Near-close central rounded vowel

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Near-close central rounded vowel
ʊ̈
ʉ̞
ᵿ
ʏ̈
IPA number 321 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA U\ or }_o
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) and ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel.

The third edition of the OED adopted an unofficial extension of the IPA, ⟨ᵿ⟩, that is a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, and represents either [ʊ̈] or free variation between [ʊ] and [ə]. The unofficial ⟨ᵿ⟩ symbol is also used by Krech et al. (2009) to transcribe the vowel in Standard Eastern Norwegian that is otherwise normally transcribed as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or simply ⟨ʉ⟩.[1]

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

No distinction is made below between protruded [ʊ̈] and compressed [ʏ̈]: all are transcribed ⟨ʊ̈⟩.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cornish [example needed]
Dutch Standard Belgian[2] hut About this sound [ɦʊ̈t]  'hut' The Belgian vowel is somewhat lower, is typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/, and it corresponds to [ɵ] in the Netherlands.[3] The Netherlandic vowel is typically transcribed /y/, and it corresponds to [y] in Belgium.[2] The latter has been also described as near-front [ʏ].[4] See Dutch phonology
Netherlandic[3] fuut [fʊ̈t] 'grebe'
English Cockney[5] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good.[5] Otherwise it's near-back [ʊ].
Cultivated
South African[6]
Younger, especially female speakers. Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]
Southeastern English[7] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[8] Short allophone of /u/.[8]
Irish Munster[9] giobal [ˈɟʊ̟bˠɰəɫ̪] 'rag' Slightly retracted;[9] allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant.[9] See Irish phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[10] gull [ɡʊ̈l] 'gold' Somewhat fronted; can be transcribed /ʉ/. See Norwegian phonology
Stavangersk[11] ond [ʊ̈n] 'bad' See Norwegian phonology
Russian[12] ютиться [jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

References

  1. Krech et al. (2009:171)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Verhoeven (2005:245)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  4. Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mott (2011:75)
  6. Lass (2002:115-116)
  7. Lodge (2009:174)
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ó Sé (2000)
  10. Vanvik (1979:13)
  11. Vanvik (1979:18)
  12. Jones & Ward (1969:38)

Bibliography

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).