Permanent residence (United States)

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United States Permanent Resident Card (green card) (May 2010)
United States Permanent Resident Card (2008)
United States Alien Registration Receipt Card (1946)

United States lawful permanent residency is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.

A United States Permanent Resident Card (USCIS Form I-551), formerly Alien Registration Card or Alien Registration Receipt Card (INS Form I-151), is an identification card attesting to the permanent resident status of an alien in the United States. It is known informally as a green card because it was green from 1946 until 1964, and it reverted to that color on May 11, 2010.[1][2] Green card also refers to an immigration process of becoming a permanent resident. The green card serves as proof that its holder, a lawful permanent resident (LPR), has been officially granted immigration benefits, which include permission to reside and take employment in the United States. The holder must maintain permanent resident status, and can be removed from the United States if certain conditions of this status are not met.

Green cards were formerly issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107–296, 116 Stat. 2135) dismantled INS and separated the former agency into three components within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The first, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) handles applications for immigration benefits. Two other agencies were created to oversee the INS's former functions of immigration enforcement: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), respectively.[3]

Permanent residents of the United States eighteen years of age or older must carry their actual green card at all times. Failing to do so is a violation of the Immigration and Nationality Act, carrying the possibility of a fine up to $100 and/or imprisonment for up to 30 days for each offense.[4] Only the federal government can impose these penalties.[5]

Green cards are valid for 10 years for permanent residents, and 2 years for conditional permanent residents. After this period, the card must be renewed or replaced.

Reading a permanent resident card

Most of the information on the card is self-evident.[6] The computer- and human-readable signature at the bottom is not. The format follows the machine-readable travel document TD2 format:

  • First line:
1–2: C1 or C2. C1 = resident within the United States, C2 = permanent resident commuter (living in Canada or Mexico)
3–5: USA (issuing country, United States)
6–14: 9-digit number (A#, alien number)
15: application receipt number
16–30: immigrant case number that resulted in the approved green card. The "<" symbol represents a blank space
  • Second line:
1–6: birth date (in YYMMDD format)
7: check digit
8: gender
9–14: expiration date (in YYMMDD format)
15: check digit
16–29: country of birth
30: cumulative check digit
  • Third line:
surname, given name, middle name, first initial of father, first initial of mother (this line is spaced with "<<" between the surname and given name). Depending on the length of the name, the father's and mother's initials may be omitted.

A full list of category codes (i.e. IR1, E21, etc.) can be found in the Federal Register.[7][8][9]

Since May 11, 2010, new green cards contain an RFID chip[10] and can be electronically accessed at a distance. They are shipped with a protective sleeve intended to protect the card from remote access.

Path to U.S. citizenship

A lawful permanent resident can apply for United States citizenship, or naturalization, after five years of residency. This period is shortened to three years if married to a U.S. citizen. Lawful permanent residents may submit their applications for naturalization as early as 90 days before meeting the residency requirement. In the United States, 8.8 million lawful permanent residents are eligible to naturalize.[11] Citizens are entitled to more rights (and obligations) than permanent residents (who are still classified as aliens in this respect). Lawful permanent residents generally do not have the right to vote, the right to be elected in federal and state elections (although even naturalized citizens cannot be elected President under Article II of the Constitution), the ability to bring family members to the United States (permanent residents are allowed to sponsor certain family members,[12] but this is often not practical due to long approval delays),[13][14] or eligibility for federal government jobs. Male permanent residents between the ages of 18 and 25 are subject to registering in the Selective Service System. Permanent residents who reside in the United States must pay taxes on their worldwide income (this includes filing annual U.S. income tax returns), like U.S. citizens.

