- See also Muwatalli I
Muwatalli II (mNIR.GÁL) (also Muwatallis, or Muwatallish) was a king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire (ca. 1295–1272 BC (short chronology)).
He was the eldest son of Mursili II and Queen Gassulawiya, and he had several siblings.
He is best known as the Hittite ruler who fought Ramesses II to a standstill at the Battle of Kadesh around 1274 BC. Aside from the battle with Egypt, he is best known for relocating the Hittite capital to Tarhuntassa and appointing his brother Hattusili as governor in Hattusa.
A copy of a treaty has been recovered between him and Alaksandu, ruler of Wilusa (Troy), one of the Arzawa lands.
EgyptologistsSeti I over Kadesh to avoid a clash between the two powers over control of Syria. In it, Seti effectively ceded Kadesh to the Hittite king in order to focus on domestic issues in Egypt.
suspect that some time prior to Ramesses II's accession to the Egyptian throne, Muwattalli had reached an informal peace treaty or understanding with
Muwatalli had a wife named Tanu-Ḫepa and at least two children. One was Urhi-Teshup, who became king as Mursili III until his uncle Hattusili III deposed him. Another was Kurunta who became the vassal ruler of Tarhuntassa during the reign of Hattusili III. Another person named Ulmi-Teshup is suggested to be a third son of Muwatalli II but it is quite likely that Ulmi-Teshup and Kurunta are the same person.
Tudhaliya IV and Egyptian Queen Maathorneferure were the nephew and niece of Muwatalli.
Muwatalli's namesake, Muwatalli I, was a pre-Empire king of the early 14th century, the predecessor of Tudhaliya I.
Hittite New Kingdom royal family tree
- (1) = 1st spouse
- (2) = 2nd spouse
- Small caps indicates a Great King (LUGAL.GAL) of the Land of Hatti; italic small caps indicates a Great Queen or Tawananna.
- Dashed lines indicate adoption.
- Solid lines indicate marriage (if horizontal) or parentage (if vertical).
- Trevor Bryce (1997). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
- Trevor Bryce (2012). The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Volkert Haas (2006). Die hethitische Literatur. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
- ↑ Scholars have suggested that Tudhaliya I/II was the son of Himuili and thus a grandson of the Hittite king Huzziya II (Bryce 1997, p. 131).
- ↑ Bryce (1997) does not consider it clear whether Tudhaliya I/II was one king or two (p. 133).
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bryce (1997), p. 139.
- ↑ The existence of Hattusili II is doubtful (Bryce 1997, pp. 153–154).
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 158.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 172.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Bryce (1997), p. 174.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Bryce (1997), p. 168.
- ↑ Also known as Malnigal; daughter of Burnaburias II of Babylonia (Bryce 1997, p. 173).
- ↑ ‘Great priest’ in Kizzuwadna and king (lugal) of Aleppo (Bryce 1997, p. 174).
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 King (lugal) of Carchemish.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), pp. 174, 203–204.
- ↑ Zannanza died on his way to Egypt to marry a pharaoh's widow, probably Ankhesenpaaten, the widow of Tutankhamun (Bryce 1997, pp. 196–198).
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 227.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Bryce (1997), p. 230.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 220.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 222.
- ↑ Haas (2006), p. 91.
- ↑ Massanauzzi married Masturi, king of the Seha River Land (Bryce 1997, p. 313).
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 296.
- ↑ Puduhepa was the daughter of the Kizzuwadnan priest Pentipsarri (Bryce 1997, p. 273).
- ↑ Bryce (1997), pp. 346, 363.
- ↑ King (lugal) of Tarhuntassa (Bryce 1997, p. 296); apparently later Great King of Hatti (Bryce 1997, p. 354).
- ↑ Nerikkaili married a daughter of Bentesina, king of Amurru (Bryce 1997, p. 294).
- ↑ Two daughters of Hattusili III were married to the pharaoh Ramesses II; one was given the Egyptian name Ma(hor)nefrure. Another, Gassuwaliya, married into the royal house of Amurru. Kilushepa was married to a king of Isuwa. A daughter married into the royal family of Babylon. A sister of Tudhaliya IV married Sausgamuwa, king of Amurru after his father Bentesina. From Bryce (1997), pp. 294 and 312.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 332.
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 363. Tudhaliya IV probably married a Babylonian princess, known by her title of Great Princess (dumu.sal gal) (Bryce 1997, pp. 294, 331).
- ↑ Bryce (1997), p. 363.
- ↑ Great King of Tarhuntassa; son of Mursili, the Great King, who is likely identical with Mursili III/Urhi-Tesub (Bryce 2012, p. 21 f.).
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Bryce (1997), p. 361.
- ↑ Last documented Great King of the Land of Hatti.
- ↑ King and then Great King of Carchemish (Bryce 1997, pp. 384–385).
- ↑ cf. 'The Shift of the royal seat to Tarhuntassa' by Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites (new edition), Oxford University Press, 2005. p.230
- ↑ Houwink ten Cate, Ph. H. J. (1994) "Urhi-Tessup revisited," Bibliotheca Orientalis 51, p. 233-59
- ↑ Gurney, O. R. "Ulmi-Tešup Treaty," Anatolian Studies 43, p. 13-28; Bryce, T. (2005) Kingdom of the Hittites p. 270-1