This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (December 2015)
|The Right Honourable
|Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|
15 July 2014
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||William Hague|
|Secretary of State for Defence|
14 October 2011 – 15 July 2014
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||Liam Fox|
|Succeeded by||Michael Fallon|
|Secretary of State for Transport|
11 May 2010 – 14 October 2011
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||The Lord Adonis|
|Succeeded by||Justine Greening|
|Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury|
2 July 2007 – 11 May 2010
|Preceded by||Theresa Villiers|
|Succeeded by||Liam Byrne|
10 May 2005 – 6 December 2005
|Preceded by||George Osborne|
|Succeeded by||Theresa Villiers|
|Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions|
6 December 2005 – 2 July 2007
|Preceded by||Malcolm Rifkind|
|Succeeded by||Chris Grayling|
|Member of Parliament
for Runnymede and Weybridge
1 May 1997
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Born||Philip Anthony Hammond
4 December 1955
Epping, Essex, England
|Alma mater||University College, Oxford|
He was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet by David Cameron in 2005 as Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, remaining in this position until a 2007 reshuffle, when he became Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury.
After the formation of the Coalition Government in May 2010, he was appointed Secretary of State for Transport and was sworn of the Privy Council. Upon the resignation of Liam Fox over a scandal in October 2011, Hammond was promoted to Secretary of State for Defence and, in July 2014, he became Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Member of Parliament (1997–)
- 3 Shadow Cabinet (2005–2010)
- 4 In government (2010–)
- 5 Other political positions
- 6 Personal life
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Hammond was born at Epping, Essex, the son of a civil engineer. He was educated at Brookfield Junior School, and Shenfield School (now Shenfield High School) in Brentwood, Essex. He studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at University College, Oxford, and graduated with a first class honours Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree.
Hammond joined the medical equipment manufacturers Speywood Laboratories Ltd in 1977, becoming a director of Speywood Medical Limited in 1981. In 1982, an automatic electrocardiograph electrode manufacturing plant figured among his notable achievements. He left in 1983 and, from 1984, served as a director in Castlemead Ltd.
From 1993 to 1995, he was a partner in CMA Consultants and, from 1994, a director in Castlemead Homes. He had many business interests including house building and property, manufacturing, healthcare, and oil and gas. He undertook various consulting assignments in Latin America for the World Bank in Washington, D.C., and was a consultant to the Government of Malawi from 1995 until his election to Parliament.
Member of Parliament (1997–)
Hammond was the chairman of the Lewisham East Conservative Association for seven years from 1989 and contested the 1994 Newham North East by-election following the death of sitting Labour MP Ron Leighton, losing to Labour's Stephen Timms by 11,818 votes. He was elected to the House of Commons at the 1997 general election for the newly created Surrey seat of Runnymede and Weybridge. He won the seat with a majority of 9,875 and has remained its MP since. He made his maiden speech on 17 June 1997.
In 2009 it emerged that Hammond had claimed just £8 short of the maximum allowance for a second home in London from 2007 to 2008 even though he lived in the commuter belt town of Woking. As a result of this criticism Hammond says he would pay back any profit on the future sale of his second home to the public purse.
Shadow Cabinet (2005–2010)
In Parliament he served on the Environment, Transport and the Regions Select Committee from 1997 until he was promoted by William Hague as front bench Spokesman for Health. He was moved to become Spokesman for Trade and Industry by Iain Duncan Smith in 2001, and later transferred to Shadow Office of the Deputy Prime Minister responsibilities by Michael Howard in 2003.
Howard promoted Hammond to the Shadow Cabinet following the 2005 general election as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury. Following the election of David Cameron later in 2005, he became the Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions. He was moved back to the role of Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury in David Cameron's reshuffle following Gordon Brown's accession to the premiership.
In government (2010–)
Secretary of State for Transport
Hammond was appointed Secretary of State for Transport following the formation of the Coalition Government on 12 May 2010, a position he held until 14 October 2011. On 28 September 2011, he announced that the Government was to initiate a consultation later that year on raising the speed limit on motorways from 70 mph to 80 mph, with a view to introducing the new limit in 2013.