Types of immigration

U.S. immigration legislation in the Immigration and Nationality Act[15] (INA) stipulates that a person may obtain permanent resident status primarily through the course of the following proceedings:[16]

  • immigration through a family member[17]
  • immigration through employment[18]
  • immigration through investment (from 0.5 to 1 million US dollars)[19]
  • immigration through the Diversity Lottery[20]
  • immigration through refugee or asylum status[21]
  • immigration through "The Registry" provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act
  • immigration approved by the Director of Central Intelligence

Immigration eligibility and quotas

Category Eligibility Annual quotac Immigrant visa backlog
IR Immediate relative (spouse, minor children, and parents) of U.S. citizens
(A U.S. citizen must be at least 21 years of age in order to sponsor his or her parents.)
No numerical limita  
F1 Unmarried sons and daughters (21 years of age or older) of U.S. citizens 23,400 8–21 yearsb[22]
F2A Spouse and minor children (under 21 year old) of lawful permanent residents 87,934 1–2 yearsb[22]
F2B Unmarried sons and daughters (21 years of age or older) of permanent residents ??? ???
F3 Married sons and daughters of U.S. citizens 23,400 10–22 yearsb[22]
F4 Brothers and sisters of U.S. citizens 65,000 13–24 yearsb[22]
EB-1 Priority workers. There are three sub-groups: 1. Foreign nationals with extraordinary ability in sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics; 2. Foreign nationals that are outstanding professors or researchers with at least three years' experience in teaching or research and who are recognized internationally; 3. Foreign nationals that are managers and executives subject to international transfer to the United States. 41,455[23] currently available
EB-2 Professionals holding advanced degrees (Ph.D., master's degree, or at least five years of progressive post-baccalaureate experience) or persons of exceptional ability in sciences, arts, or business 41,455[23] currently availableb
EB-3 Skilled workers, professionals, and other workers 41,455[23] 3 months - 11 yearsb[24]
EB-4 Certain special immigrants: ministers, religious workers, current or former U.S. government workers, etc. 10,291[23] currently available
EB-5 Investors 10,291[23] currently available
Diversity immigrant (DV) 50,000  
Political asylum[25] No numerical limit  
Refugee[25] 70,000[26]  
a 300,000–500,000 immediate relatives admitted annually.
b No more than 7 percent of the visas may be issued to natives of any one country. Currently, individuals from China (mainland), India, Mexico and the Philippines are subject to per-country quotas in most of the categories, and the waiting time may take longer (additional 5–20 years).[27]
c Spouse and minor children of the IR/F4/EB applicants, DV winners, asylums & refugees may apply for immigrant visa adjudication with their spouse or parent. The quotas include not only the principal applicants but also their nuclear family members.

Application process

An immigrant usually has to go through a three-step process to get permanent residency. The whole process may take several years, depending on the type of immigrant category and the country of chargeability. An applicant (alien) in the United States can obtain two permits while the case is pending after a certain stage is passed in green card processing (filing of I-485). The first is a temporary work permit known as the Employment Authorization Document (EAD), which allows the alien to take employment in the United States. The second is a temporary travel document, advance parole, which allows the alien to re-enter the United States. Both permits confer benefits that are independent of any existing status granted to the alien. For example, the alien might already have permission to work in the United States under an H-1B visa.

