National-Anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist, anti-statist, right-wing political, economic, social and cultural ideology which emphasizes ethnopluralism, neotribalism, traditionalism, mutualism, and communalism. First-wave National-Anarchists advocate that different ethnic and racial groups should peacefully coexist by developing separately in their own confederations of autonomous tribal communes within a post-capitalist stateless society.
The term National Anarchism dates back as far as the 1920s. However, it has been primarily redefined and popularized since the 1990s by British agitator Troy Southgate to promote a synthesis of ideas from the Conservative Revolutionary movement, Traditionalist School, Third Positionism, Nouvelle Droite, and various anarchist schools of thought. National-Anarchists therefore argue they hold a syncretic political stance that is "beyond left and right" because they believe the conventional left–right political spectrum is obsolete and should be replaced with a centralist–decentralist paradigm.
The few scholars who have studied National-Anarchism counter that it represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension. National-Anarchism has elicited skepticism and outright hostility from both left- and right-wing critics. The former accuse National-Anarchists of being white nationalists who are misappropriating a sophisticated post-left anarchist critique of problems with the modern world only to offer ethnic and racial separatism as the solution, while the latter argue they want the militant chic of calling themselves "anarchists" without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim.
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The term National Anarchist dates back as far as the 1920s, when Helmut Franke, a German conservative revolutionary writer, used it to describe his political stance. However, it would be the writings of other members of the Conservative Revolutionary movement, such as Ernst Jünger, which would later provide the philosophical foundation of the contemporary National-Anarchist movement.
In the United Kingdom during the early 1980s, the Black Ram Group, a far-left groupuscule which briefly promoted a synthesis of anarchism, neopaganism and völkisch nationalism, described its ideology as being National Anarchist and Anarcho-Nationalist. The Black Ram Group remained within the mainstream anarchist consensus of anti-racism and anti-sexism. Its positive evaluation of nationalism derived not from any roots in far-right political organisations, but from the theoretical consideration that "the pseudo-'nationalism' of the 'nation-State' - which anarchists unequivocally oppose...must be distinguished from the nationalism of the people (Volk) which in its more consistent expressions is a legitimate rejection of both foreign domination and internal authoritarianism, i.e. the State."
However, the present usage of term National-Anarchist derives from Hans Cany, editor of the French neo-völkisch music magazine Requiem Gothique, who first used the term in the early 1990s, along with the related terms National-Libertarian and Anarcho-Identitarian. Unbeknown to one another, Cany and Troy Southgate were using the term simultaneously.
Around the same time, British editor Richard Hunt left the editorial board of Green Anarchist magazine, due to a disagreement over political strategies, and formed his own journal, Alternative Green. Due to Alternative Green's policy of publishing articles from across the political spectrum, the remaining Green Anarchist staff constantly accused Hunt of supporting ecofascism and a red–green–brown alliance.
In the mid-1990s, Troy Southgate, a former member of the British National Front and founder of the International Third Position, began to move away from Strasserism and Catholic distributism towards post-left anarchism and the primitivist green anarchism articulated in Hunt's 1997 book To End Poverty: The Starvation of the Periphery by the Core. However, he fused his anarchist ideology with the radical traditionalism of Italian esotericist Julius Evola and the ethnopluralism and pan-European nationalism of French New Right philosopher Alain de Benoist to create a newer form of National-Anarchism. For a period, Southgate was a member of Alternative Green's editorial board, which he had hoped could become a platform to disseminate his National-Anarchist principles into the green anarchist movement.
