Marina de Guerra del Perú
Coat of arms of the Peruvian Navy
|Active||8 October 1821 - today|
|Allegiance||Ministry of Defense|
|Size||25,988 active personnel 51 ships, 33 aircraft|
|Headquarters||Callao naval base|
|Patron||Miguel Grau Seminario|
|Anniversaries||October 8 - Navy's Foundation Day and Anniversary of the Battle of Angamos|
|Engagements||Gran Colombia-Peru War
The Peruvian Navy (Spanish: Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations. The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates on 8 October the anniversary of its creation (1821) and of the Battle of Angamos (1879).
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Bases
- 4 Personnel
- 5 Ranks
- 6 Ships
- 7 Naval Aviation
- 8 Naval infantry
- 9 Equipment
- 10 Peacekeeping operations
- 11 Future orders
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 Sources
- 16 External links
The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín. Its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence (1821–1824) using captured Spanish warships. Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia (1828–1829) during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and then helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces. It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy (1836–1839) and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain (1866). The breakout of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. Even so, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos.
After the war, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, and ten smaller ships - the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value". The lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the protected cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930) a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920. Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and even though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy. This proved to be temporary because the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s forced the decommissioning of several warships and resulted in a general lack of funds for maintenance. The economic upturn of the 1990s and 2000s has permitted some improvement although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s.
Marina de Guerra del Perú
The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Carlos Tijeda. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:
- Comandancia General de la Marina (Navy General Command)
Operational units are divided between three commands:
- Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico
Pacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units:
- Fuerza de Superficie (Surface Force)
- Fuerza de Submarinos (Submarine Force)
- Fuerza de Aviación Naval (Naval aviation Force)
- Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force)
- Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Force)
- Comandancia General de Operaciones de la Amazonía
Amazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin.
- Dirección General de Capitanías y Guardacostas
- Ancón - Naval Infantry headquarters and base
- Callao - Main naval base, dockyard and naval aviation base, Naval Medical Center which contains the US Navy unit Naval Medical Research Unit Six
- Chimbote - Minor base and dockyard
- Iquitos - On the Amazon river
- Paita - Minor base
- Pisco - Minor base
- Puno - On Lake Titicaca
- San Juan de Marcona - Naval aviation base
Although most of the fleet is based at Callao, this is not considered an ideal location because it is also the main outlet for Peruvian trade, causing space and security problems. During the 1980s the building of a new naval base at Chimbote was considered but high costs and a bad economic situation made the project unfeasible.
|Personnel (as of 2001)|
|NCO in training||1,533|
|Total||25,988 (excl. civilians)|
- Ranks of the officers of the Navy 
- Ranks of the sub-officers of the Navy 
- Ranks of the enlisted of the navy 
|Submarines (6 in service)|
|BAP Angamos (SS-31)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1200||Yes||ex-BAP Casma.|
|BAP Antofagasta (SS-32)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1200||Yes|
|BAP Pisagua (SS-33)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1200||Yes|
|BAP Chipana (SS-34)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1200||Yes||ex-BAP Blume.|
|BAP Islay (SS-35)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1100||Yes||Upgraded in 2008|
|BAP Arica (SS-36)||Germany||diesel-electric submarine||Type 209/1100||Yes||Upgraded in 2008|
|Guided missile cruiser (1 in service)|
|BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81)||Netherlands||guided missile cruiser||De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser||Yes||ex-De Ruyter
Flagship of the Peruvian Navy
|Guided missile frigates (5 in service, 2 being upgraded)|
|BAP Villavisencio (FM-52)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Carvajal-class frigate||Yes|
|BAP Montero (FM-53)||Peru||guided missile frigate||Carvajal-class frigate||Yes|
|BAP Mariátegui (FM-54)||Peru||guided missile frigate||Carvajal-class frigate||Yes|
|BAP Aguirre (FM-55)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Lupo-class frigate||No||ex-Orsa (F-567), currently being overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard along with BAP Bolognesi.|
|BAP Palacios (FM-56)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Lupo-class frigate||Yes||ex-Lupo (F-564)|
|BAP Bolognesi (FM-57)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Lupo-class frigate||No||ex-Perseo (F-566) currently being overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard, including locally-made CMS and ESM systems, a Kronos NV 3D radar, MASS countermeasures system and 4 MM40 Block III Exocet missiles replacing Otomat.|
|BAP Quiñones (FM-58)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Lupo-class frigate||Yes||ex-Sagittario (F-565)|
|Guided missile corvettes (6 in service)|
|BAP Velarde (CM-21)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|BAP Santillana (CM-22)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|BAP De los Heros (CM-23)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|BAP Herrera (CM-24)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|BAP Larrea (CM-25)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26)||France||fast attack craft||PR-72P-class corvette||Yes|
|Amphibious (2 in service, 1 in construction, 1 ordered)|
|BAP Paita||Peru||Landing Platform, Dock||Makassar class||No||first ship of its class laid down on 12 July 2013 in the SIMA Callao shipyard|
|BAP Pisco||Peru||Landing Platform, Dock||Makassar class||No||second ship is also on order and both are scheduled to be delivered in 2015.|
|BAP Callao (DT-143)||United States||Landing Ship, Tank||Terrebonne Parish class||Yes||ex-USS Washoe County|
|BAP Eten (DT-144)||United States||Tank landing ship||Terrebonne Parish class||Yes||ex-USS Traverse County|
|River gunboats vessels (5 in service, 1 in construction)|
|BAP Loreto (CF-11)||United States||River gunboat||Loreto class||Yes|
|BAP Amazonas (CF-12)||United States||River gunboat||Loreto class||Yes|
|BAP Marañón (CF-13)||United Kingdom||River gunboat||Marañón class||Yes|
|BAP Ucayali (CF-14)||United Kingdom||River gunboat||Marañón class||Yes|
|BAP Clavero (CF-15)||Peru||River gunboat||Clavero class||Yes||severely damaged by an uncontrolled fire in her first operational deployment on 25 May 2010; leaving two crewmen badly injured. Returned to service on 27 July 2012 during the BRACOLPER 2012 exercise.|
|BAP Castilla (CF-16)||Peru||River gunboat||Clavero class||No||laid down on 9 April 2010 in the SIMA Iquitos shipyard.
launched on 8 June 2013.
|Auxiliaries (11 in service, 1 in construction)|
|BAP Union||Peru||Sail training ship||-||No||laid down on 8 December 2012 in the SIMA Callao shipyard, delivery expected in 2015, with an estimated cost of US$50 millions.|
|BAP Marte (ALY-313)||Canada||Sailing yacht||-||Yes||used as training ship|
|BAP Unanue (AMB-160)||United States||Diving support ship||Sotoyomo class||Yes||ex-USS Wateree|
|BAP San Lorenzo (ART-323)||Germany||Torpedo recovery vessel||-||Yes|
|BAP Caloyeras (ACA-111)||United States||Water harbour tanker||YW type||Yes||ex-US YW-128|
|BAP Noguera (ACP-118)||United States||Oil harbour tanker||YO type||Yes||ex-US YO-221|
|BAP Gauden (ACP-119)||United States||Oil harbour tanker||YO type||Yes||ex-US YO-171|
|BAP Guardian Rios (ARB-123)||United States||Offshore tugboat||Cherokee class||Yes||ex-USS Pinto|
|BAP Dueñas (ARB-126)||United States||Harbour tugboat||YTB||Yes|
|BAP Selendón||Peru||Harbour tugboat||20 TBP class tug||Yes||Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011. Delivered in the first quarter of 2012.|
|BAP Medina||Peru||Harbour tugboat||20 TBP class tug||Yes||Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011. Delivered in late 2012.|
|BAP Bayovar (ATP-154)||Russia||Oil tanker||Grigoriy Nesterenko type||Yes||ex-Petr Schmidt|
|BAP Zorritos (ATP-155)||Russia||Oil tanker||Grigoriy Nesterenko type||Yes||ex-Grigoriy Nesterenko|
|BAP Tacna (ARL-158)||Netherlands||Replenishment Ship||Amsterdam class||Yes||ex-HNLMS Amsterdam
Built in 1995, acquired in July 2014 from the Royal Netherlands Navy, commissioned on 4 December 2014 at the Den Helder naval base, Netherlands.