Secretary of State for Defence
In December 2011, he announced that women were to be allowed to serve on Royal Navy submarines. The first women officers began serving on Vanguard class submarines in late 2013. They will be followed by female ratings in 2015, when women should also begin serving on the new Astute class submarine. It was also confirmed that the cost of the Libyan operations was £212 million – less than was estimated – including £67 million for replacing spent munitions, is all expected to be met from HM Treasury's reserve. At the start of Britain's military intervention in Libya, Chancellor George Osborne told MPs it was likely to cost tens of millions of pounds, raised to £260 million by the MoD as the action continued over the summer.
In January 2012 the Ministry of Defence announced 4,200 job cuts in a second round of armed forces redundancies. The Army will see up to 2,900 job cuts, including 400 Gurkhas, while the RAF will lose up to 1,000 members and the Royal Navy up to 300. The job losses will account for some of the cuts announced under the Defence Review – intended to help plug the £38 billion hole in the defence budget left by the previous government. Hammond said the Government had "no choice but to reduce the size of the Armed Forces – while reconfiguring them to ensure they remain agile, adaptable and effective". Hammond said: "As we continue with the redundancy process we will ensure we retain the capabilities that our Armed Forces will require to meet the challenges of the future."
The £38 billion "black hole" in MoD finances has been "dealt with" and the Department's "hand to mouth existence will come to an end", Hammond stated in February 2012. Ministers had even found £2.1 billion to be allocated to several major spending projects to be announced in the coming weeks. The money was to come from a combination of draconian cuts over the previous two years, tough bargaining with industry and a one per cent increase in the equipment budget. All three Services will benefit from the new-found cash that will be announced in the next wave of spending proposals – known as Planning Round 12 – by early next month. "New equipment and support contracts amounting to billions of pounds are likely to be unveiled," said a senior MoD official. "PR12 is expected to signal a change in culture at the MoD".
In February 2012 Hammond said that the Falkland Islands do not face a "current credible military threat" from Argentina. He added that Britain had "no desire or intention to increase the heat" surrounding their sovereignty. Speaking in the House of Commons he said "despite media speculation to the contrary, there has been no recent change to force levels", adding "there is no evidence of any current credible military threat to the security of the Falkland Islands and therefore no current plan for significant changes to force deployments. However, Her Majesty's Government is committed to defending the right of the Falkland Islanders to self-determination and plans exist for rapid reinforcement of the land, sea and air forces in and around the islands, should any such threat appear."
In August 2012 Hammond announced that senior positions within the "top-heavy" military would be cut by a quarter. Around 26 civilian and military head office posts will go and a new senior structure will come in from April 2013. The move is expected to save the Ministry of Defence around £3.8 million a year. Hammond said one in four posts from the ranks of commodore, brigadier, air commodore and above will go. Hammond said: "at a time when we are making difficult decisions about defence spending and have had to accept reductions across the board, we cannot ignore the volume of posts at the top. For too long the MoD has been top-heavy, with too many senior civilians and military. Not only does this new structure reduce senior staff posts by up to a quarter in the next two years, but it allows clear strategic priorities to be set for the Armed Forces".
Four weeks before the London Olympic Games of 2012 the security company G4S announced it could not provide the number of security staff it had originally undertaken to deploy for the Games. Hammond solved the problem by calling-up 5,000 members of the Armed Forces making good the shortfall. Their performance attracted widespread praise. Afterwards Hammond told The Independent the issue had taught him an important lesson: "I came into the MoD with a prejudice that we have to look at the way the private sector does things to know how we should do things in Government", he said. "But the story of G4S and the military rescue is quite informative. I'm learning that the application of the lean commercial model does have relevance in areas of the MoD but, equally, you can't look at a warship and say, 'How can I bring a lean management model to this?' – because it's doing different things with different levels of resilience that are not generally required in the private sector."
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
On 15 July 2014, Hammond was appointed Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary. Newspapers highlighted his "Eurosceptic" credentials, and his confidence that Britain could "get a deal" on reforming the European Union. He has said he would vote in a putative referendum for a British exit from the European Union unless there were changes in the relationship.
