Northern Catalan

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Northern Catalan (Catalan: català septentrional, IPA: [kətəɫa səptəntɾiunaɫ], also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.

As this is an Eastern Catalan dialect, schwa is used in substitution of unstressed /a/ and /e/, and [u] substitutes unstressed /o/. It is also the Catalan dialect with the fewest stressed vowels, only five: /i e a o u/.

There are some instances of historic stressed /o/ that has change to /u/ (e.g. canigó > canigú).

As in Balearic dialects, final as are not pronounced in those words ending with ia and containing the stress before the penultimate syllable.

Some subdialects keep the typical "lo" article of North-Western Catalan and Occitan language.

There is a large body of words imported from French and Occitan and some grammatical forms such as using the modifier pas, but not the no adverb, in negative sentences, the same as the Occitan language (pas is used in other Catalan dialects for emphasising purposes but always with the no particle).