In 1998, inspired by the concept of the Political Soldier and leaderless resistance, Southgate formed the National Revolutionary Faction (NRF) as a clandestine cell system of professional revolutionaries conspiring to overthrow the British state. The NRF stressed this was a "highly militant strategy" and advised that some members may only fund the organization. Southgate claims that the NRF took part in anti-vivisection protests in August 2000 alongside hunt saboteurs and the Animal Liberation Front by following a strategy of entryism, but its only known public action under the National-Anarchist name was to hold an Anarchist Heretics Fair in October 2000, in which a number of fringe groups participated. However, after a coalition of green anarchists and anti-fascists blocked three further events from being held in 2001, Southgate and the NRF abandoned this strategy and retreated to purely disseminating their ideas in Internet forums. The NRF had long been aware of the bridging power of the Internet, which provided it with a reach and influence hitherto not available to the groupuscular right. It thus became part of the Euro-American radical right, a virtual community of European and American right-wing extremists seeking to establish a new pan-national and ethnoreligious identity for all people they believe belong to the "Aryan race". Later, Southgate disavowed guerrilla warfare in favor of back-to-the-land counter-economics to achieve his aims, and disbanded the NRF in 2003.
Shortly after Southgate and other NRF associates became involved with Synthesis, the online journal of a forum called the Cercle de la Rose Noire, which seeks a fusion of anarchism, occultism and metapolitics with the contemporary concerns of the ecological and global justice movements. Thus, through the medium of musical subcultures (industrial metal, gothic metal and neo folk music scenes) and the creation of permanent autonomous zones for neo-völkisch communes, they hope to disseminate their subversive ideas throughout society in order to achieve cultural hegemony. Southgate's political evolution concluded in 2005 with him becoming co-organizer of the UK-based New Right, a political philosophy forum which seeks to unite the disparate strands of the British right and align it with the broader European New Right.
The National-Anarchist idea has spread around the world over the Internet, assisted by groups such as the Thule-Seminar which set up web sites in the 1990s. In the United States, only a few web sites have been established but there has been a trend towards a steady increase. National-Anarchism in the U.S. began as a relatively obscure movement, made up of probably fewer than 200 individuals, led by Andrew Yeoman of the Bay Area National Anarchists (BANA), based in the San Francisco Bay Area, and a couple of other groups in Northern California and Idaho. Organizations based on National-Anarchist ideology have gained a foothold in Russia and have been accused of sowing turmoil in the environmental movement in Germany. There are adherents in England, Spain and Australia, among other nations.
On 8 September 2007 in Sydney, Australia, the anti-globalization movement mobilized against neoliberal economic policies by opposing the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit. During the street protests, National-Anarchists infiltrated the left-anarchist black bloc but the police had to protect them from being expelled by irate activists. Since then, National-Anarchists have joined other marches in Australia and in the U.S.; in April 2008, they protested on behalf of the Tibetan independence movement against the Chinese government during the Olympic torch relay in both Canberra, Australia, and San Francisco. National-Anarchists in the U.S. are carefully studying the successes and failures of their more prominent international counterparts as they attempt to similarly win converts from the radical environmentalist and white nationalist movements in the U.S.
In 2008, Southgate agreed with Yeoman's proposition that "Tribal Anarchism" is a slightly more accurate description of the goals of the movement. However, the term "National-Anarchism" continues to be the most common way of describing the movement.
On May Day 2010, BANA participated in the Golden Gate Minutemen's march in front of San Francisco City Hall in support of Arizona's anti-illegal immigration senate bill. The march took place during International Workers' Day demonstrations as an attempt to counter mass protest against the bill, in San Francisco's Mission District. Local news media reported that Yeoman and four other National-Anarchists were physically assaulted by about 10 protesters as they left the march.
On 19 September 2010, Southgate launched the National-Anarchist Movement (N-AM) and unveiled a manifesto. The groupuscule also launched a magazine called Tribal Resonance. In 2012, Black Front Press published three volumes on National-Anarchism, including the N-AM Manifesto.
On November 24, 2012, National-Anarchist activists in Sydney, Australia, attended a Pro-Palestinian rally in support and solidarity with the people of Gaza, in regard to Operation Pillar of Defense, and sporting the Guy Fawkes mask.
