General National Congress (2014)

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This article is about self-proclaimed body that was formed in 2014. For the legislature that existed between 2012 and 2014, see General National Congress.

For Operation Libya Dawn, see: Battle of Tripoli Airport

General National Congress
المؤتمر الوطني العام
Type
Type
History
Founded 8 August 2014 (2014-08-08)
Disbanded 5 April 2016 (2016-04-05)[1]
Leadership
Chairman
Vice Chairman
Saleh Makhzoum
Prime Minister
Meeting place
Al Nasr Convention Centre
Tripoli, Libya
Website
en.gnc.gov.ly (English)
Flag of Libya.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Libya

The General National Congress (Arabic: المؤتمر الوطني العام‎‎) was a body formed by politicians from the blocs that lost the June 2014 elections in Libya. The GNC had appointed an alternative government for Libya, styled the National Salvation Government, which was led by Khalifa al-Ghawi. [2] The term Libya Dawn Coalition was used to refer to the armed groups and/or the wider political movement supporting the new GNC. The new GNC was one of the major sides in the ongoing Second Libyan Civil War from its formation August 2014 until its dissolution in April 2016.[3] [4]

History

Formation

The General National Congress claimed to be a legitimate continuation of the obsolete General National Congress elected in 2012, but does not represent a majority of the membership of that congress.[5] The majority of the GNC members belonged to groups now participating in the internationally recognized Libyan parliament, the Council of Deputies.[6]

The GNC was dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood's Libyan party, the Justice and Construction Party, and the "Loyalty to Martyrs Bloc" which consists of other smaller groups allied to the Muslim Brotherhood.[6]

Re-elected members from the losing Islamist bloc had chosen to sit in the self-proclaimed GNC, instead of the House of Representatives where they would be in a reduced minority.[7][8]

After their landslide defeat in the 2014 elections dominated by low turnout, Islamist parties acting under the leadership of Nouri Abusahmain used two armed groups, the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room and Libya Shield Force, to take control of the capital Tripoli.[9] In late August, Islamist militias allegedly abducted rivals (whose whereabouts are unknown) and attacked 280 homes.[10] The GNC has rejected affiliation with any of these activities and it is unknown who the exact perpetrators were with both sides blaming each other. The Islamist groups declared that they were the General National Congress and that it was once again the national parliament.[11]

The self-proclaimed GNC was led, Nouri Abusahmain,[11] and had appointed Omar al-Hassi and Khalifa al-Ghawi as prime ministers.[12] Nouri Abusahmain was formerly president of the GNC which existed from 8 August 2012 to 4 August 2014.

Libyan Political Agreement

Members of the House of Representatives and the General National Congress signed a United Nations supported political agreement on 17 December 2015.[13] Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council and a seventeen-member interim Government of National Accord would be formed, with a view to holding new elections within two years.[13] The House of Representatives would continue to exist as a legislature and an advisory body, to be known as the State Council, will be formed with members nominated by the New General National Congress. [14]

The Prime Minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA), Fayez al-Sarraj, arrived in Tripoli on 30 March 2016. [15] The following day, it was reported that the GNA has taken control of the prime ministerial offices and that the GNC appointed Prime Minister Khalifa al-Ghawi had fled to Misrata. [16] On 1 April 2016, the head of the media bureau of the National Salvation Government announced that the NSG has resigned and handed its authority back to the General National Congress. [17] Media reports have also claimed that the General National Congress had "virtually disintegrated".[18]

On April 5, the National Salvation Government of the General National Congress announced that it was resigning, "ceasing operations," and ceding power to the Presidential Council.[19][20] Following the dissolution of the GNC, former members of that body declared the establishment of the State Council, as envisaged by the LPA.[21]

National Salvation Government

National Salvation Government
حكومة الإنقاذ الوطني
Provisional Government overview
Formed 2014
Dissolved 2016
Jurisdiction Libya
Minister responsible
Website www.facebook.com/GOFNSLY/

The New General National Congress had appointed a body known as the National Salvation Government, as an alternative government for Libya. The NSG was made up of ministers and was led by a prime minister. The members of the NSG resigned on 1 April 2016 [22] and it was formally disbanded 5 April 2016. [23]

Prime Ministers of the National Salvation Government

Incumbent Office Since Until
Omar al-Hassi Prime Minister of the National Salvation Government 6 September 2014 31 March 2015
Khalifa al-Ghawi Prime Minister of the National Salvation Government 31 March 2015 1 April 2016

References

  1. "GNC members announce its ”dissolution” and creation of the State Council". Libya Herald. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  2. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-politics-idUSKCN0WY4IT
  3. "GNC members announce its ”dissolution” and creation of the State Council". Libya Herald. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  4. http://www.libyanexpress.com/tripolis-national-salvation-government-quits/
  5. "Abu Sahmain, Ghariani condemned by Thinni and parliament leader Saleh". Libya Herald. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Libya: The Muslim Brotherhood's Last Stand?". Huffington Post. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  7. "National Congress party results". Libya Herald. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  8. "Libya publishes parliamentary election results". Xinhua. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  9. "Libya – Democracy's Complex Child". International Business Times. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  10. "Tripoli residents face dilemma after Libya Dawn take control of capital". The Guardian. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Libya's ex-parliament reconvenes, appoints Omar al-Hasi as PM". Reuters. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  12. Daragahi, Borzou (31 March 2015). "Tripoli authority sacks prime minister". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/17/libyan-politicians-sign-un-peace-deal-unify-rival-governments
  14. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2015/12/25/Libyan-deal-on-course-but-who-is-on-board-.html
  15. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3518986/Support-grows-Libyas-new-unity-government.html
  16. https://www.libyaherald.com/2016/03/31/rebel-tripoli-administration-vanishes-ghwell-flees-to-misrata/
  17. http://www.libyanexpress.com/tripoli-salvation-government-resigns-hands-power-back-to-gnc-2/
  18. http://www.digitaljournal.com/news/politics/op-ed-libya-herald-report-claims-that-tripoli-government-vanished/article/461688
  19. "Libya's Tripoli Government Says Will 'Cease Operations'". ABC News. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  20. "Tripoli authorities cede power to Libyan unity government: statement". Yahoo! New Zealand. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  21. "GNC members announce its ”dissolution” and creation of the State Council". Libya Herald. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  22. http://www.libyanexpress.com/tripoli-salvation-government-resigns-hands-power-back-to-gnc-2/
  23. "Libya's Tripoli Government Says Will 'Cease Operations'". ABC News. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 

External links