  1. Immigrant petition – in the first step, USCIS approves the immigrant petition by a qualifying relative, an employer, or in rare cases, such as with an investor visa, the applicant himself. If a sibling is applying, she or he must have the same parents as the applicant.
  2. Immigrant visa availability – in the second step, unless the applicant is an "immediate relative", an immigrant visa number through the National Visa Center (NVC)[28] of the United States Department of State (DOS) must be available. A visa number might not be immediately available even if the USCIS approves the petition, because the number of immigrant visa numbers is limited every year by quotas set in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). There are also certain additional limitations by country of chargeability. Thus, most immigrants will be placed on lengthy waiting lists. Those immigrants who are immediate relatives of a U.S. citizen (spouses and children under 21 years of age, and parents of a U.S. citizen who is 21 years of age or older) are not subject to these quotas and may proceed to the next step immediately (since they qualify for the IR immigrant category).
  3. Immigrant visa adjudication – in the third step, when an immigrant visa number becomes available, the applicant must either apply with USCIS to adjust their current status to permanent resident status or apply with the DOS for an immigrant visa at the nearest U.S. consulate before being allowed to come to the United States.
    • Adjustment of status (AOS) – Adjustment of status is for when the immigrant is in the United States and entered the U.S. legally. Except for immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, the immigrant must also be in legal status at the time of applying for adjustment of status. For immediate relatives and other relative categories whose visa numbers are current, adjustment of status can be filed for at the same time with the petition (step 1 above). Adjustment of status is submitted to USCIS via form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status.[29] The USCIS conducts a series of background checks (including fingerprinting for FBI criminal background check and name checks) and makes a decision on the application. Once the adjustment of status application is accepted, the alien is allowed to stay in the United States even if the original period of authorized stay on the Form I-94 is expired, but he/she is generally not allowed to leave the country until the application is approved, or the application will be abandoned. If the alien has to leave the United States during this time, he/she can apply for travel documents at the USCIS with form I-131, also called Advance parole.[30] If there is a potential risk that the applicant's work permit (visa) will expire or become invalid (laid off by the employer and visa sponsor) or the applicant wants to start working in the United States, while he/she is waiting for the decision about his/her application to change status, he/she can file form I-765, to get Employment Authorization Documents (also called EAD) and be able to continue or start working legally in the United States.[31][32] In some cases, the applicant will be interviewed at a USCIS office, especially if it is a marriage-based adjustment from a K-1 visa, in which case both the husband and wife will be interviewed by the USCIS. If the application is approved, the alien becomes an LPR, and the actual green card is mailed to the alien's last known mailing address.
    • Consular processing – This is the process if the immigrant is outside the United States, or is ineligible for AOS. It still requires the immigrant visa petition to be first completed and approved. The applicant may make an appointment at the U.S. embassy or consulate in his/her home country, where a consular officer adjudicates the case. If the case is approved, an immigrant visa is issued by the U.S. embassy or consulate. The visa entitles the holder to travel to the United States as an immigrant. At the port of entry, the immigrant visa holder immediately becomes a permanent resident, and is processed for a permanent resident card and receives an I-551 stamp in his/her passport. The permanent resident card is mailed to his/her U.S. address within several weeks.

Application process for family-sponsored visa for both parents and for children

U.S. citizens may sponsor for permanent residence in the United States the following relatives:

  1. Spouses, and unmarried children under the age of 21;
  2. Parents (once the U.S. citizen is at least 21 years old);
  3. Unmarried children over the age of 21 (called "sons and daughters");
  4. Married sons and daughters;
  5. Brothers and sisters (once the U.S. citizen is at least 21 years old).

U.S. permanent residents may sponsor for permanent residence in the United States the following relatives:

  1. Spouses, and unmarried children under the age of 21;
  2. Unmarried children over the age of 21 (called "sons and daughters");

The Department of State's "Visa Bulletin," issued every month, gives the priority date for those petition beneficiaries currently entitled to apply for immigrant status through immigrant visas or adjustment of status.[33] There is no annual quota for the spouses, unmarried children, and parents of U.S. citizens, so there is no waiting period for these applicants—just the required processing time. However, all other family-based categories have significant backlogs, even with a U.S. citizen petitioner.

Regardless of whether the family member being sponsored is located in the United States (and therefore likely to be applying for adjustment of status) or outside the United States (in which case the immigrant visa is the likely option), the process begins with the filing of an I-130 Petition for Alien Relative. The form and instructions can be found on the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services website.[34] Required later in the process will be additional biographic data regarding the beneficiary (the person being sponsored) and a medical examination. Additional documents, such as police certificates, may be required depending on whether immigrant visa (consular processing) or adjustment of status is being utilized. In the case of consular processing outside the United States one should ensure one is up-to-date with the particular practices of the relevant US embassy or consulate.[35] All petitioners must supply the I-864 Affidavit of Support.[36]

Green card holders and families

Green card holders married to non-U.S. citizens are able to legally bring their spouses and minor children to join them in the USA, but must wait for their priority date to become current. The foreign spouse of a green card holder must wait for approval of an "immigrant visa" from the State Department before entering the United States. Due to numerical limitation on the number of these visas, the wait time for approval may be months or years. In the interim, the spouse cannot be legally present in the United States, unless he or she secures a visa by some other means. Green card holders may opt to wait to become U.S. citizens, and only then sponsor their spouses and children, as the process is much faster for U.S. citizens. However, many green card holders can choose to apply for the spouse or children and update their application after becoming a U.S. citizen.

The issue of U.S. green card holders separated from their families for years is not a new problem. A mechanism to unite families of green card holders was created by the LIFE Act by the introduction of a "V visa", signed into law by President Clinton. The law expired on December 31, 2000, and V visas are no longer available. From time to time, bills are introduced in Congress to reinstate V visas, but so far none have been successful. .

