Philip I of France

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Philip I
Philip's tomb effigy in Fleury Abbey
King of the Franks
23 May 1059 – 4 August 1060;
4 August 1060 – 29 July 1108
Coronation 23 May 1059
Predecessor Henry I
Successor Louis VI
Born (1052-05-23)23 May 1052
Died 29 July 1108(1108-07-29) (aged 56)
Burial Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[1]
Spouse Bertha of Holland
Bertrade de Montfort
Issue Constance, Princess of Antioch
Louis VI of France
Philip, Count of Mantes
Fleury, Seigneur of Nangis Cecile, Princess of Galilee
House House of Capet
Father Henry I of France
Mother Anne of Kiev
Religion Roman Catholicism

Philip I (23 May 1052 – 29 July 1108), called the Amorous,[2] was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin[3] and Bourges.


Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his Russian wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, being bestowed upon him by his mother. Although he was crowned king at the age of seven,[4] until age fourteen (1066) his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders also acted as co-regent.[3]

Following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwin's wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071.[3]

Philip first married Bertha in 1072.[5] Although the marriage produced the necessary heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort, the wife of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou. He repudiated Bertha (claiming she was too fat) and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092.[6] In 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time;[6] after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.[7] Several times the ban was lifted as Philip promised to part with Bertrade, but he always returned to her, but in 1104 Philip made a public penance and must have kept his involvement with Bertrade discreet.[8] In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, a famous jurist.[9]

Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his father's, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals. In 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany.[10] In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin. Then in 1100, he took control of Bourges.[11]

2nd type denier during Philip I

It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched. Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philip's brother Hugh of Vermandois, however, was a major participant.

Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, however, not uncontested. According to Abbot Suger:


Philip‘s children with Bertha were:

  1. Constance (1078 – 14 September 1126), married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106.
  2. Louis VI of France (1 December 1081 – 1 August 1137).
  3. Henry (1083 – died young).

Philip‘s children with Bertrade were:

  1. Philip, Count of Mantes (1093 – fl. 1123)[12]
  2. Fleury, Seigneur of Nangis (1095 – July 1119)[13]
  3. Cecile (1097 – 1145), married Tancred, Prince of Galilee and then, after his death, to Pons of Tripoli.



  1. Authority, the Family, and the Dead in Late Medieval France, Elizabeth A. R. Brown, French Historical Studies, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Autumn, 1990), 807.
  2. Kings of France
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Elizabeth Hallam, Capetian France: 987-1328, (Longman Group Ltd, 1980), 50-51.
  4. History Today, Philip I Crowned King of France
  5. Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2007), 114.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, 119.
  7. Robert Somerville, Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 118.
  8. Philip I of France and Bertrade, Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860–1600, ed. David d'Avray, (Cambridge University Press, 2014), 47.
  9. Christof Rolker, Canon Law and the Letters of Ivo of Chartres, (Cambridge University Press, 2009), 16.
  10. C. Petit-Dutaillis, The Feudal Monarchy in France and England:From the 10th to the 13th Century, transl. E.D. Hunt, (Routledge, 1936), 81.
  11. The 'muddy-road' of Odo Arpin from Bourges to La Charitie-sur-Loire, Jonathan Shepherd, The Experience of Crusading, Vol. 1, ed. Peter Edbury, Jonathan Phillips, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 13,
  12. Daniel Power, The Norman Frontier in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 85.
  13. Europäische Stammtafeln XIV 146 les seigneurs de Nangis
Philip I of France
Born: 23 May 1052 Died: 29 July 1108
Preceded by
Henry I
King of the Franks
4 August 1060 – 29 July 1108
Succeeded by
Louis VI