Use in writing systems
A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound //, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.
Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic; these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.
However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).
Ancestors, descendants and siblings
- 𐤐 : Semitic letter Pe, from which the following symbols originally derive
- Π π : Greek letter Pi, from which P derives
- П п : Cyrillic letter Pe, which also derives from Pi
- ℘ : script letter P, see Weierstrass p
- P with diacritics: Ṕ ṕ Ṗ ṗ Ᵽ ᵽ Ƥ ƥ ᵱ
Ligatures and abbreviations
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P||LATIN SMALL LETTER P|
|Numeric character reference||P||P||p||p|
- 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.
- "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.