Improving the application process in obtaining a green card

The most common challenges that USCIS faces in providing services in the green card process are: (1) the length of the application and approval process, and (2) the quotas of green cards granted. USCIS tries to shorten the time qualified applicants wait to receive permanent residence.

Challenges with processing time of application

Under the current system, immediate family members (spouse, child, and dependent mother and father), have priority status for green cards and generally wait 6 months to a year to have their green card application approved.[37] For non-immediate family members, the process may take up to 10 years.[38] Paperwork is processed on a first-come, first-served basis, so new applications may go untouched for several months. To address the issue of slow processing times, USCIS has made a policy allowing applicants to submit the I-130 and I-485 forms at the same time. This has reduced the processing time. Another delay in the process comes when applications have mistakes. In these cases papers are sent back to the applicant, further delaying the process.[39] Currently the largest issue creating long wait times is not processing time, but rather immigrant visa quotas set by Congress.[40]

Quota system challenges

Long wait times are a symptom of another issue—quotas preventing immigrants from receiving immigrant visas. Georgia's Augusta Chronicle in 2006 stated that an estimated two million people are on waiting lists in anticipation to become legal and permanent residents of the United States. Immigrants need visas to get off of these waiting lists, and Congress would need to change immigration law in order to accommodate them with legal status.

The number of green cards that can be granted to family-based applicants depends on what preference category they fall under. An unlimited number of immediate relatives can receive green cards because there is no quota for that category. Family members who fall under the other various preference categories have fixed quotas, however the number of visas issued from each category may vary because unused visas from one category may rollover into another category.[37]

Application process for employment-based visa

Many immigrants opt for this route, which typically requires an employer to "sponsor" (i.e. to petition before USCIS) the immigrant (known as the alien beneficiary) through a presumed future job (in some special categories, the applicant may apply on his/her behalf without a sponsor). The three-step process outlined above is described here in more detail for employment-based immigration applications. After the process is complete, the alien is expected to take the certified job offered by the employer to substantiate his or her immigrant status, since the application ultimately rests on the alien's employment with that company in that particular position.

