Operation Crosstie

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Operation Crosstie
Crosstie Buggy 001.jpg
Crosstie Buggy, a row excavation test using five detonations in a row
Information
Country United States
Test site Central Nevada; near Farmington, New Mexico; NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Area 30, Dome Mountain; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1967-1968
Number of tests 48
Test type cratering, underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 1.3 megatonnes of TNT (5.4 PJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Latchkey
Next test series Operation Bowline

Operation Crosstie[1] was a series of 48 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1967–1968 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Latchkey series and preceded the Operation Bowline series.

Gasbuggy

Main article: Gasbuggy

The blast designated Gasbuggy involved an underground detonation, intended to stimulate production of natural gas by cracking the rock in the underground formation of its deposit. The test proceeded as expected, but not only did the production not increase as much as expected, but the customers also refused to buy gas contaminated with traces of radioisotopes.

Buggy

Buggy was a Plowshare test designed to excavate a channel. It was a simultaneous detonation of 5 devices, placed 150 feet (46 m) apart and 150 feet (46 m) below the surface that resulted in a channel 300 feet (91 m) wide, 900 feet long, and 80 feet (24 m) deep .[2] Or 65 feet deep and 254 feet wide, according to Declassified U.S. film.[3]

The USSR conducted a similar salvo-test to investigate the use of nuclear explosions in the construction of the Pechora–Kama Canal project. On March 23, 1971, three simultaneously detonated 15 kiloton underground nuclear charges were exploded in the Taiga test.[4]

Faultless

The Faultless test was a calibration test conducted in a mine cavity 3,200 feet beneath the Hot Creek Valley near Tonopah, Nevada, with a yield of around 1 megaton. This test was conducted to see if the land was fit for testing a 5 megaton thermonuclear warhead for the Spartan missile.[5] The test failed because of the large degree of faulting that resulted in the area around the test. It was decided that the land was unfit for multi-megaton nuclear tests, so a similar calibration test was conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska, in the fall of 1969 during Operation Mandrel.

Table of detonations

The United States's Crosstie nuclear test series was a group of 48 nuclear tests conducted in 1967-1968. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Latchkey series and preceded the Operation Bowline series.

