Mongolian calendar

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The traditional Mongol calendar (Mongolian: цаглабар, Tsaglabar or цаг тооны бичиг, Tsag toony bichig) is a lunisolar calendar based on Tegus Buyantu zurkhai[1] system developed in 1747 by monk Ishbaljir (Сүмбэ хамбо Ишбалжир, Sümbe khambo Ishbaljir; 1704–1788). The Mongol year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. A thirteenth month is added every two or three years, so that an average year is equal to the solar year.

The Mongol new year celebration is Tsagaan sar which is celebrated two months after the first new moon following the winter solstice.

In modern Mongolia, the Gregorian calendar is used, with the traditional calendar only used for traditional celebrations and events based on it.

The European system of chronology is called Аргын тоолол (Argyn Toolol, chronology of method) and the Mongol system of chronology is called Билгийн тоолол (Bilgiin Toolol, chronology of wisdom).

Argyn Toolol


The twelve months of the year are referred to by their number, such as first month, second month, and so on.

Number English name Mongolian name Pronunciation
1 January Нэгдүгээр сар Negdügeer sar
2 February Хоёрдугаар сар Hoyordugaar sar
3 March Гуравдугаар сар Guravdugaar sar
4 April Дөрөвдүгээр сар Dörövdugeer sar
5 May Тавдугаар сар Tavdugaar sar
6 June Зургадугаар сар Zurgadugaar sar
7 July Долоодугаар сар Doloodugaar sar
8 August Наймдугаар сар Naimdugaar sar
9 September Есдүгээр сар Yösdügeer sar
10 October Аравдугаар сар Aravdugaar sar
11 November Арван нэгдүгээр сар Arvan negdügeer sar
12 December Арван хоёрдугаар сар Arvan hoyordugaar sar

Days of the week

In colloquial usage, the first 5 days of the week are referred to as first day, second day, etc. Saturday is referred to as Hagas sain ödör (translation: half-good day), and Sunday is referred to as Büten sain ödör (translation: full good day), a result of 5 full working days and Saturday as a half working day during the communist era.

The names of Tibetan origin are used in more formal settings, and almost exclusively in written documents, while the Sanskrit names are practically absent in modern usage.

Number Colloquial Pronunciation Tibetan origin Pronunciation Sanskrit origin Pronunciation
1 Нэг дахь өдөр Neg dakhi ödör Даваа гариг(Сар) Davaa Сумъяа Sumiyaa
2 Хоёр дахь өдөр Hoyor dakhi ödör Мягмар гариг Myagmar garig Ангараг Angarag
3 Гурав дахь өдөр Gurav dakhi ödör Лхагва гариг Lkhagva garig Буд Bud
4 Дөрөв дэх өдөр Döröv dakhi ödör Пүрэв гариг Pürev garig Бархасбадь Barkhasbadi
5 Тав дахь өдөр Tav dakhi ödör Баасан гариг Baasan garig Сугар Sughar
6 Хагас сайн өдөр Khagas sain ödör Бямба гариг Byamba garig Санчир Sanchir
7 Бүтэн сайн өдөр Büten sain ödör Ням гариг(Нар) Nyam garig Адъяа Adiya

See also


  1. Zurkhai (from the verb zur - draw) is a system of knowledge embracing mathematics, astronomy and astrology