In March 2015, speaking as the minister responsible for the intelligence agencies, he suggested that terror "apologists" must share blame in terrorist acts, saying "But a huge burden of responsibility also lies with those who act as apologists for them."
In May 2015 he introduced the European Union Referendum Bill 2015–16 into the House of Commons.
On 8 July 2015, Hammond condemned the defeat by Russia at the UN Security Council of his four-page draft resolution S/2015/508, that was inter alia to apply the genocide label to the Srebrenica massacre of Muslim Bosniaks in 1995. Angola, China, Nigeria and Venezuela abstained, while the draft had been proposed by Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, the UK and the US. The Russian ambassador, Vitaly Churkin, criticised the British wording as "confrontational and politically-motivated", arguing that it unfairly singled out Bosnian Serbs for committing war crimes in a conflict in which all three ethnic groups were the victims of atrocities. Hammond stated that: "We are disappointed that our Resolution to commemorate the 20th anniversary of Srebrenica was vetoed today."
On 14 July 2015, after several years of on-again-off-again negotiations, the P5+1 reached agreement with Iran over the Nuclear program of Iran. Hammond was present in Vienna as the UK representative for the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action disclosure ceremony. Hammond presented the deal in Commons the next day, and was in Jerusalem for a joint press conference with Benjamin Netanyahu, which was described as "tense".
Hammond wants to reduce migration from Poland and other European Union countries, especially from the former Eastern Bloc. Hammond made the snap decision to comment on the United Nations findings regarding the detainment of Julian Assange in the Ecuadorian embassy on 6 February 2016 as "ridiculous". The United Nations panel had earlier ruled Mr Assange was being "arbitrarily detained, that his detention should be brought to an end, and he be compensated". Hammond's comment not only insulted the highest world court, to which Britain is a signatory, but undermined Britain's Foreign Department and his own credibility. Mads Andenæs commented, "When countries respond in this way, they damage the respect for the rule of law and the United Nations." Discussing the Working Group's decision, Liora Lazarus, Fellow of St. Anne's College and an Associate Professor in Law at Oxford University, concluded that "[it] cannot fairly be described as 'ridiculous', 'ludicrous', or 'so wrong'." Human Rights Watch said Hammond's response was "deplorable", adding that it was "not what one expects from democratic governments who usually support the UN mechanisms and international law." "Obviously, the British do not practice what they preach to us here as well as other international forums regularly," said Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, a former Sri Lankan defence secretary, before noting the UK rejection could not have occurred at a better time for Sri Lanka, which is facing a war crimes inquiry.
Other political positions
2008 financial crisis
In May 2012, Hammond said that banks were not solely responsible for the 2008 financial crisis as "they had to lend to someone". Hammond, part of the team which played a key role in drawing up David Cameron's economic strategy in Opposition, also claimed that people who took out loans were "consenting adults" who, in some cases, were now seeking to blame others for their actions. Speaking in Germany, he went on to say, "People say to me, 'it was the banks'. I say, 'hang on, the banks had to lend to someone'. People feel in a sense that someone else is responsible for the decisions they made. Of course, if banks don't offer credit, people can't take it, [But] there were two consenting adults in all these transactions, a borrower and a lender, and they may both have made wrong calls. Some people are unwilling to accept responsibility for the consequences of their own choices". He added that individuals, companies and governments were all guilty of excessive borrowing: "we allowed our expectations to run away with us," Mr Hammond said. "We started living a lifestyle both in private consumption and in public consumption that we could not afford. We borrowed to top it up … now the day of reckoning has come and we are adjusting."
In May 2012, Hammond said same-sex marriage is "too controversial". In January 2013 during a visit to Royal Holloway, University of London he bracketed the tabled legislation, which was passed afterwards, alongside socially unacceptable relationships, at the upper scale of which he stated was the criminal offence of incest. Asked by PinkNews to clarify his remarks, Hammond wrote by email: "The discussion ranged very widely and was not limited to same sex relationships".
In May 2013 Philip Hammond abstained as one of four Cabinet Ministers not to vote in favour of gay marriage. Hammond has been openly critical of the Prime Minister's approach to the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 and said in November 2013 that he was "shocked" at the speed with which it was pushed through and that it is "damaging" to the Conservative Party.
