Near-open front unrounded vowel

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Near-open front unrounded vowel
æ
IPA number 325
Encoding
Entity (decimal) æ
Unicode (hex) U+00E6
X-SAMPA {
Kirshenbaum &
Braille ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
Sound

The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is simply an open or low front unrounded vowel.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In practice, /æ/ is sometimes used to represent an open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is near-open, also known as near-low, which means the tongue is positioned similarly to an open vowel, but is slightly more constricted – that is, the tongue is positioned similarly to a low vowel, but slightly higher.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] perd [pæːrt] 'horse' Allophone of /ɛ/ before sequences /rs/, /rt/, /rd/ and, in some dialects, before /k x l r/. See Afrikaans phonology
Ahtna kuggaedi [kʰuk̠æti] 'mosquito'
Arabic Standard[3] كتاب About this sound [kiˈt̪æːb]  'book' Allophone of /a/ in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as /j/ (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Azerbaijani səs [sæs] 'sound'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic nata [næːta] 'ear' In some speakers of the Urmia and Jilu dialects; Others may use [a]. Outside these dialects, [ä] is widespread; However, the Tyari dialects may use [ɑ].
Bengali এক [æk] 'one' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[4][5][6] Valencian set [ˈs̠æt̪] 'seven' Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ɛ⟩. [æ] may approach /a/ in contact with liquids or in monosyllabic terms. See Catalan phonology
Some Balearic speakers
Some Valencian and Balearic speakers[7] llamp [ˈl̠ʲæmp] 'lightning' Allophone of /a/ in contact with palatal consonants. In some variants it can merge with /ɛ/.
Many Western Catalan dialects[8][9] taula [ˈt̪ɑ̟wɫæ̝] 'table' Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ɛ⟩. Unstressed allophone of /a/ and /e/ in the coda. It can alternate with [ɒ] or always be pronounced [ɒ] in the Valencian dialects.
Danish Standard[10][11][12][13][14] Dansk [ˈd̥ænsɡ̊] 'Danish' Most often transcribed in IPA as ⟨a⟩ - the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[15] See Danish phonology
Dutch Low Saxon Some dialects dät [dæt] 'that' More back in other dialects
English Australian[16] cat About this sound [kʰæt]  'cat' Contrasts with /æː/; may be higher [ɛ] in broader accents. See English phonology and Australian English phonology
General American[17]
Received Pronunciation[18] Lower [a] for many younger speakers
Norfolk[19] [kʰæ̠t] Near-front.[19]
Cockney[20] town [tˢæːn] 'town' May be lower [] or a diphthong [æə̯] instead. It corresponds to /aʊ̯/ in other dialects
Estonian[21] väle [ˈvælɛˑ] 'agile' Near-front.[21] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[22] mäki [ˈmæki] 'hill' See Finnish phonology
French Popular Parisian[23] tard [ˈtæʀ] 'late' See French phonology
Quebec ver About this sound [væːʁ]  'worm' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /ʁ/ or in open syllables, and of /a/ in closed syllables.[24] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[25] Pointe [ˈpʰo̯æ̃ːtʰə] 'punch line' Nasalized.[25] Most often transcribed in IPA as ⟨ɛ̃(ː)⟩. Present only in loanwords. See German phonology
Greek Macedonia[26] γάτα/gáta [ˈɣætæ] 'cat' See Modern Greek phonology
Thessaly[26]
Thrace[26]
Pontic[27] καλάθια/kaláthia [kaˈlaθæ] 'baskets'
Hindi बैल [bæl] 'oxen' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Jalapa Mazatec tsæ [tsǣ] 'guava'
Lakon[28] rävräv [ræβræβ] 'evening'
Latvian ezers [ˈæz̪ærs̪] 'lake'
Lithuanian eglė [ˈæːɡʲlʲeː] 'spruce tree'
Luxembourgish[29][30] Käpp [kʰæp] 'heads' Described variously as near-open[29] and slightly lowered near-open.[30] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Bergen[31] ett [æt] 'one' Corresponds to /æ/ and /ɛ/ in other dialects. May also be pronounced as [ɪ]. See Norwegian phonology
Standard Eastern[32] lær [l̪æːɾ] 'leather'
Persian در [dær] 'door' See Persian phonology
Portuguese Some dialects[33] pedra [ˈpæðɾɐ] 'stone' Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer /ɛ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[34] também [tɐˈmæ̃] 'also' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/.
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[35] dem [dæm] [translation needed] Allophone of /ɛ/ before /m, n, ŋ, l, ʁ/.[35]
Romanian Bukovinian dialect[36] piele [pæle][stress?] 'skin' Corresponds to [je] in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.[36] See Romanian phonology
Russian[37] пять About this sound [pʲætʲ]  'five' Allophone of /a/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sinhala කැමති [kæməti] 'to like'
Slovak[38] väzy [ˈʋæzɪ] 'ligaments' Somewhat rare pronunciation, with [ɛ] being more common. See Slovak phonology
Spanish[citation needed] Eastern Andalusian seis [ˈsæɪ̯ʰ] 'six' Lowered allophone of /e/ before /s/ ([ɛʰ]) in some instances. In some variants it can merge with /a/ ([æ̞]). See Spanish phonology
Murcian
Swedish Central Standard[39][40][41] ära About this sound [ˈæ̂ːˈɾâ]  'honour' Allophone of /ɛː, ɛ/ before /r/. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[41] läsa [ˈlæ̂ːˈsâ] 'to read' Realization of /ɛː, ɛ/ for younger speakers. Higher [ɛː, ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] for other speakers
Turkish[42] sen [s̪æn̪] 'you' Allophone of /e/ before syllable-final /m, n, l, r/. In a limited number of words (but not before /r/), it is in free variation with [].[42] See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese Northern pha [fæ] 'phase' Some dialects. Corresponds to [a] in other dialects. See Vietnamese phonology
Yaghan mæpi [mæpi] 'reed'

See also

References

  1. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. Donaldson (1993:3)
  3. Holes (2004:60)
  4. Recasens (1996:81)
  5. Recasens (1996:130–131)
  6. Rafel (1999:14)
  7. Saborit (2009:24-25)
  8. Recasens (1996:?)
  9. Saborit (2009:25-26)
  10. Grønnum (1998:100)
  11. Grønnum (2005:268)
  12. Grønnum (2003)
  13. Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  14. Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  15. Basbøll (2005:32)
  16. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  17. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  18. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009c), Roach (2004:242)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Lodge (2009:168)
  20. Wells (1982:309)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  22. Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  23. "Les Accents des Français". Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  24. Walker (1984:75)
  25. 25.0 25.1 Mangold (2005:37)
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Newton (1972:11)
  27. Revithiadou & Spyropoulos (2009:41)
  28. François (2005:466)
  29. 29.0 29.1 Trouvain & Gilles (2009:75)
  30. 30.0 30.1 Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  31. Vanvik (1979:15)
  32. Vanvik (1979:13)
  33. Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction – by Milton M. Azevedo Page 186.
  34. Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
  35. 35.0 35.1 Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  36. 36.0 36.1 Pop (1938), p. 29.
  37. Jones & Ward (1969:50)
  38. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  39. Eliasson (1986:273)
  40. Thorén & Petterson (1992:15)
  41. 41.0 41.1 Riad (2014:38)
  42. 42.0 42.1 Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)

Bibliography