Outline of cryptography
From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
See also: Index of cryptography articles
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:
Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.
Contents
 1 Essence of cryptography
 2 Uses of cryptographic techniques
 3 Branches of cryptography
 4 History of cryptography
 5 Ciphers
 6 Keys
 7 Cryptographic hash functions
 8 Cryptanalysis
 9 Robustness properties
 10 Uncracked codes and ciphers
 11 Organizations and selection projects
 12 Influential cryptographers
 13 Legal issues
 14 Academic and professional publications
 15 Allied sciences
 16 See also
 17 References
 18 External links
Essence of cryptography
 Cryptographer –
 Encryption/Decryption –
 Cryptographic key –
 Cipher –
 Ciphertext –
 Plaintext –
 Code –
 Tabula recta –
 Alice and Bob –
Uses of cryptographic techniques
 Commitment schemes –
 Secure multiparty computations –
 Electronic voting –
 Authentication –
 Digital signatures –
 Crypto systems –
 Dining cryptographers protocol – by David Chaum
 Anonymous remailer –
 Pseudonymity –
 Anonymous internet banking –
 Onion routing –
 Digital currency –
 Secret sharing –
Branches of cryptography
 Cryptographic engineering –
 Multivariate cryptography –
 Quantum cryptography –
 Steganography –
 Visual cryptography –
History of cryptography
Main articles: History of cryptography and Timeline of cryptography
 Japanese cryptology from the 1500s to Meiji –
 World War I cryptography –
 World War II cryptography –
Ciphers
Main article: Cipher
Classical
 Monoalphabetic substitution –

 Vigenère –
 Autokey –
 Homophonic Substitution cipher –

 Playfair – by Charles Wheatstone
 Hill –
 Scytale –
 Grille –
 Permutation –
 VIC – complex hand cypher used by at least one Soviet spy in the early 1950s; it proved quite secure for the time
Modern
Symmetrickey algorithms
Main article: Symmetrickey algorithm
 Stream ciphers
Main article: Stream ciphers

 A5/1 & A5/2 – ciphers specified for the GSM cellular telephone standard
 BMGL
 Chameleon
 FISH – by Siemens AG
 WWII 'Fish' cyphers

 Geheimfernschreiber – WWII mechanical onetime pad by Siemens AG, called STURGEON by Bletchley Park
 Pike – improvement on FISH by Ross Anderson
 Schlusselzusatz – WWII mechanical onetime pad by Lorenz, called tunny by Bletchley Park
 HELIX
 ISAAC – intended as a PRNG
 Leviathan
 LILI128
 MUGI – CRYPTREC recommendation
 MULTIS01  CRYPTREC recommendation
 Onetime pad – Vernam and Mauborgne, patented 1919; an extreme stream cypher
 Panama –
 RC4 (ARCFOUR) – one of a series by Professor Ron Rivest of MIT; CRYPTREC recommended limited to 128bit key

 CipherSaber – (RC4 variant with 10 byte random IV, easy to implement
 Block ciphers
Main article: Block ciphers
Further information: Block cipher modes of operation

 Product cipher
 Feistel cipher – pattern by Horst Feistel
 Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) – 128 bit block; NIST selection for the AES, FIPS 197, 2001—by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen; NESSIE selection; CRYPTREC recommendation
 Anubis – 128bit block
 BEAR – built from a stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
 Blowfish – 64 bit block; by Bruce Schneier et al.
 Camellia – 128 bit block; NESSIE selection (NTT & Mitsubishi Electric); CRYPTREC recommendation
 CAST128 (CAST5) – 64 bit block; one of a series of algorithms by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, insistent that the name is not due to their initials
 CIPHERUNICORNA – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 CIPHERUNICORNE – 64 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 CMEA – cipher used in US cellphones, found to have weaknesses.
 CSCipher – 64 bit block
 Data Encryption Standard (DES) – 64 bit block; FIPS 463, 1976
 DEAL – an AES candidate derived from DES
 DESX – a variant of DES to increase the key size.
 FEAL
 GDES – a DES variant designed to speed up encryption
 Grand Cru – 128 bit block
 Hierocrypt3 – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 HierocryptL1 – 64 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 IDEA NXT – project name FOX, 64bit and 128bit block family; Mediacrypt (Switzerland); by Pascal Junod & Serge Vaudenay of Swiss Institute of Technology Lausanne
 International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – 64 bit block;James Massey & X Lai of ETH Zurich
 Iraqi Block Cipher (IBC)
 KASUMI – 64bit block; based on MISTY1, adopted for next generation WCDMA cellular phone security
 KHAZAD – 64bit block designed by Barretto and Rijmen
 Khufu and Khafre – 64bit block ciphers
 LION – block cypher built from stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
 LOKI89/91 – 64bit block ciphers
 LOKI97 – 128bit block cipher, AES candidate
 Lucifer – by Tuchman et al. of IBM, early 1970s; modified by NSA/NBS and released as DES
 MAGENTA – AES candidate
 Mars – AES finalist, by Don Coppersmith et al.
 MISTY1 – NESSIE selection 64bit block; Mitsubishi Electric (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 MISTY2 – 128 bit block: Mitsubishi Electric (Japan)
 Nimbus – 64 bit block
 NOEKEON – 128 bit block
 NUSH – variable block length (64  256 bits)
 Q – 128 bit block
 RC2 – 64bit block, variable key length

