Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɪ
IPA number 319
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
X-SAMPA I
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Near-close front unrounded vowel
ɪ̟

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for classifying vowels. Some linguists use the terms "high" and "low," respectively, instead of "close" and "open."[citation needed]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, a fully front vowel is represented by the "advanced" diacritic [ɪ̟].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic sitwa [sɪtwɐ] 'winter' Used mostly in the Tyari dialects. [ə] is used predominantly in other dialects.
Chinese Yue /bing1 [pɪŋ˥] 'ice' See Cantonese phonology
Wu /ih [iɪʔ˥] 'one'
Czech Bohemian[1] byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' Also described as close-mid front [e];[2] corresponds to close front [i] in Moravian Czech.[2] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[3][4][5][6][7][8] hel [ˈhɪ̟ːˀl] 'whole' Fully front.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Most often, it is transcribed ⟨e(ː)⟩ - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety.[9] See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[10] blik [blɪ̟k] 'plate' Somewhat fronted.[10] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
Rotterdam[11] bit [bɪ̟t] 'bit' Somewhat fronted;[11] corresponds to [ɘ̟] in standard Dutch.[12][13] See Dutch phonology
The Hague[11]
English Most dialects bit About this sound [bɪt]  'bit' See English phonology
Australian[14] [bɪ̟t] Fully front and somewhat raised, tenser than in most other dialects. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [bɪd] 'bed' Some speakers. For others it's more open [e], or even [ɛ], in case of South African English.
South African
French Quebec petite [pət͡sɪt] 'small' Allophone of /i/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Southern Bernese [ˈɣ̊lɪːd̥] 'cloth' Corresponds to [ɛi̯] in the city of Bern. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[15][16] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtʰə]  'please' May be somewhat lowered.[15] See German phonology
Hindustani कि About this sound [kɪ]  'that' (subject/object of a relative clause) See Hindustani phonology
Irish duine [dˠɪnʲə] 'person' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[17] [ɸɪˈɾi] 'rattlesnake' Atonic allophone of /i/ and /e/.[18]
Limburgish Hamont dialect[19] noorderweend [ˈnoːʀdəʀβ̞ɪːnt] 'north wind' Standard Dutch-influenced pronunciation;[19] may be realized as []. See Hamont dialect phonology
Hasselt dialect[20] mìs [mɪs] 'wrong'
Weert dialect[21] zeen [zɪːn] 'to be' Allophone of /eə/ before nasals.[21]
Lithuanian viltis [vʲɪlʲˈtʲɪs] 'hope'
Luxembourgish[22] Been [bɪ̟ːn] 'leg' Fully front;[22] typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨⟩. Also described as close-mid [].[23] See Luxembourgish phonology
Mongolian[24] ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Norwegian litt [lɪt] 'a little' May be fully front. See Norwegian phonology
Plautdietsch winta [ˈvɪntə] 'winter'
Portuguese Brazilian[25] Filipe [fɪˈlipɪ̥] 'Filipe' Corresponds to [i ~ ] in Brazil, and /ɨ/ and unstressed /i/ in other national variants. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਨਿੰਬੂ [nɪmbu] 'lemon'
Romanian Banat dialect[26] râu [rɪw] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[27] дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə]  'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic thig [hɪk] 'come' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sema[28] pi [pì̞] 'to say' Fully front;[28] also described as close [i].[29]
Shiwiar[30] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[30]
Sicilian arrìriri [aˈrɪɾiɾi] 'smile'
Slovak[31][32][33] rýchly [ˈrɪːxlɪ] 'fast' Backness varies between front and near-front.[31] See Slovak phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[34] mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Fully front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[34]
Swedish Central Standard[35] sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪ː]  'herring' Fully front and lowered, more like [e̝]. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[36] müşteri [my̠ʃt̪e̞ˈɾɪ] 'customer' Allophone of /i/ described variously as "word-final"[36] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[37] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[38] ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[39] być [bɪt͡ʃ] 'to be' Allophone of /i/ after hard consonants.[39] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Vietnamese ch [cɪj˧ˀ˨] 'elder sister' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian Hindeloopers beast [bɪːst] 'animal' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[40] [example needed] Fully front; typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ĩ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ĩ] instead.[40]

Icelandic ⟨i⟩ is often transcribed as /ɪ/, but it is actually close-mid [e].[41][42][43]

References

  1. Dankovičová (1999:72)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:228–229)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Grønnum (1998:100)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Grønnum (2005:268)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Grønnum (2003)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Basbøll (2005:45)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  8. 8.0 8.1 "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Peters (2010:241)
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  12. Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  13. Verhoeven (2005:245)
  14. Robert Mannell and Felicity Cox (2009-08-01). "Australian English Monophthongs". Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 Kohler (1999:87)
  16. Mangold (2005:37)
  17. Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  18. Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Verhoeven (2007), p. 224.
  20. Peters (2006), p. 119.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  23. Trouvain & Gilles (2009:75)
  24. Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  25. Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  26. Pop (1938), p. 30.
  27. Jones & Ward (1969:37)
  28. 28.0 28.1 Teo (2012:368)
  29. Teo (2014:27)
  30. 30.0 30.1 Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  31. 31.0 31.1 Pavlík (2004:93, 95)
  32. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:375)
  33. Mistrík (1988:13)
  34. 34.0 34.1 Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  35. Engstrand (1999:140)
  36. 36.0 36.1 Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  37. Zimmer & Organ (1999:155)
  38. Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  39. 39.0 39.1 Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Bamgboṣe (1969:166)
  41. Árnason (2011:60)
  42. Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  43. Haugen (1958:65)

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