  1. Immigrant petition – the first step includes the pre-requisite labor certification upon which the actual petition will reside.
    • Labor certification – the employer must legally prove that it has a need to hire an alien for a specific position and that there is no minimally qualified U.S. citizen or LPR available to fill that position, hence the reason for hiring the alien. Some of the requirements to prove this situation include: proof of advertising for the specific position; skill requirements particular to the job; verification of the prevailing wage for a position; and the employer's ability to pay. This is currently done through an electronic system known as PERM.[41] The date when the labor certification application is filed becomes the applicant's priority date. In some cases, for highly skilled foreign nationals (EB1 and EB2 National Interest Waiver, e.g. researchers, athletes, artists or business executives) and "Schedule A" labor[42] (nurses and physical therapists), this step is waived. This step is processed by the United States Department of Labor (DOL). The labor certification is valid for 6 months from the time it is approved.
    • Immigrant petition – the employer applies on the alien's behalf to obtain a visa number. The application is form I-140, Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker,[43] and it is processed by the USCIS. There are several EB (employment-based) immigrant categories (i.e. EB1-EA, EB2-NIW, EB5)[44] under which the alien may apply, with progressively stricter requirements, but often shorter waiting times. Many of the applications are processed under the EB3 category.[45] Currently, this process takes up to 6 months. Many of the EB categories allow expedited processing of this stage, known as "premium processing".
  2. Immigrant visa availability. When the immigrant petition is approved by the USCIS, the petition is forwarded to the NVC for visa allocation. Currently this step centers around the priority date concept.
    • Priority date – the visa becomes available when the applicant's priority date is earlier than the cutoff date announced on the DOS's Visa Bulletin[46] or when the immigrant visa category the applicant is assigned to is announced as "current". A "current" designation indicates that visa numbers are available to all applicants in the corresponding immigrant category. Petitions with priority dates earlier than the cutoff date are expected to have visas available, therefore those applicants are eligible for final adjudication. When the NVC determines that a visa number could be available for a particular immigrant petition, a visa is tentatively allocated to the applicant. The NVC will send a letter stating that the applicant may be eligible for adjustment of status, and requiring the applicant to choose either to adjust status with the USCIS directly, or apply at the U.S. consulate abroad. This waiting process determines when the applicant can expect the immigration case to be adjudicated. Due to quotas imposed on EB visa categories, there are more approved immigrant petitions than visas available under INA. High demand for visas has created a backlog of approved but unadjudicated cases. In addition, due to processing inefficiencies throughout DOS and USCIS systems, not all visas available under the quota system in a given year were allocated to applicants by the DOS. Since there is no quota carry-over to the next fiscal year, for several years visa quotas have not been fully used, thus adding to the visa backlog.[47]
  3. Immigrant visa adjudication. When the NVC determines that an immigrant visa is available, the case can be adjudicated. If the alien is already in the USA, that alien has a choice to finalize the green card process via adjustment of status in the USA, or via consular processing abroad. If the alien is outside of the USA he/she can only apply for an immigrant visa at the U.S. consulate. The USCIS does not allow an alien to pursue consular processing and AOS simultaneously. Prior to filing the form I-485 (Adjustment of Status) it is required that the applicant have a medical examination performed by a USCIS-approved civil surgeon. The examination includes a blood test and specific immunizations, unless the applicant provides proof that the required immunizations were already done elsewhere. The civil surgeon hands the applicant a sealed envelope containing a completed form I-693, which must be included unopened with the I-485 application.[48] (The cited reference also states that the February 25, 2010 edition of the Form I-693 reflects that an individual should no longer be tested for HIV infection.)
    • Adjustment of status (AOS) – after the alien has a labor certification and has been provisionally allocated a visa number, the final step is to change his or her status to permanent residency. Adjustment of status is submitted to USCIS via form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status. If an immigrant visa number is available, the USCIS will allow "concurrent filing": it will accept forms I-140 and I-485 submitted in the same package or will accept form I-485 even before the approval of the I-140.[49]
    • Consular processing – this is an alternative to AOS, but still requires the immigrant visa petition to be completed. In the past (pre-2005), this process was somewhat faster than applying for AOS, so was sometimes used to circumvent long backlogs (of over two years in some cases). However, due to recent efficiency improvements by the USCIS, it is not clear whether applying via consular processing is faster than the regular AOS process. Consular processing is also thought to be riskier since there is no or very little recourse for appeal if the officer denies the application.[50][51]

Green card lottery

Each year, around 50,000 immigrant visas are made available through the Diversity Visa (DV) program, also known as the Green Card Lottery to people who were born in countries with low rates of immigration to the United States (fewer than 50,000 immigrants in the past five years). Applicants can only qualify by country of chargeability, not by citizenship. Anyone who is selected under this lottery will be given the opportunity to apply for permanent residence. They can also file for their spouse and any unmarried children under the age of 21.

If permanent residence is granted, the winner (and his/her family, if applicable) receives an immigrant visa in their passport(s) that has to be "activated" within six months of issuance at any port of entry to the United States. If already in the U.S. adjustment of status may be pursued. The new immigrant receives a stamp on the visa as proof of lawful admittance to the United States, and the individual is now authorized to live and work permanently in the United States. Finally, the actual "green card" typically arrives by mail within a few months.

Recent developments

Over 6.4 million applications for the fiscal year (FY) 2008 Diversity Visa Lottery were submitted. This is an increase from the more than 5.5 million applications submitted in the 2007 Diversity Visa Lottery. Taking into account dependents, there are more than 10 million participants in the 2008 Diversity Visa Lottery. Most of the applications were from Africa and Asia: 41 percent of the total came from Africa, 38 percent from Asia, 19 percent coming from Europe, and two percent from South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. The largest number of applicants came from Bangladesh (more than 1.7 million applicants), followed by Nigeria (684,735) and Ukraine (619,584).

Normally somewhat fewer than 100,000 applicants will be announced as winners to ensure that all 50,000 green cards will be issued.

For the fiscal year 2008 there were 5,983 Bangladesh, 8,773 Nigerian and 5,018 of the Ukrainian applications declared as winners.[52] Of these, there were finally used 2,286 of the Bangladesh winner numbers, 3,425 of the Nigerian winner numbers and 1,914 of the Ukrainian winner numbers to get a green card within the time limit. At the end, 46,633 were issued in FY 2008, 3,367 less than planned.[53] Therefore, the chances to become a winner in a lottery differs from the country of origin for which you are filed for. It also differs from year to year.