|Hospital vessels (5 in service)|
|BAP Morona (ABH-302)||Peru||River hospital ship||Morona class||Yes|
|BAP Corrientes (ABH-303)||Peru||Small river hospital craft||-||Yes|
|BAP Curaray (ABH-304)||Peru||Small river hospital craft||-||Yes|
|BAP Pastaza (ABH-305)||Peru||Small river hospital craft||-||Yes|
|BAP Puno (ABH-306)||United Kingdom||Lake hospital ship||Yavarí class||Yes||ex-Yapura
operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
|Scientific research vessels (6 in service, 1 in construction)|
|BIC Humboldt||Peru||Oceanographic research ship||Humboltd class||Yes|
|Unnamed||Spain||Oceanographic research ship||No||95-m long steel-hulled vessel designed for working in the Antarctic region as well as in Peruvian waters. Construction contract signed in December 2014 with Freire Shipyard. Keel-laying scheduled for 22 June 2015, to be delivered July 2016.|
|BAP Carrasco (AH-171)||Netherlands||Hydrographic survey ship||Dokkum class||Yes||ex-HNLMS Abcoude minesweeper|
|BAP Stiglich (AH-172)||Peru||Hydrographic survey ship||Morona class||Yes|
|BAP La Macha (AEH-174)||Peru||Hydrographic survey ship||-||Yes|
|BAP Carrillo (AH-175)||Netherlands||Hydrographic survey ship||van Straelen class||Yes||ex-HNLMS van Hamel minesweeper|
|BAP Melo (AH-176)||Netherlands||Hydrographic survey ship||van Straelen class||Yes||ex-HNLMS van der Wel minesweeper|
|BAP América (RH-90)||United Kingdom||River gunboat||América class||restored at SIMA Iquitos shipyard, on display in Clavero naval station.|
|BAP Abtao (SS-42)||United States||Sierra-type submarine||Abtao class||1998||become a museum ship in 2004|
Recently Decommissioned Ships
|BAP Unión (ABE-161)||Peru||Transport ship||Ilo class||December 2014||ex-BAP Mollendo (ATC-131). Decommissioned in late 2014, towed to be scrapped in Ecuador.|
|BAP Carvajal (FM-51)||Italy||guided missile frigate||Carvajal-class frigate||26 December 2013||Transferred to the Coast Guard under the name BAP Guardiamarina San Martin (PO-201) after being stripped down of its missile weaponry and main radar, reclassified as Patrullera Oceánica (Offshore patrol vessel).|
|BAP Paita (DT-141)||United States||Tank landing ship||Terrebonne Parish class||September 2012||ex-USS Walworth County (LST-1164), sunk as a target during the exercise Independencia|
|BAP Pisco (DT-142)||United States||Landing Ship, Tank||Terrebonne Parish class||2012||ex-USS Waldo County (LST-1163), scrapped that year after sold.|
|BAP Ferré (DM-74)||United Kingdom||Guided-missile destroyer||Daring class||13 July 2007||ex-HMS Decoy|
|BAP Talara (ATP-152)||Peru||Replenishment tanker||Talara class||August 12, 2008||capable of underway replenishment at sea from the stern|
|BAP Lobitos (ATP-153)||United States||Oil tanker||Sealift Pacific class||July 20, 2008||ex-USNS Sealift Caribbean (T-AOT-174)|
The Naval Aviation Force ((Spanish): Fuerza de Aviación Naval, AVINAV) is the air branch of the Peruvian Navy, its roles include anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and transport of marine personnel. It is also responsible for airborne operations of the Peruvian Marines.
- 1st Naval Infantry Battalion - Ancón
- 2nd Naval Infantry Battalion - Ancón
- Amphibious Support Group
- Fire support Group
- Commando Grouping
- Engineers Unit
- 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion - Tumbes
- 4th Naval Infantry Battalion - Puno
- 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Iquitos
- 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Pucallpa
- Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur - Mollendo
|Bofors 152 mm gun||Sweden||dual-purpose naval gun||152/53 model 1942||De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser|
|Oto Melara 127/54 Compact Gun||Italy||dual-purpose naval gun||127/54 Compact||Lupo-class frigate|
|Oto Melara 76/62 Compact Gun||Italy||dual-purpose naval gun||76/62 Compact||PR-72P-class corvette|
|Oto Melara Twin 40 Compact Gun||Italy||Close-in weapon system (CIWS)||Twin 40L70||De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser
|MBDA Otomat||Italy||anti-ship missile (AShM)||Otomat II Block 4||De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser
|on 8 December 2008 an updated Otomat II Block 3 missile was successfully launched from BAP Aguirre, hit a target at a range in excess of 150 km (93 mi).|
|MBDA Exocet||France||anti-ship missile (AShM)||MM40 Block 3||Lupo-class frigate||four fire control systems and sixteen missiles ordered on 15 December 2010. Scheduled to be installed in the 4 Aguirre class frigates.|
|MBDA Exocet||France||anti-ship missile (AShM)||MM38||PR-72P-class corvette|
|MBDA Exocet||France||anti-ship missile (AShM)||AM39 Block 1||ASH-3D Sea King||Land-based. Currently not embarked in any surface unit of the Peruvian Navy|
|MBDA Aspide||Italy||surface-to-air missile (SAM)||Aspide 1A||Lupo-class frigate|
|9K38 Igla||Russia||MANPADS||9K310 Igla-1||PR-72P class corvette
Peruvian Naval Infantry
|used in MGP-86 mount for close air defence
to be replaced with the FN-6 missile system
|FN-6||China||MANPADS||FN-6||Peruvian Naval Infantry||a small batch acquired in July, 2009 for US$1.1 million|
|Atlas Elektronik SUT||Germany||533 mm heavyweight torpedo||SUT 264||Type 209 submarine|
|Atlas Elektronik SST||Germany||533 mm heavyweight torpedo||SST-4 mod 0||Type 209 submarine|
|Mark 44 torpedo||United States||324 mm lightweight torpedo||Mk 44 mod 1||Lupo-class frigate
|Alenia-Whitehead A244/S||Italy||324 mm lightweight torpedo||A244/S||Lupo-class frigate
The Peruvian Navy has been actively involved in several United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. As of June 2006 Naval Infantry and Special Operations troops have been deployed to United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (embedded in the Argentine forces  ) and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Peruvian naval officers have also been deployed to United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI), United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as United Nations Militar Observers (UNMOs). By 2012 the Peruvian Navy sent its first officer to serve in United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei.