 RC6 – variable block length; AES finalist, by Ron Rivest et al.
 RC5 – Ron Rivest
 SAFER – variable block length
 SC2000 – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 Serpent – 128 bit block; AES finalist by Ross Anderson, Eli Biham, Lars Knudsen
 SHACAL1 – 160bit block
 SHACAL2 – 256bit block cypher; NESSIE selection Gemplus (France)
 Shark – grandfather of Rijndael/AES, by Daemen and Rijmen
 TEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham
 Triple DES – by Walter Tuchman, leader of the Lucifer design team—not all triple uses of DES increase security, Tuchman's does; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited), only when used as in FIPS Pub 463
 Twofish – 128 bit block; AES finalist by Bruce Schneier et al.
 XTEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham
 3Way – 96 bit block by Joan Daemen
 Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers

 Enigma – WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
 Purple – highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
 SIGABA – WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al.
 TypeX – WWII UK cypher machine
 Hybrid code/cypher combinations

 JN25 – WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants
 Naval Cypher 3 – superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 1930s and into WWII
Asymmetric key algorithms
Main article: Asymmetric key algorithm

 ChorRivest
 DiffieHellman – key agreement; CRYPTREC recommendation
 El Gamal – discrete logarithm
 Elliptic curve cryptography – (discrete logarithm variant)
 PSECKEM – NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; NTT (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation only in DEM construction w/SEC1 parameters
 EPOC
 Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem – knapsack scheme
 McEliece
 Niederreiter cryptosystem
 NTRUEncrypt
 RSA – factoring
 Rabin cryptosystem – factoring
Keys
Main article: Key (cryptography)
Authentication
Main article: Key authentication
 IDbased cryptography –
 Certificatebased encryption –
 Secure key issuing cryptography –
 Certificateless cryptography –
 Merkle tree –
Transport/exchange
 Diffie–Hellman –
 Maninthemiddle attack –
 Needham–Schroeder –
 Offline private key –
 Otway–Rees –
 Trusted paper key –
 Wide Mouth Frog –
Weak keys
Main article: Weak key
 Brute force attack –
 Dictionary attack –
 Related key attack –
 Key derivation function –
 Key strengthening –
 Password –
 Passwordauthenticated key agreement –
 Passphrase –
 Salt –
Cryptographic hash functions
Main article: Cryptographic hash function

 EMAC – NESSIE selection MAC
 HMAC – NESSIE selection MAC; ISO/IEC 97971, FIPS PUB 113 and IETF RFC
 TTMAC – (TwoTrackMAC) NESSIE selection MAC; K.U.Leuven (Belgium) & debis AG (Germany)
 UMAC – NESSIE selection MAC; Intel, UNevada Reno, IBM, Technion, & UC Davis
 MD5 – one of a series of message digest algorithms by Prof Ron Rivest of MIT; 128 bit digest
 SHA1 – developed at NSA 160bit digest, an FIPS standard; the first released version was defective and replaced by this; NIST/NSA have released several variants with longer 'digest' lengths; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 SHA3 – originally known as Keccak; was the winner of the NIST hash function competition using sponge function.
 RIPEMD160 – developed in Europe for the RIPE project, 160bit digest;CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 RTR0 – one of Retter series; developed by Maciej A. Czyzewski; 160bit digest
 Tiger – by Ross Anderson et al.
 Snefru – NIST hash function competition
 Whirlpool – NESSIE selection hash function, Scopus Tecnologia S.A. (Brazil) & K.U.Leuven (Belgium)
Cryptanalysis
Main article: Cryptanalysis
Classical
Modern
 Symmetric algorithms
 Hash functions:
 Network attacks
 External attacks

 Blackbag –
 Rubberhose –
Robustness properties
 Provable security –
 Random oracle model –
 Ciphertext indistinguishability –
 Semantic security –
 Malleability –
 Forward secrecy –
 Forward anonymity –
 Freshness –
Uncracked codes and ciphers
Main category: Uncracked codes and ciphers
 Beale ciphers
 Chaocipher
 D'Agapeyeff
 Dorabella Cipher
 Rongorongo
 Shugborough inscription
 Voynich manuscript
Organizations and selection projects
Standards
Main article: Cryptography standards
 Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Program – run by NIST to produce standards in many areas to guide operations of the US Federal government; many FIPS publications are ongoing and related to cryptography
 ANSI – standardization process that produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
 ISO – standardization process produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing
 IEEE – standardization process produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing
 IETF – standardization process that produces many standards called RFCs) in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
General cryptographic
 NSA – internal evaluation/selections, charged with assisting NIST in its cryptographic responsibilities
 GCHQ – internal evaluation/selections, a division is charged with developing and recommending cryptographic standards for the UK government
 DSD – Australian SIGINT agency, part of ECHELON
 Communications Security Establishment (CSE) – Canadian intelligence agency
Open efforts
 DES – NBS selection process, ended 1976
 RIPE – division of the RACE project sponsored by the European Union, ended mid1980s
 AES – a "breakoff" competition sponsored by NIST, ended in 2001
 NESSIE Project – an evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union, ended in 2002
 eSTREAM– program funded by ECRYPT; motivated by the failure of all of the stream ciphers submitted to NESSIE, ended in 2008
 CRYPTREC – evaluation/recommendation program sponsored by the Japanese government; draft recommendations published 2003
 Internet Engineering Task Force – technical body responsible for Internet standards— the Request for Comment series is ongoing
 CrypTool – an elearning freeware programme in English and German— exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis
Influential cryptographers
Main article: List of cryptographers
Cryptography scholars
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Legal issues
 Export of cryptography –
 Key escrow and Clipper Chip –
 Digital Millennium Copyright Act –
 Digital Rights Management (DRM) –
 Patents

 RSA – now public domain
 David Chaum – and digital cash
Academic and professional publications
 Further information: Important publications in cryptography & Books on cryptography
 Journal of Cryptology –
 Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security –
 Cryptologia – quarterly journal focusing on historical aspects
 Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems – cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory
Allied sciences
See also
References
External links
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