The Conservative Revolutionary concept of the Anarch, as articulated by Jünger, is central to National-Anarchism. National-Anarchists see the artificial hierarchies inherent in the state and capitalism as systematically oppressive and environmentally destructive. They distance themselves from fascism and Marxism as statist and totalitarian, and reject Nazism as the discredited ideology of a failed dictatorship.
National-Anarchists see modernity, liberalism, materialism, consumerism, immigration, multiracialism, multiculturalism, and globalization as the primary causes of the social decline of nations and cultural identity. They stress a strategic and ideological alliance of racial separatists in the Western world, neo-Eurasianists in Russia, Islamists in Muslim-majority countries, autonomist and secessionist movements in the least developed countries, and anti-Zionists everywhere to resist the "New World Order"—globalization viewed as an instrument of Jewish-dominated international banking and American imperialism—that is inevitably leading to global economic collapse and ecological collapse.
National-Anarchism echoes most strains of anarchism by expressing a desire to reorganize human relationships, with an emphasis on replacing the hierarchical structures of the state and capitalism with local, community decision-making. National-Anarchists, however, advocate collective action organized along the lines of a stateless ethnic national identity, and aim towards a decentralized social order where each new tribe builds and maintains a permanent autonomous zone for a self-sufficient commune, which is politically meritocratic, economically mutualistic, socially and culturally traditional, and ecologically sustainable. Southgate has stated:
We believe in political, social and economic decentralisation. In other words, we wish to see a positive downward trend whereby all bureaucratic concepts such as the UN, NATO, the EU, the World Bank and even nation-states like England and Germany are eradicated and consequently replaced by autonomous village-communities."
On some battleground issues in the "culture wars", Southgate's positions differ drastically from those of left-wing anarchists due to his strong antifeminist, heterosexist, and anti-abortion stance. Appealing to nature, he has stated:
The most important thing for us is the Natural Order. It is natural for men and women to procreate. Anything which threatens the harmony of Nature must be opposed. Feminism is dangerous and unnatural [...] because it ignores the complimentary relationship between the sexes and encourages women to rebel against their inherent feminine instincts [...] Homosexuality is contrary to the Natural Order because sodomy is quite undeniably an unnatural act. Groups such as OutRage are not campaigning for love between males—which has always existed in a brotherly or fatherly form—but have created a vast cult which has led to a rise in cottaging, male-rape and child sex attacks. Nature is about life and health, not death and AIDS. But we are not trying to stop homosexuals engaging in this kind of activity like the Christian moralists or bigoted denizens of censorship are doing, on the contrary, as long as this behaviour does not affect the forthcoming National-Anarchist communities then we have no interest in what people get up to elsewhere [...] As far as abortion is concerned, this process violates the sanctity of life and once again the killing of an unborn child is flying in the face of Nature.
In the book, National Anarchism: A Reader, however, Southgate contradicts his earlier comments about homosexuals by saying:
Our vision, in a nutshell, is one of small village-communities in which people occupy their own space in which to live in accordance with their own principles. These principles depend on the nature of the people forming the community in the first place, because the last thing we wish to do is impose a rigid or dogmatic system of any kind. In theory, therefore, National-Anarchists can be Christian or pagan, farmers or artisans, heterosexual or homosexual. The important thing, however, is for National-Anarchist communities to be self-sufficient. They should also be mutualist, rather than coercive. In other words, people should be free to come and go at all times. If you are unhappy with the unifying principle of one National-Anarchist community, then simply relocate to another. On the other hand, communities must be respectful of their neighbors and be prepared to defend themselves from outsiders.
