XV401 Bentwaters Airfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.
- XV406 Soloway Aviation Museum, Carlisle Airport, Cumbria, England.
- XV408 Tangmere Military Aviation Museum, West Sussex, England.
- XV411 Defence Fire Training and Development Centre, Manston Airport, Kent, England – not on public display.
- XV415 RAF Boulmer, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.
- XV424 Royal Air Force Museum London, England.
- XV470 RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus – stored and not on public display.
- XV474 Duxford Aerodrome, Cambridgeshire, England.
- XV497 Bentwaters Airfield, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.
- ZE359 American Air Museum, Duxford Aerodrome, Cambridgeshire, England. Painted in United States Navy markings.
- ZE360 Defence Fire Training and Development Centre, Manston Airport, Kent, England – not on public display.
Data from Thunder & Lightnings – Phantom History
- Crew: 2
- Length: 57 ft 7 in (17.55 m)
- Wingspan: 38 ft 4.5 in (11.7 m)
- Height: 16 ft 1 in (4.9 m)
- Empty weight: 31,000 lb (14,061 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 56,000 lb (25,402 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Spey 202/204 low bypass turbofans, 12,140 lbf dry thrust (54 kN), 20,500 lbf in afterburner (91.2 kN) each
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.9 (1,386 mph) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m)
- Ferry range: 1,750 mi (2,816 km)
- Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,300 m)
- Air defence
- 4 × AIM-7 Sparrow or Skyflash in fuselage recesses plus 4 × AIM-9 Sidewinders on wing pylons;
- 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barrel Gatling cannon in SUU-23 gun pod
- Up to 180 SNEB 68mm unguided rockets;
- 11 × 1000lb free fall or retarded bombs
- Ferranti AN/AWG-12 Multi-Mode Radar
- Ferranti AN/APG-61 Fire Control Radar
- Marconi ARI18228 Radar Warning Receiver
- Marconi AN/ASN-39A computer
- AN/ARN-91 TACAN bearing/distance navigation system
- Cossor IFF
- STR-70P Radio Altimeter
- EMI Reconnaissance Pod containing:
- The launch bridle for the Phantom could only be used on that type, and was thus considerably more expensive than those used for other types. As a consequence, bridle catchers were fitted to the ends of the ship's new catapults so that the bridles could be reused.
- Following the decommissioning of HMS Ark Royal in 1978, the Royal Navy was no longer able to operate conventional fixed wing aircraft at sea. The British Aerospace Sea Harrier was introduced into both the air defence (replacing the Phantom) and strike (replacing the Buccaneer) roles in the Fleet Air Arm with 800 NAS and 801 NAS in 1980
- The instances where the Phantom was replaced in squadron service by the Hawk were a result of the "Options for Change" defence cuts, with the squadrons being transferred to training roles
- 41 Squadron converted to this role from being an air defence SAM squadron
- This unit became the "shadow" squadron number of 229 OCU, the Tornado OCU
- This was the "shadow" squadron number of 228 OCU
- The Javelin squadron was an operational interceptor unit
- 74 Squadron converted to the FGR.2 in 1991 prior to disbanding
- 111 Squadron converted to the FG.1 in 1979
- Lake 1992.
- "An Industry Regrouped". Flight. Royal Aero Club. 78 (2686): 367–373. 1960. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Lessons of the TSR.2 Story". Flight. Royal Aero Club. 96 (3161): 570–571. 1969. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Buttler 2000, pp. 118–119.
- Burke 2010, p. 274.
- "The Rise and Fall of the P.1154" (PDF). Hawker Association Newsletter. Hawker Association: 4–5. Summer 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Burke, Damien (12 April 2012). "History". Thunder & Lightnings. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Thornborough and Davies 1994, p. 260.
