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Adult Grimalditeuthis bonplandi
Grimalditeuthis bonplandi adult

Paralarvae (singular: paralarva) are young cephalopods in the planktonic stages between hatchling and subadult. This stage differs from the larval stage of animals that undergo true metamorphosis.[1] Paralarvae have been observed only in members of the orders Octopoda and Teuthida.[2]

The term was first introduced by Richard E. Young and Robert F. Harman in 1988.[2]

File:Chtenopteryx sicula paralarvae - from Commons.jpg
Chtenopteryx sicula paralarvae. Left: Two very young paralarvae. The circular tentacular clubs bear approximately 20 irregularly arranged suckers. Two chromatophores are present on each side of the mantle. Centre: Ventral, dorsal and side views of a more advanced paralarva. An equatorial circulet of seven large yellow-brown chromatophores is present on the mantle. Posteriorly the expanded vanes of the gladius are visible in the dorsal view. Right: Ventral and dorsal views of a very advanced paralarva.

See also


  1. "Paralarvae". Larval Images: Larval forms diverse and beautiful!.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Richard Edward Young & Robert F. Harman (1988). ""Larva", "Paralarva", and "Subadult" in Cephalopod Terminology". Malacologia. 29 (1): 201&ndash, 207. Retrieved August 13, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>