Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army
|Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army
မြန်မာအမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရက်တစ် မဟာမိတ်တပ်မတော်
|Participant in the Internal conflict in Myanmar|
Top: Flag of the MNDAA (2015–present)
Bottom: Flag of the MNDAA (1989–2015)
Yan Win Zhong
|Area of operations||Kokang Self-Administered Zone, Myanmar|
|Part of||Myanmar National Truth and Justice Party|
|Originated as||Communist Party of Burma|
|Allies||Arakan Army Ta’ang National Liberation Army|
|Opponents||Government of Myanmar Union of Myanmar (until 2011)|
|Battles and wars||Internal conflict in Myanmar|
The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (Burmese: မြန်မာအမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရက်တစ် မဟာမိတ်တပ်မတော်; abbreviated MNDAA), also known as the Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army and the Kokang Army, is an armed insurgent group in the Kokang region, Myanmar (Burma). The army has existed since 1989, having been the first one to sign a ceasefire with the Burmese government that lasted for about two decades.
The army was formed on 12 March 1989, after the local Communist Party of Burma leader, Phone Kyar Shin (Peng Jia Sheng), dissatisfied with the communists, broke away and formed the MNDAA. Along with his brother, Peng Jiafu, they became the new unit in Kokang. The strength of the army is between 1,500 and 2,000 men.
The rebels soon became the first group to agree to a ceasefire with the government troops. Thus the Burmese government refers to the Kokang region controlled by the MNDAA as ‘Shan State Special Region 1’, indicating the MNDAA was the first group in the area of Shan State to sign a cease-fire agreement. After the ceasefire, the area underwent an economic boom, with both the MNDAA and regional Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) troops benefiting financially from increased opium harvests and heroin-refining. The area also produces methamphetamine. The MNDAA and other paramilitary groups control the cultivation areas, making it an easy target for drug trafficking and organised crime groups. Peace Myanmar Group is used to launder and reinvest MNDAA's drug profits in the legal economy.
In August 2009, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army became involved in a violent conflict with Burma's military junta's armed forces. This was the largest outbreak of fighting between ethnic armies and government troops since the signing of the cease-fire 20 years earlier.
On 9 February 2015 the MNDAA tried to retake the Kokang self-administered zone, which had been under its control until 2009 and clashed with Burmese government forces in Laukkai. The skirmishes left a total of 47 Government soldiers dead and 73 wounded. After the incident the government of China was accused of giving military assistance to the ethnic Kokang soldiers.
- Neither War Nor Peace - Transnational Institute
- Myanmar Peace Monitor - MNDAA
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- Johnson, Tim (29 August 2009). China Urges Burma to Bridle Ethnic Militia Uprising at Border. The Washington Post.
- 47 Myanmar soldiers reported dead in clashes with Kokang rebels
- Myanmar Kokang Rebels Deny Receiving Chinese Weapons