- "HMS Hermes 1962-1964" (PDF). Axford's Abode. 1964. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Hobbs 2014, p. 280
- Goebel, Greg (1 February 2014). "Phantom In Foreign Service". The McDonnell DOuglas F-4 Phantom. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Flintham, Vic (2011). "McDonnell Phantom". vicflintham.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Richardson 1984, p. 26
- Courtnage, Paul (2006). "Chapter 5: The Phantom". Vox Clamantis in Deserto. Project Ocean Vision. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom". Warbird Alley. Doublestar Group. 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Hobbs, David (2008). "British F-4 Phantoms". Air International. Key Publishing. 74 (5): 30–37.
- Sturtivant 2004, pp. 470–471
- Petit et al 1983, p. 172
- "History". Phantom F4K Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Hobbs, David (2014). British Aircraft Carriers: Design, Development & Service Histories. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781848321380.
- "Royal Navy Squadrons". Phantom F4K Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Not a Lot of People Know That...". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Phantoms On HMS Eagle (Film). British Pathé. 8 June 1969. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "HMS Eagle Deck Trials 1969". www.phantomf4k.org. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Caygill 2005, p. 42-43
- "Particular Actions". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "892 Squadron record of service". Phantom F4K Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "F-4 Phantom - UK". ejection-history.org.uk. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Kent, Rick (22 September 2006). "McDonnell Phantom in British Service". IPMS Stockholm. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "Royal Air Force Phantom Squadrons". RAF Yearbook. IAT Publishing: 17. 1992.
- "No. 11 Squadron". The Lightning Association. June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "RAF Leuchars saying farewell to Treble One's Tornado F3s". The Courier. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Clydeside Carnage: The Battered Remains of RAF Leuchars' Phantom Fleet". Urban Ghosts. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "Phantom FG-1, FGR-2 & F-4J (UK) Aircraft Histories.". The Phantom Shrine. Corsair Publishing. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Burke, Damian (12 April 2012). "Survivors". Thunder & Lightnings. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR-2 EMI Reconnaissance Pod". Post WW2. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- Braybrook, Ray (1981). "Lightning". RAF Yearbook. Leicester: WM Caple: 53.
- Fricker, John (1980). "The RAF Looks Ahead". RAF Yearbook. Leicester: Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund.
- Courtnage, Paul (2016). "Tornado". Vox Clamantis in Deserto. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Tornado F.3: Tremblers' Farewell - the end of the Tornado F.3". Global Aviation Resource. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Smith, Gordon (31 May 2013). "Part 15. Royal Air Force – Role & Operations". Battle Atlas of the Falkalnds War 1982 by Land, Sea and Air. naval-history.net. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "29(R) Squadron". Royal Air Force. 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Archer, Bob (1992). "Sunset for the Phantom". RAF Yearbook. IAT Publishing: 14.
- Peacock, Lindsay (1990). "For F4 Read F3". RAF Yearbook. Fairford: IAT Publishing.
- Jackson, Paul (1988). "Farewell Lightning, Welcome Tornado". RAF Yearbook. Fairford: IAT Publishing.
- Darling 2012, p.189
- Tom King, Secretary of State for Defence (25 July 1990). "Defence (Options for Change)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. col. 468–486.
- "RAF Akrotiri – History". RAF Akrotiri Revisited. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "The Phantom". Wattisham Station Heritage. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "The Modern Era: Hawks & Phantoms". No 74 Squadron Association. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Rawlings, John (1985). "The Tigers Are Back". RAF Yearbook. ABC: 33.
- "RAF Timeline 1980–1989". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
No 74 Squadron reforms at Wattisham with the delivery of the first of the F4J Phantoms, given the RAF designation Phantom F3
- "No 74 Squadron". National Cold War Exhibition. Royal Air Force Museum. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- Bourne, Nigel. "Development of the Rolls-Royce Military Spey Mk202 Engine". Thrust SSC. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Weaponry". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- The Phantom and the Spey (Information plaque in museum). RAF Museum, Hendon: Royal Air Force Museum. 2003.