Over 14.7 million applications for the 2012 Diversity Visa Lottery were submitted. This is an increase from the more than 2.7 million applications submitted in the 2011 Diversity Visa Lottery. Taking into account dependents, there are more than 19.6 million participants in the 2012 Diversity Visa Lottery. The largest number of applicants came from Bangladesh (more than 7.6 million applicants) followed by Nigeria (2,144,626) and Ukraine (1,080,091).[54]

Crime: green card lottery scam

There is a growing number of fraudulent green card lottery scams, in which false agents take money from applicants by promising to submit application forms for them.[55] Most agents are not working for the distribution service. Some claim that they can increase the chance of winning the lottery. This is not true; in fact, they may delay or not submit the application. Likewise, some claim to provide to winners free airline tickets or other benefits, such as submissions in future years or cash funds. There is no way to guarantee their claims, and there are numerous nefarious reasons for them not to fulfill their promises. Applicants are advised to use only official U.S. government websites, in which the URL ends in .gov.

Green card lottery e-mail fraud

Other fraud perpetrators will e-mail potential victims posing as State Department or other government officials with requests to wire or transfer money online as part of a "processing fee." These fraudulent e-mails are designed to steal money from unsuspecting victims. The senders often use phony e-mail addresses and logos designed to make them look more like official government correspondence. One easy way to tell that an email is a fraud is that it does not end with a ".gov". One particularly common fraud email asks potential victims to wire money via Western Union to an individual (the name varies) at the following address in the United Kingdom: 24 Grosvenor Square, London. These emails come from a variety of email addresses designed to impersonate the U.S. State Department. The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services blog has published information on this email scam and how to report fraudulent emails to the authorities.

The Department of State, the Department of Homeland Security[56] and the Federal Trade Commission have issued warnings about this type of fraud or similar business practices.[57][58]


The "registry" is a provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act which allows a person who have previously entered the United States illegally to obtain legal permanent residence simply on the basis of having de facto resided in the country over a long time. To avail himself of the benefit of this provision, the immigrant has to prove that he has continuously resided since before the stipulated "registry date".[59]

The concept of "registry" was first added to the INA in 1929, with the registry date set to June 3, 1921. Since then, the registry date has been adjusted several times, being set to July 1, 1924; June 28, 1940; and June 30, 1948. The most recent adjustment to the registry date came with the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, when it was set to January 1, 1972.[60] A number of bills have been introduced in Congress since then to further alter the registry date, but they have not been passed.[59][60]

Conditional permanent residence

As part of immigration reform under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), as well as further reform enacted in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRAIRA), persons who are eligible and properly apply for permanent residence based on either a recent marriage to a U.S. citizen or as an investor are granted permanent residence only on a conditional basis, for two years. An exception to this rule is the case of a U.S. citizen legally sponsoring a spouse in which the marriage at the time of the adjustment of status (I-485) is more than two years old. In this case, the conditional status is waived and a 10-year Permanent Resident Card is issued upon USCIS approval of the case. A permanent resident under the conditional clause may receive an I-551 stamp as well as a Permanent Resident Card. The expiration date of the conditional period is two years from the approval date. The immigrant visa category is CR (conditional resident).

When this two-year conditional period is over, the permanent residence automatically expires and the applicant is subject to deportation and removal. To avoid this, 90 days or less before the conditional residence expires, the applicant must file form I-751 Petition to Remove Conditions on Residence[61] (if conditional permanent residence was obtained through marriage) or form I-829 Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions[62] (if conditional permanent residence was obtained through investment) with USCIS to have the conditions removed. Once the application is received, permanent residence is extended in 1-year intervals until the request to remove conditions is approved or denied. For conditional permanent residence obtained through marriage, both spouses must sign the form I-751; if the spouses are divorced, it is possible to get a waiver of the other spouse's signing requirement, if it can be proved that the marriage was bona fide.

