Paraná (state)

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
State of Paraná
Flag of State of Paraná
Coat of arms of State of Paraná
Coat of arms
Anthem: Hino do Paraná
Location of State of Paraná in Brazil
Location of State of Paraná in Brazil
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Country  Brazil
Capital and Largest City Curitiba
 • Governor Beto Richa PSDB
 • Vice Governor Cida Borghetti (PROS)
 • Total 199,314.9 km2 (76,955.9 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2013)[1]
 • Total 10,997,462
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 55/km2 (140/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Paranaense
 • Year 2012 estimate
 • Total R$ 255,927,000,000 (5th)
 • Per capita R$ 24,195 (7th)
 • Year 2010
 • Category 0.749 - high (5th)
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Postal Code 80000-000 to 86990-000
ISO 3166 code BR-PR

Paraná (Portuguese pronunciation: [paɾaˈna][2]) is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.

Cut by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. At only 40 km (25 mi) from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu (Itaipu Hydroelectric Dam).


Historic Center of Curitiba

Colonisation of the state by settlers started in the 16th century, but was mainly confined to the coasts. In the 1940s, the northern part of the state was settled as a result of the expansion of the São Paulo coffee industry. The south-eastern part of the state was settled as a result of migration from Rio Grande do Sul.[3]


Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.

The state can be separated into five main topographic areas, from east to west: a coastal zone, the mountains of Serra do Mar, and then three plateaus, each lower than the other, until the Paraná River is reached.[4]

The largest rivers in the state are the Paranapanema and its tributaries the Cinza and Tibaji, the Ivaí, Piquiri, Jejuy-guassu, and the Iguaçu with its principal tributary the Rio Negro. The Paranapanema and a small tributary, the Itarare', form the boundary line with São Paulo west of the Serra do Mar, and the Iguaçu and Negro, the boundary line with Santa Catarina and Argentina - both streams having their sources in the Serra do Mar and flowing westward to the Paraná. The other streams have shorter courses, and all are obstructed by falls and rapids. Twenty miles above the mouth of the Iguaçu are the Iguaçu Falls, 215 ft (66 m) high, broken into 20 or more falls separated by rocks and islands, and surrounded by a wild, unsettled and wooded country. The surface of the plateau is undulating and the greater part is adapted to agricultural and pastoral purposes.[citation needed]


Parana is the sixth most populous state in Brazil.Its level of urbanization is 83.5%.[5]

The 2005 IBGE survey gave the following breakdown by race for the state: White (Branca) (73.0%), Pardos (mixed) (23.3%), Black (Preta) (2.5%), and Amerindian (1.2%).[6]

Parana's population is primarily of Eastern European origin, but Germans, Portuguese, and Japanese also settled in the state.[7] A variation of German known as Paraná-Wolga-Deutsch originated in the area.[8]

City of Campo Mourão

Initially settled by the Guarani and Kaingang Amerindians, until the 17th century, virtually no European presence existed in Paraná. The number of settlers grew around 1750 and the population was composed of Amerindians, Portuguese, and some Spaniards. African slaves from Angola and Mozambique were also present, but in fewer numbers than in other Brazilian areas, because Paraná was an unexplored region that did not need much slave manpower. As part of the province of São Paulo, immigration grew in the mid-19th century, mostly composed of Italian, German, Polish, Ukrainian, and Japanese peoples. While Poles and Ukrainians are present in Paraná, their presence in the rest of Brazil is almost nil. In the early 20th century, two waves of migration to Paraná occurred: one coming from the north, mostly of Portuguese, but also of African and Amerindian origin, and another from southern Brazil to the southwest and west, mostly of Portuguese, Italian, and German origins.[9][10]

Largest cities


Paraná's per capita GDP in 2005 was R$12,339, or US$5,400, eighth in Brazil and comparable to that of Turkey.[12]


[citation needed]

  • Vehicles: 3,808,298 (March 2007)
  • Mobile phones: 12 million (August 2011)
  • Telephones: 2.7 million (April 2007)
  • Cities: 399 (2007)[13]


[citation needed]

Educational institutions

Federal universities:


Afonso Pena International Airport in Metropolitan Region of Curitiba

International airports

Afonso Pena International Airport is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport.

Foz do Iguaçu International Airport. Brazil's main airlines serve the city daily, connecting it with the rest of the country and foreign cities. Regional routes also serve local traffic.


Two of the biggest football sides in the state are Clube Atlético Paranaense and Coritiba Foot Ball Club, who play the Atletiba derby.[14]

Curitiba is one of the 12 host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.


See also


  1. "POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE, EM 1o DE ABRIL DE 2007, SEGUNDO AS UNIDADES DA FEDERAÇÃO" (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE. Retrieved 21 April 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. In Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [pɐɾɐˈna].
  3. "Supporting the Contribution of HEIs to Regional Development" (PDF). Secretariat of Science, Technology and Higher Education, State of Parana. Retrieved 21 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Paraná". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Brazil will improve the urban infrastructure in the state of Paraná". Inter-American Development Bank. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Tabela 9.1 - População total e respectiva distribuição percentual, por cor ou raça, segundo as Grandes Regiões, Unidades da Federação e Regiões Metropolitanas - 2005" (PDF). Síntese de indicadores sociais 2006 (in Portuguese). IBGE. p. 248. Retrieved 21 April 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Higher Education in Regional and City Development: State of Paraná, Brazil (PDF). OECD. 2011. p. 38. ISBN 978-92-64-089020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. HLA polymorphism and evaluation of European, African, and Amerindian contribution to the white and mulatto populations from Parana, Brazil
  11. "Brazil: Paraná". City Population. Retrieved 20 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. * IBGE (November 2007). "Regional Accounts 2005" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2007-11-26.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Source: IBGE.
  14. "Atlético-PR VS Coritiba: Atletiba, the rivalry that went national". Rivalries. FIFA. Retrieved 17 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links