Parkinsonism

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Parkinsonism
Classification and external resources
Specialty Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 245: invalid escape sequence near '"^'.
ICD-10 G20-G21
ICD-9-CM 332
DiseasesDB 24212
MedlinePlus 000759
Patient UK Parkinsonism
MeSH D020734
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Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[1][2] Parkinsonism shares symptoms found in Parkinson's disease, from which it is named; but parkinsonism is a symptom complex, and differs from Parkinson disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative illness. The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.[3][4] The neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism. However, a wide range of other etiologies may lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's.[5]

About 7% of people with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications. Side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and, rarely, antidepressants. The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increases with age. Drug induced parkinsonism tends to remain at its presenting level, i.e. does not progress like the parkinson disease.[6]

Differential diagnoses

Before Parkinson's disease is diagnosed the differential diagnoses include:

References

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  2. Bradley J. Robottom; William J. Weiner; Lisa M. Shulman. "42". International Neurology: A Clinical Approach. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 152–158. ISBN 978-1-405-15738-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Rao G, Fisch L, Srinivasan S, et al. Does this patient have Parkinson disease? JAMA. 2003;289(3):347-353. PMID 12525236
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  6. http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/PDF/FS38_druginducedparkinsonism.pdf
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  9. Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" (PDF). Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA17–23. PMID 15614202. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090902/LINGO1-variant-responsible-for-essential-tremors-and-Parkinsons-disease.aspx
  11. Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). "Multiple system atrophy". Rev. Neurol. (Paris). 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S31–8. PMID 12773886.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  13. Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) NEURODEGENERATION WITH BRAIN IRON ACCUMULATION 1; NBIA1 -234200
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 2414. ISBN 0-07-140235-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  16. Tremor/InvoluntaryMovements: Excerpt from Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis
  17. Weiss J. Chapter 151. Toluene and Xylene. In: Olson KR, ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=55982958. Accessed April 21, 2013.
  18. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.410350516/abstract
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  20. http://parkinsonsdiseasefoundation.blogspot.com/2012/08/vascular-parkinsonism.html
  21. Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, et al. (2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale — a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 1–12. PMID 17330175.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Ropper AH, Samuels MA. Chapter 4. Abnormalities of Movement and Posture Caused by Disease of the Basal Ganglia. In: Ropper AH, Samuels MA, eds. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3630437. Accessed April 21, 2013.
  23. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

External links