United States' Crosstie series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][6] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Vito 14 July 1967 13:30:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ab Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 90.83 m (298.0 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][7][8]
Stanley 27 July 1967 13:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10g Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,265 m (4,150 ft) - 483.72 m (1,587.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
22 kt Venting detected, 37 Ci (1,400 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Gibson 4 August 1967 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ew Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 240.76 m (789.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt [1][7][8][12][13]
Washer 10 August 1967 14:10:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10r Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 467.41 m (1,533.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 0.5 Ci (19 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Bordeaux 18 August 1967 20:12:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dr Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,183 m (3,881 ft) - 332.02 m (1,089.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
18 kt [1][7][8][11][13]
Lexington 24 August 1967 13:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bm Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,310 m (4,300 ft) - 227.69 m (747.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t Venting detected, 1.1 kCi (41 TBq) [1][7][8][10][13]
Door Mist 31 August 1967 16:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12g.07 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,295 m (7,530 ft) - 435.86 m (1,430.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt Venting detected off site, 690 kCi (26,000 TBq) [1][7][8][9][10][13]
Yard 7 September 1967 13:45:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10af Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 520.6 m (1,708 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
22 kt Venting detected, 0.3 Ci (11 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Gilroy 15 September 1967 17:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ex Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,191 m (3,907 ft) - 240.63 m (789.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected [1][7][8][10]
Marvel 21 September 1967 20:45:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ds1 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,288 m (4,226 ft) - 174.35 m (572.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
2.2 kt Venting detected on site, 27 Ci (1,000 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11] Plowshare - explore underground phenomena concerning emplacement techniques.
Zaza 27 September 1967 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4c Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,240 m (4,070 ft) - 667 m (2,188 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt [1][7][8][11][14]
Lanpher 18 October 1967 14:30:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2x Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,255 m (4,117 ft) - 714.2 m (2,343 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt Venting detected, 5 Ci (180 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Cognac 25 October 1967 14:30:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fm Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 240.39 m (788.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.064 Ci (2.4 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Sazerac 25 October 1967 14:30:00.06 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fa Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,191 m (3,907 ft) - 301.34 m (988.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt Venting detected, 0.1 Ci (3.7 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Worth 25 October 1967 14:45:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ag Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,269 m (4,163 ft) - 197 m (646 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 40 Ci (1,500 GBq) [1][7][8][10]
Cobbler 8 November 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7u Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,242 m (4,075 ft) - 667.12 m (2,188.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][7][8][14]
Polka 6 December 1967 13:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ai Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,273 m (4,177 ft) - 195.01 m (639.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 t Venting detected, 380 Ci (14,000 GBq) [1][7][8][10][13]
Gasbuggy 10 December 1967 19:30:00.14 MST (-7 hrs)
near Farmington, New Mexico Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,179 m (7,149 ft) - 1,290 m (4,230 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
29 kt [1][8] Project Plowshare - stimulate gas production in a low permeability field.
Stilt 15 December 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fh Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,204 m (3,950 ft) - 332.43 m (1,090.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt [1][7][8][13][14]
Hupmobile 18 January 1968 16:30:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2y Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,287 m (4,222 ft) - 246.89 m (810.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
7.4 kt Venting detected off site, 120 kCi (4,400 TBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Staccato 19 January 1968 15:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ah Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,272 m (4,173 ft) - 443.48 m (1,455.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
50 kt Venting detected, 8 Ci (300 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Faultless 19 January 1968 18:15:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
Central Nevada Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,866 m (6,122 ft) - 980 m (3,220 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
1 Mt [1][8][13][14] A calibration test for a 5 Mt Spartan test; due to geological failure (local faulting on the site), test Adagio cancelled, and moved to Amchitka Island in Alaska; see Milrow and Cannikin.
Brush 24 January 1968 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eq Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 118.3 m (388 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.00002 Ci (0.00074 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Cabriolet 26 January 1968 16:00:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20l Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,862 m (6,109 ft) - 51.82 m (170.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
2.3 kt Venting detected off site, 220 kCi (8,100 TBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11][15] Project Plowshare - cratering mechanics in hard, dry rock, and radionuclide dispersal.
Mallet 31 January 1968 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fv Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,177 m (3,862 ft) - 240.27 m (788.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt [1][7][8]
Torch 21 February 1968 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fj Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,210 m (3,970 ft) - 240.55 m (789.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][7][8]
Knox 21 February 1968 15:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2at Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,253 m (4,111 ft) - 644.8 m (2,115 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt Venting detected, 160 Ci (5,900 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Dorsal Fin 29 February 1968 17:08:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12e.10 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,260 m (7,410 ft) - 410.06 m (1,345.3 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt [1][7][8][13][14]
Russet 5 March 1968 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U6a Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,170 m (3,840 ft) - 119.79 m (393.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 29 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Buggy - 1 12 March 1968 17:04:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U30a Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,560 m (5,120 ft) - 50.29 m (165.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