National-Anarchists are ethnopluralists, who oppose multiracialism and miscegenation, but they do not seek to impose such racialist policies onto others because they reject universalism and embrace particularism. Asserting the right to difference, National-Anarchists publicly advocate a model of society in which communities that practice racial, ethnic, religious or sexual separatism are able to peacefully coexist alongside mixed or integrated communities without requiring force. They claim that "National Autonomous Zones" (NAZ) could exist with their own rules for permanent residence without the strict ethnic divisions and violence advocated by other forms of "Blood and Soil" ethnic nationalism. They further argue that areas without significant human development and borderlands would be maintained collectively, and that free zones allowing trade and sharing between communities would be established with the agreement of all parties involved. Some National-Anarchists, however, see the establishment of whites-only NAZs which have seceded from the state's economy—no-go areas for unwelcomed racial groups and state authorities—as a strategy to foment civil and racial strife in order to provoke a race war and the collapse of the capitalist system.
Many National-Anarchists are influenced by the perennial philosophy of Evola and the radical Traditionalist School, which calls for a "revolt against the modern world". They therefore have a pessimistic vision of modern Western culture yet optimistically believe that the “decline of the West” will pave the way for its materialism to be expunged and replaced by the idealism of primordial tradition. Many National-Anarchists reject Christianity because they believe it is a Semitic religion that usurped the Aryan legacy of Mithraic mysteries as the historically dominant religion and moral system of the West. They embrace a spiritual anarchism based on different forms of neopaganism, occultism and ethnic mysticism, especially Nordic racial paganism, which they view as genuine expressions of Western spirituality, culture and identity that can also serve as an antidote to the socially alienating effects of consumer culture. National-Anarchists hold racial segregation and cultural revitalization through the establishment of confederations of autonomous tribal communes ("völk autonomy") as the ultimate barrier against globalized racial and cultural homogenization.
According to American panarchist Keith Preston, National-Anarchism and classical American ideals of Jeffersonian democracy are reconcilable, despite the anti-Americanism of European National-Anarchists and the patriotism of American paleoconservatives, because of their common values: regionalism, localism, agrarianism, and traditionalism.
Position on the left–right political spectrum
National-Anarchists argue the left–right political spectrum is obsolete and should be replaced with a centralist–decentralist paradigm in light of the fall of communism and the rise of a neoliberal form of globalization. While the combination of post-left anarchist opposition to statism and capitalism, with right-wing support for ethnic and racial separatism, makes its classification on the left-right political spectrum problematic, the following scholars who have examined National-Anarchism consider it to be on the radical right.
In 2003, Roger Griffin argued that National-Anarchism is a segment of the groupuscular right which has evolved towards a "mazeway resynthesis" between "classic fascism, Third Positionism, neo-anarchism and new types of anti-systemic politics born of the anti-globalization movement", whose main ideological innovation is a stateless palingenetic ultranationalism.
In 2005, Graham D. Macklin, in his essay Co-opting the counter culture: Troy Southgate and the National Revolutionary Faction, building off of the writings of Griffin, argued that the conservative revolutionary concept of the Anarch provides sanction for the ideological shapeshifting and unrestrained eclecticism of National-Anarchism, allowing its adherents to assert they have transcended the dichotomy of conventional politics to embrace higher political forms that are "beyond left and right". Macklin further argued that despite a protean capacity for change, far-right groupuscules retain some principes which he calls core fascist values (namely palingenesis, ultranationalism, anti-liberal and anti-Marxist Third Positionism, and violent direct action). Macklin therefore concludes that National-Anarchism is a synthesis of anarchism and fascism (or, more precisely, the radical traditionalism of Evola), which represents a "revolt against the modern world".
In 2005, Alan Sykes, in his book The Radical Right in Britain: Social Imperialism to the BNP, argued that National-Anarchism represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension, a response to the new situation of the late 20th century in which the apparent triumph of materialist capitalism on a global scale requires a greater assertion of the centrality of anti-materialist nationalism.
National-Anarchism has critics on both the left and right of the political spectrum. Both left- and right-wing critics look upon their Third Position politics with skepticism, if not outright hostility, in part because they find it incongruous of white nationalists, who compose the vast majority of National-Anarchists, to be promoting Islamist, communist, and anarchist thinkers.