The USCIS requires that the application for the removal of conditions provide both general and specific supporting evidence that the basis on which the applicant obtained conditional permanent residence was not fraudulent. For an application based on marriage, birth certificates of children, joint financial statements, and letters from employers, friends and relatives are some types of evidence that may be accepted.[63] This is to ensure that the marriage was in good faith and not a fraudulent marriage of convenience with a sole intention of obtaining a green card. A follow-up interview with an immigration officer is sometimes required but may be waived if the submitted evidence is sufficient. Both the spouses must attend the interview under most circumstances.

The applicant receives an I-551 stamp in their foreign passport upon approval of their case. The applicant is then free from the conditional requirement once the application is approved. The applicant's new Permanent Resident Card arrives via mail to their residence several weeks to several months later and replaces the old two-year conditional residence card. This new card must be renewed after 10 years, but permanent resident status is now granted for an indefinite term if residence conditions are satisfied at all times. USCIS may request to renew the card earlier because of security enhancements of the card or as a part of a revalidation campaign to exclude counterfeit green cards from circulation.

It is important to note that this two-year conditional residence period counts toward satisfying a residency requirement for U.S. naturalization, and other purposes. Application for the removal of conditions must be adjudicated before a separate naturalization application could be reviewed by USCIS on its own merits.

Differences between permanent residents and conditional permanent residents

Conditional permanent residents have all of the equal "rights, privileges, responsibilities and duties which apply to all other lawful permanent residents".[64]

The only difference is the requirement to remove the conditions (for example, show marriage status or satisfy entrepreneur requirements) before the two-year period has ended in order to prevent removal. All other rights remain the same.

Abandonment or loss of permanent residence status

A green card holder may abandon permanent residence by filing form I-407, with the green card, at a U.S. Embassy.[65]

Under certain conditions, permanent residence status can be lost involuntarily.[66] This includes committing a criminal act that makes a person removable from the United States. A person might also be found to have abandoned his/her status if he or she moves to another country to live there permanently, stays outside the USA for more than 365 days (without getting a re-entry permit before leaving),[67] or does not file an income tax return on their worldwide income. Permanent resident status can also be lost if it is found that the application or grounds for obtaining permanent residence was fraudulent. The failure to renew the permanent resident card does not result in the loss of status, except in the case of conditional permanent residents as noted above. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to renew the green card on time because it also acts as a work permit and travel permit (advance parole), but if the green card is renewed late, there is no penalty or extra fee to pay.[68]

A person who loses permanent residence status is immediately removable from the United States and must leave the country as soon as possible or face deportation and removal. In some cases the person may be banned from entering the country for three or seven years, or even permanently.

Tax costs of green card relinquishment

Due to the Heart Act[69] foreign workers who have owned a green card in eight of the last 15 years and choose to relinquish it will be subject to the expatriation tax, which taxes unrealized gains above $600,000, anywhere in the world. However this will only apply to those people who have a federal tax liability greater than $139,000 a year or have a worth of more than $2 million or have failed to certify to the IRS that they have been in compliance with U.S. federal tax obligations for the past five years.[70][71]

If the green card is not relinquished then the holder is subject to double taxation when living or working outside of the United States, whether or not within their home nation, although double taxation may be mitigated by foreign tax credits.

Visa-free travel for green card holders

Note: This list excludes countries that allow visa-free travel with valid U.S. visas (for example, Costa Rica,[72] Dominican Republic,[73] Mexico,[74] Panama)[75] Also note that the Green Card holder might already have visa-free access to many destinations by virtue of the nationality already held.

  • Bahamas: 30 days[76]
  • Belize: permanent residents of the USA can obtain a visa on arrival, provided prior approval is obtained from Belizean Immigration (fee USD 50). Visitors may also have to pay a repatriation fee.
  • Bermuda[77]
  • British Virgin Islands: 1 month[78]
  • Canada: 6 months[79] (From 2016, certain nationals also will need an eTA [80])
  • Caribbean Netherlands (Netherlands Antilles, Bonaire, Aruba, Sint Maarten or Curaçao): 30 days[81]
  • Cayman Islands: 30 days[82]
  • Dominican Republic: 30 days[83]
  • Jamaica: 6 months[84]
  • Mexico: 180 days[85]
  • Taiwan: 30 days max. for holders of a ROC (Taiwan) Business and Academic Travel Card, issued by Republic of China (Taiwan).

See also


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External links

US Government immigration sites

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