1.1 kt Venting detected off site, 1.2 MCi (44 PBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11][15] Simultaneous, separate holes. Project Plowshare - row charge experiment.
Buggy - 2 12 March 1968 17:04:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U30b Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,560 m (5,120 ft) - 50.29 m (165.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
1.1 kt Venting detected off site [1][7][8][9][15] Simultaneous, separate holes. Project Plowshare - row charge experiment.
Buggy - 3 12 March 1968 17:04:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U30c Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,561 m (5,121 ft) - 50.29 m (165.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
1.1 kt Venting detected off site [1][7][8][9][15] Simultaneous, separate holes. Project Plowshare - row charge experiment.
Buggy - 4 12 March 1968 17:04:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U30d Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,560 m (5,120 ft) - 50.29 m (165.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
1.1 kt Venting detected off site [1][7][8][9][15] Simultaneous, separate holes. Project Plowshare - row charge experiment.
Buggy - 5 12 March 1968 17:04:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U30e Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,560 m (5,120 ft) - 50.29 m (165.0 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
1.1 kt Venting detected off site [1][7][8][9][15] Simultaneous, separate holes. Project Plowshare - row charge experiment.
Pommard 14 March 1968 15:19:00.06 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ee Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,208 m (3,963 ft) - 209.1 m (686 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt [1][7][8][11]
Stinger 22 March 1968 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19l Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,035 m (6,677 ft) - 667.76 m (2,190.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt [1][7][8][11][13]
Milk Shake 25 March 1968 18:44:27.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U5k Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 993 m (3,258 ft) - 264.57 m (868.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
10 kt Venting detected on site, 30 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][7][8][9][11][13]
Bevel 4 April 1968 15:02:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fu Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 240.75 m (789.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][7][8]
Noor - 1 (with Throw) 10 April 1968 14:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2be Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,310 m (4,300 ft) - 381.81 m (1,252.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [1][7][8][9][11][13] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Throw - 2 (with Noor) 10 April 1968 14:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bg Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,316 m (4,318 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt [1][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Shuffle 18 April 1968 14:05:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10t Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 493.47 m (1,619.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, 19 Ci (700 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10][11]
Scroll 23 April 1968 17:01:30.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19n Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,032 m (6,667 ft) - 228.6 m (750 ft) underground shaft,
joint verification
6 kt Venting detected on site, 18 kCi (670 TBq) [1][7][8][9][10][13] Designed to test detection of underground nuclear tests; see Vela Uniform.
Boxcar 26 April 1968 15:00:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20i - Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,914 m (6,280 ft) - 1,160.89 m (3,808.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.3 Mt [1][7][8][11]
Hatchet 3 May 1968 16:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fz Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 240.53 m (789.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt [1][7][8][12][13]
Crock 8 May 1968 14:10:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ak Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,289 m (4,229 ft) - 181.76 m (596.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected, 140 Ci (5,200 GBq) [1][7][8][10][13]
Clarksmobile 17 May 1968 13:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2as Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,259 m (4,131 ft) - 472.65 m (1,550.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][7][8][11][14]
Adze 28 May 1968 14:45:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fw Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 240.03 m (787.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [1][7][8][9][10]
Wembley 5 June 1968 14:21:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ey Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,191 m (3,907 ft) - 238.09 m (781.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt [1][7][8][12][13]
Tub - 1 6 June 1968 21:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ajc Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,282 m (4,206 ft) - 188.98 m (620.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][7][8][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tub - 2 6 June 1968 21:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ajb Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,279 m (4,196 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][7][8][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tub - 3 6 June 1968 21:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ajf Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,283 m (4,209 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][7][8][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tub - 4 6 June 1968 21:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ajd Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 273 m (896 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield Venting detected, 1.6 kCi (59 TBq) [1][7][8][9][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tub - 5 6 June 1968 21:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10aja Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,282 m (4,206 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][7][8][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Rickey 15 June 1968 13:59:59.97 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19c Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2,116 m (6,942 ft) - 683.28 m (2,241.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt [1][7][8][11][13]
Funnel 25 June 1968 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ga Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 118.7 m (389 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.00002 Ci (0.00074 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Sevilla 25 June 1968 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fk Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,226 m (4,022 ft) - 358.65 m (1,176.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.004 Ci (0.15 GBq) [1][7][8][9][10]
Chateaugay 28 June 1968 12:22:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20t Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1,876 m (6,155 ft) - 607.02 m (1,991.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
58 kt [1][7][8][13][14]
  1. A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. Byrne, John; Rich, Daniel (1986). The Politics of Energy Research and Development, Energy Policy Studies, Volume 3. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-88738-653-4. 
  3. Declassified U.S. Nuclear Test Film #35 c. 6:30 minutes
  4. The Soviet Taiga PNE
  5. latimes
  6. "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.31 8.32 8.33 8.34 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.38 8.39 8.40 8.41 8.42 8.43 8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.48 8.49 8.50 8.51 8.52 8.53 8.54 8.55 8.56 United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (PDF) (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2 (PDF), National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1) (PDF), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013 
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)" (PDF), Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper, Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council, retrieved 2013-10-26 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Sublette, Carey, Nuclear Weapons Archive, retrieved 2014-01-06