- As of December 2013, the Peruvian government was in negotiations with France for the acquisition of two FREMM Frigates.
- On 13 June 2014 the Dutch minister of defense announced the sale of HNLMS Amsterdam to the Peruvian Navy by 2015. The contract was signed that same month. The contract included: Goalkeeper CIWS, spare-parts, training and maritime training and other documentation.
US Navy 040703-N-1464F-001 The Peruvian cruiser Almirante Grau CLM-81 fires one of its 15.2 cm caliber cannons.jpg
BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) firing its guns.
- Battle of Angamos
- Battle of Iquique
- Battle of Pacocha
- Ironclad Huáscar
- Miguel Grau
- War of the Pacific
- "Peru Appoints New Head To Joint Command of the Armed Forces". Peruvian Times. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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-  Archived April 27, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- [dead link]
-  Archived July 13, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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- Oficina de Prensa del Ministerio de Defensa (12 July 2013). "Ministro de Defensa participó en colocación de quilla de buque de ayuda humanitaria". Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Inigo, Guevara. "Peru begins construction of Makassar-class amphibious ship". Jane's Defence Weekly. IHS. Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Dos heridos deja incendio de BAP "Clavero" en el río Putumayo, informan" (in Spanish). Andina. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Marina de Guerra del Perú (2 August 2012). "Perú: Unidades fluviales de Brasil y Colombia participaron en el ejercicio BRACOLPER 2012" (in Spanish). Base Naval. Retrieved 11 August 2012. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Servicios Industriales de la Marina construirán Buque Escuela a Vela". Peruvian Navy. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
- Benvenuto, Carlos Ramírez (6 December 2012). "Un nuevo buque escuela para la Marina y el Perú" (PDF). El Comercio (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "NotiSIMA Año 5, Edición 31" (PDF) (in Spanish). SIMA. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "En Holanda, se afirmó el Pabellón Nacional del Buque Logístico B.A.P. Tacna" (in Spanish). Peruvian Navy. Retrieved 21 February 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ing, David; Toremans, Guy. "Spain's Freire shipyard set to cut steel on Peru's new survey ship". IHS. Retrieved 24 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Historic Naval Ships Association BAP ABTAO (SS-42)
- "Marina de Guerra del Perú realizará ceremonia de Zarpe de Expedición Científica a la Antártida – ANTAR XXII, Colocación de la Quilla del Remolcador Auxiliar de Salvamento y Patrullera Marítima, Transferencia del BAP Carvajal a DICAPI". Peruvian Navy. Retrieved 26 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- PDF (1.33 MB). July 13, 2007.
- PDF (361 KB). August 23, 2009.
- PDF (84.9 KB). August 23, 2009.
- "Peruvian Navy Carries Out Record Breaking Launch". Jean Dupont. MBDA. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "PCM transfiere más de S/. 114 millones para adquisición de material militar" (in Spanish). Andina. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Perú: Adquisición de misiles MANPADS". Alejo Marchessini. Defensa.com. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
- "UNFICYP Facts and Figures - United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus". Un.org. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Peruvian Navy would be interested to procure 2 FREMM Frigates from France". Navyrecognition.com. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- [dead link]
- Baker III, Arthur D., The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2002-2003.
Naval Institute Press, 2002.
- Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
- "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 855: 31 (June 17, 1985).
- Ortiz Sotelo, Jorge, Apuntes para la historia de los submarinos peruanos. Biblioteca Nacional, 2001.
- Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
- "Los Programas de Renovacion y Modernizacion de la Marina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini - Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 32 a 35.
- "Entrevista al Almirante Carlos Tejada Mera, Comandante General de la MArina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini - Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 36 a 43.
- Official Peruvian Navy Website
- Maquina de Combate — Photo gallery.
- Servicio Industrial de la Marina — Peruvian Navy Shipyards. In English and Spanish.
- The Peruvian Navy: the XIX Century Maritime Campaigns — a series of articles covering the history of the 19th century Peruvian Navy by Juan del Campo.