Hammond married Susan Carolyn Williams-Walker on 29 June 1991. They have two daughters and a son, and live in Send, Surrey, with another home in London. Hammond's wealth is estimated as £9 million.
- "Philip Hammond MP". BBC- Democracy live. Retrieved 13 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "William Hague quits as foreign secretary in cabinet reshuffle". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Grande-Bretagne : l'eurosceptique Philip Hammond remplace Hague aux Affaires étrangères". euronews. Retrieved 15 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- http://www.castlemead-ltd.co.uk Castlemead Homes
- Heseltine, Emma (26 May 2009). "'Millionaire MP defends claim for a second home'". Surrey Herald. Chertsey.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Stratton, Allegra (29 September 2011). "Government plans to raise speed limit to 80mph". The Guardian. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Milmo, Dan (14 October 2011). "Philip Hammond and Justine Greening named defence and transport ministers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Women to be allowed to serve on Royal Navy submarines". BBC. 8 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Hammond says UK not seeking 'perfect Afghanistan'". BBC News. 8 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "MoD announces details of 4,200 job cuts". BBC News. 17 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- MoD balances books first time in four decades
- Winnett, Robert (21 February 2012). "Argentina does not pose threat to Falklands, says Philip Hammond". The Daily Telegraph. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Military's 'top-heavy' command to be cut by a quarter". BBC News. 19 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- G4S proves we can't always rely on private sector, says minister
- telegraph.co.uk: "Philip Hammond: I am serious about reforming EU" 15 Jul 2014
- Hope, Christopher (5 August 2014). "How Baroness Warsi's resignation letter lifts a lid on frustrations in the Coalition". www.telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 5 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Terror 'apologists' must share blame - Hammond - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- un.org: "United Nations - S/2015/508 - Security Council - Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America: draft resolution", 8 July 2015
- telegraph.co.uk: "Russia blocks UN resolution condemning Srebrenica massacre as genocide", 8 July 2015
- un.org: "UN News Centre: UN officials recall 'horror' of Srebrenica as Security Council fails to adopt measure condemning massacre", 8 July 2015
- gov.uk: "Foreign Secretary statement following UN Security Council vote on Srebrenica resolution", 8 July 2015
- telegraph.co.uk: "Iran nuclear deal: agreement reached in Vienna - as it happened", 14 July 2015
- telegraph.co.uk: "Benjamin Netanyahu intends to fight Iran nuclear deal all the way, says Philip Hammond", 15 July 2015
- telegraph.co.uk: "Netanyahu rebuffs Philip Hammond over Iran deal", 16 July 2015
- "Hammond sees schedule tight for Britain to vote on EU next year". Reuters. 22 September 2015.
- Addley, Esther; Elgot, Jessica; Bowcott, Owen (5 February 2016). "Julian Assange accuses UK minister of insulting UN after detention finding". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Maurizi, Stefania (9 February 2016). "Pressioni politiche sulle Nazioni Unite per la decisione su Julian Assange" [Political Pressures on the United Nations over the decision on Julian Assange]. L'espresso (in Italian). Retrieved 10 February 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lazarus, Liora (9 February 2016). "Is the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention Decision on Assange 'So Wrong'?". ukconstitutionallaw.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- PoKempner, Dinah (5 February 2016). "On Assange, Following the Rules or Flouting Them?". hrw.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ferdinando, Shamindra (6 February 2016). "Gota slams British hypocricy on Julian Assange". Lankaweb. Retrieved 10 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kirkup, James (3 May 2012). "Families must accept share of blame for Britain's woes". The Daily Telegraph. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Exclusive: Defence Secretary Philip Hammond links incest with same-sex marriage". Pink News. Retrieved 19 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Wigmore, Tim (17 February 2011). "Philip Hammond taken to task over anti-gay rights record". Newstatesman.com. Retrieved 8 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Swinford, Steven (8 November 2013). "Legalising same-sex marriage was 'damaging' for Tories, Philip Hammond says". The Daily Telegraph. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Conservative Party
- BBC News: Vote 2001
- "The new ruling class". New Statesman. London. 1 October 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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