Left-wing critics assert that National-Anarchism is a "trojan horse for white nationalism" and represents what many anti-fascists see as the potential new face of fascism. They argue that it is a form of crypto-fascism which hopes to avoid the stigma of classic fascism by appropriating symbols, slogans, and stances of the left-wing anarchist movement, while engaging in entryism to inject some core fascist values into the anti-globalization and environmental movements. They further argue that National-Anarchists hope to draw members away from traditional white nationalist groups to their own synthesis of ideas, which they claim are "neither left nor right". These critics warn that the danger National-Anarchists represent is not in their marginal political strength, but in their potential to show an innovative way that neo-fascist groups can rebrand themselves and reset their project on a new footing. Even if the results are modest, this can disrupt left-wing social movements and their focus on egalitarianism and social justice; and instead spread separatist ideas based on naturalistic fallacy, racism, antisemitism, heterosexism, and antifeminism amongst grassroots activists.
However, others argue that while National-Anarchism is of the radical right, it is not "fascist" in the proper sense of the word. For example, Michael Schmidt, a founder of the Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front (ZACF) of South Africa, argued that:
Misdiagnosed by most anarchists as fascist, "national anarchism" fuses radical decentralism, anti-hegemonic anti-statism (and often anti-capitalism), with a strong self-determinist thrust that stresses cultural-ethnic homogeneity with a traditional past justifying a radical future; this is hardly "fascism" or a rebranding of "fascism," for what is fascism without the state, hierarchy and class, authoritarianism, and the führer-principle?
Southgate defended National-Anarchists by arguing:
Much of what we do has to be covert, because the groups that direct the anti-Capitalist movement are usually controlled by Left-wing dogmatists who believe that we National-Anarchists are trying to subvert Anarchism for our own sinister ends. But this is false. As we've said elsewhere time and time again, we are not 'racists' or 'supremacists' with some kind of secret agenda, we are seeking our own space in which to live according to our own principles. Sadly, however, most people on the Left want more than that and will not rest until they can organise every minute aspect of people's lives. [...] The Left, just like the totalitarian Right, refuses to tolerate anyone who tries to opt out of its vision of an all-inclusive society. Some of us, however, want no part of this and will only be 'socialists' among ourselves and with our own kind.
Some far-right critics argue that neo-Nazis joining the National-Anarchist movement will lead to them losing credit for the successes of their "anti-Zionist" struggle if it is co-opted by left-wing anarchists. They further argue that National-Anarchists want the militant chic of calling themselves "anarchists" without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim, such as the link with 19th-century Jewish anarchists.
- Macklin 2005.
- Sanchez 2009.
- Troy Southgate; interviewed in Kinovar magazine, February 2006.
- Troy Southgate; interviewed in Alternative Green magazine, 2001.
- Griffin 2003.
- Goodrick-Clarke 2003.
- Sykes 2005.
- Griffin, Nick (Spring 2005). "National Anarchism - Trojan Horse for White Nationalism". Retrieved 2010-11-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sunshine 2008.
- An Interview with Richard Hunt
- Stewart Home Society - Green Anarchist Documents
- Quote taken from the NRF website. See Macklin 2005 for a discussion of the NRF's membership structure.
- Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 50.
- Whine 1999.
- Jonathan Bowden; interviewed on The Sunic Journal radio program, May 25, 2010. The New Right is discussed 22:40 into the program.
- Dahl 1999, p. 92.
- Welf Herfurth; interviewed in Destiny magazine, March 2008.
- The Sunday Telegraph, September 9, 2007."[Some protest groups] seemed thankful for the strong police presence. Twenty members of an anarchist movement, all wearing black hoodies with their faces covered by bandanas, were escorted away by police after marching only 20m. The group, New Right Australia and New Zealand, became a focal point for the crowd, who turned on them, accusing them of being Nazis."
