New World crops
The phrase "New World Crops" is usually used to describe crops that were native to North and South America before 1492 and not found anywhere else in the world at that time. Many of these crops have since come to be grown around the world and have often become an integral part of various old world cultures' cuisines.
|Grains||Little barley, maize (corn), maygrass, wild rice|
|Pseudograins||Amaranth, knotweed, goosefoot (quinoa), sunflower|
|Beans||Common bean, lima bean, peanut, scarlet runner bean, tepary bean|
|Fiber||Agave, yucca, long-staple and upland cotton|
|Roots and Tubers||Arrowroot, jicama, Camas root, hopniss, leren, manioc (yuca, cassava), mashua, oca, potato, sweet potato, ulluco, yacon|
|Fruits||Avocado, blueberry, cherimoya, cranberry, guava (guayaba), huckleberry, papaya, pawpaw, passionfruit, peppers, pineapple, prickly pear (tuna), commercial strawberries, tomato, tomatillo|
|Melons||Chayote, squashes (including pumpkins)|
|Meat and poultry||Coypu, guinea pig, llama, muscovy duck, turkey|
|Nuts||American chestnut, Black walnut, Brazil nut, cashew, hickory, pecans, shagbark hickory|
|Other||Achiote (annatto), canna, chicle (key ingredient in chewing gum and rubber), coca, cocoa, cochineal (red dye), logwood, maple syrup, poinsettia, rubber, tobacco, vanilla|
The new world developed agriculture much later than the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. The following tables illustrate the crops that were grown and the chronology of domestication.
|5500BC||Peanut ||South America|
|8000-5000 BC||Potato ||Peruvian Andes|
|2300-2200BC||Maize||Mexico, Central America|
|4000BC||Common Bean||Central America|
- Columbian Exchange
- First agricultural revolution
- Fertile Crescent
- Neolithic founder crops
- Timeline of agriculture and food technology
- Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, p. 126.
- Smith, Bruce D. (February 2001). "Documenting plant domestication: The consilience of biological and archaeological approaches". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (4): 1324–1326. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.4.1324. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Earliest-Known Evidence Of Peanut, Cotton And Squash Farming Found". Science Daily. June 29, 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Spooner, DM; et al. (2005). "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping". PNAS. 102 (41): 14694–99. PMC . PMID 16203994. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507400102.
- Perry, Linda; Kent V. Flannery (July 17, 2007). "Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (29): 11905–11909. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704936104. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Cotton: The Fiber of Life". McGraw Hill. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Ranere, Anthony J.; Dolores R. Piper; Irene Holst; Ruth Dickau; José Iriarte (January 23, 2009). "The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (13): 5014–5018. PMC . PMID 19307573. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812590106. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Galindo-Tovar, María Elena; Arzate-Fernández, Amaury M.; Ogata-Aguilar, Nisao; and Landero-Torres, Ivonne (2007). "The avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) crop in Mesoamerica: 10,000 years of history" (PDF). Harvard Papers in Botany. 12 (2): 325–334, page 325. JSTOR 41761865. doi:10.3100/1043-4534(2007)12[325:TAPALC]2.0.CO;2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2015.
- "History of Chocolate Timeline - Origin of Chocolate". thenibble.com.