- Goebel, Greg (1 February 2014). "Phantom In Foreign Service". The McDonnell F-4 Phantom. airvectors.net. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Eade, Dave. "Part Five:Phantastic Phantom's Arrival". The Wattisham Chronicles. Air Scene UK. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Burns, J.G.; Edwards, M. (14 January 1971). "Blow, Blow Thou BLC Wind". Flight International. Flight Global. 99 (3227): 56–59. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Construction Details". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Equipment Fit". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Weaponry". National Cold War Exhibition. RAF Museum. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "McDonnell F-4(FV)S Phantom II". 30 December 1999. Archived from the original on 14 February 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- Rogoway, Tyler (18 October 2015). "The F-4 Phantom's Manufacturer Wanted To Give It Swing-Wings". Foxtrot Alpha. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Simpson, R.C. (1978). "Tornado means trouble...for WARPAC!". RAF Yearbook. Leicester: Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund.
- "RAF faces the Fighter Gap" (PDF). Flight International. IPC Transport Press. 114 (3624): 727. 2 September 1978. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- Jackson, Paul (1985). "A Refurbished Umbrella". RAF Yearbook. Leicester: Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund.
- Wilson, Harold (7 October 1975). "Up, Up and Almost Away" (PDF). Naval Review. 64 (4): 291–298. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Hastings, David (12 January 2012). "Squadron Service". Target Lock. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- HMS Ark Royal 1970-73 Commissioning Book (PDF). p. 75.
- "2 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "6 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "14 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "17 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "19 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "23 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "29 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "31 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "41 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "43 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "54 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "56 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "228 Operational Conversion Unit". RAF-Lincolnshire.info. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "74 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "92 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "111 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Ellis 2014, p. 209
- Ellis 2014, p. 222
- "Legendary F4 Phantom jet fighter comes ashore in Larne". larnetimes.co.uk. Larne Times. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Ellis 2014, p. 314
- Ellis 2014, p. 212
- Ellis 2014, p. 138
- Ellis 2014, p. 258
- Ellis 2014, p. 217
- Ellis 2014, p. 41
- Ellis 2014, p. 270
- Ellis 2014, p. 90
- Ellis 2014, p.177
- Ellis 2014, p. 153
- Ellis 2014, Appendix A
- Ellis 2014, p. 29
- Ellis 2014, p. 24
- Burke, Damien (2010). TSR2: Britain's Lost Bomber. Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-84797-211-8.
- Buttler, Tony (2003). British Secret Projects: Jet Bombers Since 1949. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-130-9.
- Caygill, Peter (2005). Phantom from the Cockpit. Barnsley: Casemate Publishers. ISBN 9781844152254.
- Darling, Kev (2012). RAF Strike Command 1968–2007: Aircraft, Men and Action. Pen & Sword Aviation. ISBN 978-1848848986.
- Ellis, Ken (2014). Wrecks and Relics – 24th Edition. Manchester, England: Crecy Publishing. ISBN 978 085979 1779.
- Hampshire, Edward (2013). From East of Suez to the Eastern Atlantic: British Naval Policy 1964–70. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 1473821134.
- Lake, Jon (1992). Phantom Spirit in the Skies. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 978-1-880588-04-8.
- Pettit, Martin, ed. (1983). British Military Aircraft Serials and Markings. British Aviation Research Group / Nostalgair / The Aviation Hobby Shop. ISBN 0 906339 04 9.
- Richardson, Doug (1984). "Chapter 3: Propulsion". Modern Fighting Aircraft F4. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 0861011333.
- Sturtivant, Ray (2004). Fleet Air Arm Fixed-Wing Aircraft Since 1946. Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130 283 1.
- Thetford, Owen (1991). British Naval Aircraft Since 1912. London: Putnam. ISBN 978-0-85177-849-5.
- "RAF and FAA Phantom losses". Ejection History. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2015.