- Johnson, Greg (21 August 2009). "Bay Area National Anarchists: An Interview with Andrew Yeoman, Part 1". The Occidental Quarterly Online.
- SF Weekly, May 1, 2010; KGO-TV report, May 1, 2010.
- Southgate 2006.
- Pushing the System: Troy Southgate’s National-Anarchism: A Reader
- Preston 2003.
- Southgate 2007, p. 34.
- Books and journal articles
- Dahl, Göran (1999). Radical Conservatism and the Future of Politics. London: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-5414-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fyodorov, Miron (February 2006). "Interview with Troy Southgate". Kinovar. Archived from the original (reprint) on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2008-03-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Sanchez, Casey (Summer 2009). "'National Anarchism': California racists claim they're Anarchists". Intelligence Report. Retrieved 2009-12-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Southgate, Troy (2007). Tradition and Revolution: Collected Writings of Troy Southgate. Aarhus: Integral Tradition Publishing. ISBN 978-87-92136-02-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sturgeon, Wayne John (2001). "Synthesis editor Troy Southgate interviewed by Wayne John Sturgeon". Alternative Green. Archived from the original (reprint) on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2008-03-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sunshine, Spencer (Winter 2008). "Rebranding Fascism: National-Anarchists". The Public Eye. 23 (4): 1, 12. Retrieved 2009-11-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sykes, Alan (2005). The Radical Right in Britain: Social Imperialism to the BNP (British History in Perspective). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-59923-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Unattributed (March 2008). "Doing the New Right thing by people: An interview with a key organiser for the New Right and National Anarchist movements in Australia" (reprint). Destiny (3).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- News articles
- Gulezian, Lisa; Hollyfied, Amy (2010-05-01). "Thousands across Bay Area protest AZ immigration law". KGO-TV. Retrieved 2010-05-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mercer, Neil; Chesterton, Andrew (2007-09-09). "Scaremongering - Fears of violent demonstrations unfounded". The Sunday Telegraph. p. 14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Smiley, Lauren (2010-05-01). "Post-immigration march scuffle targets National Anarchists". San Francisco Weekly. Archived from the original on 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2010-05-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Online resources
- Southgate, Troy (2010). "N-AM Manifesto". National-Anarchist Movement. Retrieved 2010-09-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Macklin, Graham D. (n.d.). "An Interview with Troy Southgate". Synthesis. Archived from the original on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2008-03-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Preston, Keith (2003). "National-Anarchism and Classical American Ideals: Is A Reconciliation Possible?". Food for the European Mind. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2008-02-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Southgate, Troy (2006). "FAQ: What is National-Anarchism?". FolkAndFaith.com. Archived from the original on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2008-02-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sunić, Tomislav (2010-05-25). "Interview with Jonathan Bowden". The Sunic Journal. Voice of Reason Broadcast Network.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Revolution: Turning Dreams into Reality". National Revolutionary Faction. n.d. Archived from the original on 2001-12-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Synthesis homepage and archive of the original page – note that Southgate has been listed as editor since 2003.
- Destiny Magazine staff. Doing the New Right thing by people. Destiny Magazine. 14 February 2008
- Preston, Keith. Ernst Junger: The Resolute Life of an Anarch. Attack the System. 29 May 2009
- Weißman, Karlheinz. Right-Wing Anarchism. Counter-Currents Publishing. August 2010
- Southgate, Troy. The Case For National-Anarchist Entryism. National-Anarchist Movement. 18 September 2010
- Anarcho-Anglo. THIRD WAY: Introducing the National-Anarchist Movement. National-Anarchist Movement. 3 October 2010
- Donovan, Jack. Anarcho-Fascism. jack-donovan.com. March 3, 2013
- O'Hara, Jamie. Anarchy As Spiritual Practice - J. Cypher - NATA NY. National-Anarchist Tribal Alliance - New York. 14 August 2014