Performance-enhancing drugs

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Performance-enhancing drugs are substances used to improve any form of activity performance in humans. Physical performance-enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders. Use of cognitive performance enhancers by students is sometimes referred to as academic doping. They are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[1]

Definition

The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing drugs are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorization, certain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such (like anabolic steroids), whereas other substances (like vitamins and protein supplements) are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their effects on performance. As is usual with categorization, there are borderline cases; caffeine, for example, is considered a performance enhancer by some but not others.[2]

Types

The phrase has been used to refer to several distinct classes of drugs:

Usage in sport

In sports, the phrase performance-enhancing drugs is popularly used in reference to anabolic steroids or their precursors (hence the colloquial term "steroids"); anti-doping organizations apply the term broadly.[13] There are agencies such as WADA and USADA that try to prevent athletes from using these drugs by performing drug test. WADA was founded on November 10, 1999 by Dick Pound. The World Anti-doping Agency focuses on establishing and enforcing rules and codes of all sports around the world. Their goal is to make all sports played fairly between all athletes in a doping free organization with the to prevent athletes from using any form of performance-enhancing drugs. USADA started October 1, 2000 as non-profit and was composed of nine members. Five of which were former Olympic athletes with the other four elected from independent companies. This is the United States Anti-doping Agency and have the ability to test athletes across the nation. Steroids and performance-enhancing drugs are used across all sports organizations around the world.[14][15]

See also

References

  1. Anon. Better Fighting Through Chemistry? The Role of FDA Regulation in Crafting the Warrior of the Future. Food and Drug Law: Final Paper. March 8, 2004.
  2. "Caffeine and Sports Performance". Vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. McKelvey Martin, Valerie. "Drugs in Sport". Retrieved 15 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  10. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 318. ISBN 9780071481274. Mild dopaminergic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. ...
    Therapeutic (relatively low) doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in in normal subjects and those with ADHD. Positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrates that methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in the doroslateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex while improving performance of a spacial working memory task. This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug. ... [It] is now believed that dopamine and norepinephrine, but not serotonin, produce the beneficial effects of stimulants on working memory. At abused (relatively high) doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control ... stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors.
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  13. "Performance-Enhancing Drug Resources". Drug Free Sport. Retrieved 14 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Who we are". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 2015-11-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "U.S. Anti-Doping Agency - USADA". U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA). Retrieved 2015-11-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>