Parus (satellite)

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Manufacturer JSC Information Satellite Systems
Country of origin Soviet Union
Operator VKS
Applications Navigation
Bus KAUR-1
Design life 18-24 months
Launch mass 825 kilograms (1,819 lb)
Regime Low Earth
Status Operational
Built >99
Launched 99
Operational Unknown
Lost 1-4
Maiden launch Kosmos 700,
26 December 1974
Related spacecraft
Derived from Tsikada

Parus (Russian: Парус meaning Sail), also Tsyklon-B or Tsiklon-B (Russian: Циклон-Б meaning Cyclone-B) and Tsikada-M (Russian: Цикада-М meaning Cicada-M),[1] GRAU index 11F627, is a Russian, previously Soviet satellite constellation used for communication and navigation. As of 2010, 99 Parus satellites have been launched, starting with Kosmos 700 in 1974.[2] All launches have been conducted using Kosmos-3M carrier rockets, flying from sites 132 and 133 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.[3]

Parus satellites are produced by JSC Information Satellite Systems (formerly NPO PM), based on the KAUR-1 satellite bus. They have a mass of around 825 kilograms (1,819 lb), and a design life of 18–24 months.[1] The satellites operate in low Earth orbits, typically with a perigee of about 950 kilometres (590 mi), an apogee of 1,005 kilometres (624 mi) and 82.9° inclination.[2] They are operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, and are used primarily for navigation, Store and forward communication, and to relay data from US-P satellites.[2] Some of the navigation functions are believed to have been superseded by the GLONASS system.[2]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Wade, Mark. "Parus". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-07-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Krebs, Gunter. "Parus (11F627)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2009-07-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 2009-07-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>